The Stormy 60s Chapter 39 Decade of Upheaval At the end of the complacent 1950s nobody foresaw how stormy and tumultuous the 1960s would be. Sexual revolution Civil Rights struggles
Anti-war protests Assassinations of John Kennedy, Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy Feminist revolution Youth culture Upheaval across the western world. Protests in France, Germany and England. Kennedys New Frontier Spirit JFK is the youngest President
elected; glamorous Cabinet is young; Robert Kennedy. Kennedy inaugural themes Kennedy inspires idealism New Frontier Peace Corps Kennedy is Harvard educated, glib and personable. The New Frontier At Home
JFK had only a narrow Democratic majority in Congress; hard to get proposals through Congress. Kennedys disputes with Big Business. Announces project to put a man on the Moon. The Right Stuff Costs 24 Billion, but was successful in 1969.
Why the Moon? What Kennedy says. Real reasons? Rumblings In Europe June 1961 Kennedy meets with Khrushchev in Vienna Berlin Dispute. Berlin Wall. Becomes symbol of Soviet domination and repression of E. Europe Stubborn French
Kennedy European tariff policy. Charles De Gaulle blocks British application to the Common Market in 1963. Why? French policy toward NATO. French Nukes Flexible Response
With the end of colonization, the newly independent colonies became a headache as they flared into civil wars. Leads Kennedy to move away from Ikes massive retaliation and to adopt the doctrine of flexible response Laos develop an array of military responses that can be precisely calibrated to the gravity
of the crisis. Problems with flexible response Stepping into the Vietnam Quagmire Corrupt right-wing, pro-US government in South Vietnam. Diem
Communists in the south, Viet-Cong, waging guerrilla civil war. Late 1961 Kennedy sharply increases US military advisors. CIA coup against Diem. Kennedy increases military and economic aid. Modernization Theory Cuban Confrontations Latin American attitude toward the US. Alliance for Progress;
Bay of Pigs Plan 4/17/61 invasion at Bay of Pigs. Dismal failure. Purpose Impact? Kennedy assumes full responsibility. Analysis
Cuban Missile Crisis Khrushchev starts to install nuclear tipped missiles in Cuba Spy photos reveal the missiles. Kennedy rejects air strike; instead orders a military blockade and demands immediate removal of missiles. Kennedy address to natio n
Cuban Missile Crisis What does JFK says an attack from Cuba would mean? Russian ships and quarantine line. Khrushchev finally blinks when he agreed to a compromise. Details
Seems to be a clear US victory Missile Crisis Fallout Khrushchev forced out of power Kremlin begins an aggressive program of military expansion; New Arms Race Democrats gain in the midterm elections. Kennedy begins to push for arms control and greater communications between Russia and the US.
Hotline Ban on above-ground nuclear tests agreed to in 1963 Kennedy urges Americans to live with the Soviets as they are and find a method of peaceful coexistence. Origins of the policy of Dtente. The Struggle For Civil Rights Kennedy moved very slowly on Civil Rights
Events forced the Presidents hand. Reasons Blacks impatient Freedom Riders Kennedy works with SCLC to promote civil rights and to register black voters Civil Rights Violence
Integrating Southern universities. Spring 1963 Birmingham. Police reaction. Bull Conner June 11, 1963 Kennedy responds.
Kennedy forced to send in 3000 troops. Calls for new Civil Rights legislation. Medger Evers I Have a Dream August 1963, March on Washington and Kings I have a Dream Speech.
September 1963 bombing of black Birmingham church kills 4 black girls at Sunday School. THE KILLING OF KENNEDY The LBJ Brand On The Presidency Lyndon Johnson was profane, earthy, vain, idealistic. Master politician; former Senate Majority Leader in
the Senate. He hit Washington like a thunder-bolt, seizing hold of the Presidency once the shock of Kennedys death had abated. Johnsons Great Society Johnson puts power behind Civil Rights Bill. Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Prohibits discrimination in facilities open to the public Strengthened power to end segregation in schools Created federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Prevents both race and gender discrimination. Southern Senators try to kill with a lengthy filibuster. Johnson launches a war on poverty designed to help those not yet getting the benefits of Americas vast wealth. Dubbed the Great Society Program. Medicare/Medicaid central pillar Johnson Battles Goldwater In
1964 Johnson is easily nominated in 1964; runs on a very liberal platform. Republicans nominate Senator Barry Goldwater very, very conservative. Strongly anti-red, strongly antiNew Deal. Believes in small national government (Jeffersonian) Wanted American field
commanders to have authority to use tactical nukes in the battle field. Election of 1964 In your heart you know hes right vs. In your gut you know hes nuts Reaction of average voters to Goldwater. Johnson convinces
national that Goldwater scary Daisy Ad Johnson wins biggest landslide in US history. 1964 Election Tonkin Gulf Resolution Tonkin Gulf incident August 1964. Johnson calls the attack unprovoked. Johnson uses to get Tonkin Gulf resolution Consequences?
Gives the president a virtual blank check to use force in Southeast Asia against the North Vietnamese. Gives Johnson discretion to widen the war, which he does after the election. The Great Society Congress Johnson has 2-1 democratic majority in both houses of Congress.
Legislative slate passed by Johnson after the 1964 election was comparable to FDRs 100-days. Sweeping package of social reform and new aid to the poor and down-trodden. Continues the war on poverty Created the Dept. of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development. Names the first Black cabinet secretary Robert Weaver Creates national Endowment for the arts. Legislative Landmarks
Four legislative achievements at heart of Great Society: Federal Aid to Education Medicare for the Elderly/Medicaid for the Poor Immigration Reform Voting Rights Act Medicare and Medicaid provide medical insurance at governmental expense for
elderly and poor Medicare and Medicaid join social security and unemployment insurance as part of social safety net. Voting Rights Act In 1964 voting rights becomes the main goal of civil rights movement. Freedom Summer of 1964 1965 Selma.
March from Selma to Mo ntgomery Voting Rights Act Voting Rights Act of 1965. Johnson sends in federal officials to oversee voter registration. Over the next 25 years totally transforms the south because blacks are
voting. Black Power Civil Right movement moves north and out of the control of MLK. 1965Watts riots. New voices advocate confrontation, violence and separatism.
Malcolm X Stokely Carmichael Black Panthers. Civil Rights Movement increasingly focuses on economic demands King Assassination April 4, 1968 Last Days of Martin Luther King Robert Kennedy An nounces
Reaction Six Day War 6-Day war. June 1967. Soviet-backed Egyptians attack Israel. Israel captures the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip and the West bank of the Jordan River, including Jerusalem. 1 Million Palestinian Arabs come under direct Israeli
control. Vietnam Escalation 1965 Johnson escalates the war Starts bombing and the use of troops on the ground. By end of 1965, 184,000 America troops involved. Believes American escalation will show US resolve and north will back down.
Believes in domino theory. US casualties start to mount Vietnam Vexations World opinion was turning against the US. Appeared that US was beating up a third-world nation. Made it harder for US to respond elsewhere. Led to a lot of domestic discontent.
Anti-war demonstrations gradually mounted on campuses. Draft resisters flee to Canada, burn draft cards, burn flags War Protests Many blamed Johnson. Major protests in
San Francisco, New York and on college campuses. Attitude of Average Americans Economic impact of War. Quagmire By late 1960s opposition to the war was hardening.
Fulbright hearings. Public feels increasingly misled about the war and ability to win. By 1968 had become the longest and most unpopular foreign war in US history. Government had failed to adequately explain why we were fighting there and/or what was at stake. Johnson Under Attack Johnson, orders the CIA to spy on American anti-war activists.
FBI turns against peace groups Johnson stubbornly continues to assert that victory is just around the corner. Tet Offensive Jan. 1968 Tet offensive. Military defeat but political victory for Viet Cong. Impact on public perception
Protests escalate Military demands 200,000 more troops. Vietnam Topples Johnson Johnson challenged from within his party by Eugene McCarthy and Robert Kennedy. New Hampshire Primary Johnsons Announcement 1968 Election Chaos Hubert Humphrey front-runner for the
democratic nomination. Stance on war? Strong challenge from Robert Kennedy. Stance on war? Convention Chaos
Democratic convention in Chicago in chaos. Democrats were bitter, divided and angry over the death of Kennedy, the war, etc. Mayor Daley and the police. Democrats came off looking like a disorganized, fratricidal mob. Humphrey wins the nomination on the first ballot. Richard Nixon Republicans nominate Richard Nixon who is running as a conservativemoderate. Platform
Return of the Dixiecrats George Wallace American Independent Party. Wallace ardently anti-integration Segregation Now, Segregation tomorrow, Segregation forever. Victory For Nixon
Nixon and Humphrey have similar policies on VN. No real choice between the two. As a result, many doves sat out the election because no standard-bearer for their views. Nixon wins by half a percentage point without carrying a single major city and with no coat-tails. Both houses of Congress remain Democratic. Democrats win 95% of the black vote. Nixon wins only 43% of the vote because Wallace had siphoned off votes from both. No mandate.
Wallace wins 46 electoral votes from the deep south. Largest third-party electoral vote in American history. 1968 Election Cultural Upheaval Vietnam, Civil Rights Struggle and materialism undermine faith of youth in government and establishment
Values in flux Peace movement Hippie movement Sexual Revolution
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