The Search for Spices

The Search for Spices

The Search for Spices By: McKenzie Crowe Setting the Scene Many people in American take things for granted! The Europeans of the past ages, thought that spices were as valuable as gold. People used to bay $125 for 12 ounces of pepper. During the Middle Ages pepper in the store could have paid a years rent. Now 12 ounces of pepper is only $3.00!

Europeans Explore the Seas Europeans traded with Asia long before the Renaissance. The Crusades introduced Europeans to many luxury goods from Asia! Later when the Mongol empire united much of Asia in the 1200s and 1300s, Asian goods flowed to Europe along complex overland trade routes! The Black Death and the breakup of the Mongol empire disrupted trade! Europeans Explore the Seas By the 1044s Europe had recovered from the plague. As its population grew, so did the demand for trade goods!

The most valued were Cinnamon, Cloves, Nutmeg, and Pepper! People used it in many ways like: Preserve food Add flavor to dried and salted meat To make medicine and perfumes The chief source of spices was the Moluccas, and island chain in present day, Indonesia! The people called them the Spices Islands. Motives

In the 1400s, Muslim and Italian merchants controlled most trade between Asia and Europe. Muslims, traders from Venice and Italian cities brought prized goods and cargos to the European Market. Europeans however wanted to gain direct access to the Atlantic Powers. Wealth was not the only thing that brought people to the sea, they also wanted to learn more about other lands. Improved Technology Several improvements in technology happened, as Europe took over the vast oceans of the world.

Many things like: Cartographers- map makers, created more accurate maps and sea charts Astrolabe- determines their latitude at sea Caravel- combines square sails with triangular sails These advancements made it easier to sail across the ocean Eventually they added weapons, such as cannons , to their ships Portugal Sails Eastward

Portugal, a small nation on the western edge of Spain, let the way in the exploration. In the 1400s, Portugal had gotten strong enough to go into Muslim North Africa In 1415, Portuguese seized Ceuta (say oo tah) on the Northern Coast of Africa This win sparked the imagination of Prince Henry, better known to history as Henry the Navigator. Mapping the African Coast Prince Henry hoped to expand Christianity and find the source of African gold, so he embodied the crusading

drive and the new sprit of exploration. In southern Portugal, Henry gathered scientists, cartographers, and other people to help in the building of new ships, make new maps, and train for the long voyages up ahead! Henry died in 1460, at age 66 from old age. The Portuguese continued their quest, which led them to Bartholomeu Dias or The Cape of Good Hope! On to India After 10 months of voyage, Vasco da Gama and the four ships that he led made it the great spice port Calicut on

the western coast of India. The Portuguese lost half of their ships. Many sailors died due to Hunger Thirst Scurvy- disease caused by the lack of Vitamin C Da Gama had gotten a cargo of spices that he sold at profit of 3,000 percent. On to India (continued)

Da Gama quickly outfitted a new fleet. In 1502, he forced a treaty of friendship on the ruler Calicut. Portuguese merchants were left their to buy spices when prices were low, and they were to store them on the dock until the fleet could return. Soon, the Portuguese created a vast trading empire around the Indian Ocean. Columbus Sails to the West New of the Portugals successes spurred other nations to look for a way to get to Asia.

A Italian navigator, Christopher Columbus, from Genoa sought Portuguese backing for his own plan. He wanted to reach the Indies by sailing across the Atlantic Ocean. Columbus Sails West (Contiuned) Like most Europeans, Columbus knew that the Earth was a sphere. After a few weeks of sailing west, he thought he would bring the ship to eastern Asia. He plan was pretty accurate, but he had two mistakes. He underestimated the size of the Earth

He had no idea that two continents lay in his path Voyages of Columbus Portugal refused to help him, so he convinced Ferdinand and Isabelle of Spain the help him. In 1492, the Catholic rulers had driven the Muslims from their last stronghold in Spain To strengthen power they looked for new sources of money. Queen Isabella was also anxious to spread Christianity in Asia.

Voyages of Columbus (continued) Columbus set out on August 3, 1492 on three ships, the Pinta, the Nina, and the Santa Maria. They had good weather and a favorable wind until the reached Land!, Land! on October 12th He spent months cruising the Caribbean Islands, thinking it was the Indies. In 1493, he returned to Spain, to a heart warming heros welcome! Columbus continued to think that he had reached Asia, but people suddenly realized that he had been going to islands that they have never heard of!

Naming the New World In 1507, a German cartographer read reports about the New World written by an Italian sailor, Amerigo Vesucci. He named the land The New American. The Islands that Columbus explored in the Caribbean became known as the West Indies. Line of Demarcation Spain and Portugal pressed rival claims to the lands

Columbus had explored. In 1943, Pope Alexander the VI stepped in to keep the peace. He set a line of Demarcation dividing the non-European world into two zones. Spain the trading and exploration rights in any lands west of the line, and Portugal had the same rights to the east of the line. In 1500, and Portuguese captain was blown off course and sailed around Africa, landing in Brazil. He claimed the land for Portugal.

The Search Continues Europeans continued to seek new routes around and through the Americas. In 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa and the Native American hacked a passage through the tropical forest. On September 20, 1519, a minor Portuguese noble named Ferindand Magellan set out from Spain with 5 ships. The crew had men from Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia.

Perils at Sea As they sailed South, they had to sail through storms, calms, and tropical heat. As the reached the coast of South American they got out of explored the bay. They hoped that it would lead them to the Pacific Ocean. In November 1520, Magellans ships entered a bay at the Southern tip of South America! They continued their journey through the lashing Balboas South Sea into the peaceful Pacific Ocean. Circumnavigation the Globe

They had accomplished their mission, and most of the crew wanted to return to Spain. Magellan, however, insisted they push across the Pacific to East Indies. Magellan soon found the Pacific was much wider that he had first thought. They traveled for 4 months and in March 1521, they finally reached the Philippines. There Magellan was killed in a local conflict, but the sailors continued on their journey. On September 8, 1522, nearly 3 years after they had set out; the remaining people reached Seville.

The Spanish hailed them as the first people to circumnavigate, or sail around the world! Search for the Northwestern Passage In 1497, Kind Henry VII sent a navigator on the route that Columbus had charted. Cabot found rich fishing grounds, which he claimed for England. No one had found the hoped- for route to Asia, but explored the search for the Northwestern Passage!

Looking Ahead The European age of exploration set off a period of growing global interdependence, that continues today. Activates of European explorers brought both tragedy and triumph. As trade increased, conflicts between Europe and other civilizations would become more important. Important People Henry the Navigator Prince Henry of Portugal, had the spirit of exploration, gathered scientists, cartographers, and other experts. They redesigned ships,

prepared maps, and trained captains and crews for long voyages. He sent out Bartholomeu Dias who rounded the Cape of Africa, Into the Indian Ocean, became known as the Cape of Good Hope. Vasco da Gama 1497 continued on from the Cape of Good Hope, after 10 months he reached the spice port of Calicut in India. On the voyage home many sailors died of hunger, thirst, and scurvy. Christopher Columbus Italian sailor who tried to get Portugal to support his sail westward to eventually reach the East Indies, Portugal said no, so Columbus went to Spain and Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to finance his trip Set out on August 3rd 1492 and October 12 landed in the West Indies. Columbus thought he had reached Asia, not so! Vasco Nunez de Balboa 1513 Spanish explorer along with the local natives,

went through the Jungles of Panama and saw, for the first time, for a European a huge body of water he called the South Sea. Ferdinand Magellan September 20 1519 left Spain with five ships and a crew form Europe, Asia, and Africa, in an attempt to find a way around the Americas. More than one mutiny was put down by Magellan, when they reached South America they carefully sailed along the coast looking for a way to the South Sea; In November of 1520 they entered the Strait of Magellan and emerged into the peaceful Pacific Ocean. Most sailors wanted to head home after a year at sea but Magellan believed Asia was close, for four months they sailed before coming to the Philippines. Magellan got involved in a dispute on the Island and was killed March of 1520. Finally September 8, 1522 almost 3 years after they left the remaining sailors reached Seville Spain. First people to Circumnavigate the world.

Vocabulary Cartographer Map Makers created more accurate maps during the 1400s Astrolabe instrument developed by the Ancient Greeks and perfected by the Arabs to determine latitude at sea Caravel ship that combined the square sails of European ships and the Arab lateen or triangular sails, they adapted the sternpost rudder and numerous masts of Chinese ships, new rigging made it easier and possible to sail into the wind, they also added improved weapons. Scurvy a disease caused by lack of vitamin C in a sailors

diet, in their long voyages at sea, most captains in later days stocked lemons to help slow this disease Circumnavigate- sail around the world Review Questions Who took over the spice trade from the Portuguese? Spain What country led the early part of the age of exploration? Portugal

Bibliography Honors World History-Connections to Today Ellis, Elisabeth, and Anthony Esler. History World. New Jersy: Prentice Hall, 2005. 62-67. Mr. Mays Webpage Brent, May. "Mr. Mays Homepage." Brent May, n. d. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. .

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