The Sea Floor CH 2 pg 19 Geosphere Geological processes influenced terrestrial and
marine environments Earth is broken into layers.. Crust Mantle Core (inner/outer)
Geological Layers of Earth Crust - 1% Earths mass thinnest layer Continental Granite, less dense, floats on top oceanic Oceanic Basalt, dense, thinner than continental
Lithosphere is part of the upper mantle Mantle - layers beneath the crust Lithosphere (broken into plates; tectonic) Asthenosphere (plates float on top)
Silly putty Heated and becomes less dense so material rises then as it cools material sinks creating circulating currents called convection currents Causes plates to move
Geological Layers of Earth Core - innermost layer Outer core Dense liquid Moves counter clockwise thought to
create magnetic field Inner core Solid due to pressure Iron and Nickel Oceans
71% of Planet Regulate climate and atmosphere Geography of the Ocean Basin 2/3 of the earths land area in the Northern Hemisphere
The Southern Hemisphere 80% of the ocean Five Large Basins Pacific Ocean deepest (approx. 14000 ft) and the largest
narrowing Atlantic Ocean Slowly getting bigger Indian Ocean
Arctic Ocean Southern Ocean Difference between ocean and sea? The Origin and Structure of the Ocean Basins (1912) Continental Drift Theory
All the continents had once been joined in a single supercontinent called Pangea Approx 180 m.y.a. (1950s and 1960s) Plate tectonics Plates did drift lead to the discovery of the
Mid-Ocean Ridge Evidence
Pieces of a puzzle Matching sequences of rock & mountains Distribution of organisms Magnetic fields
Igneous rock Magnetite and iron The Mid-Ocean Ridge System of volcanic mounts that encircles the globe Largest geological feature on earth
Submarine mountains can break the surface of the water to form islands (ex. Iceland) Eastern Pacific Ridge (Subduction) Subduction vs Divergent
Creation of the Sea Floor Pieces of oceanic crust separate mid-ocean ridges by creating cracks called rifts. Rifts release the pressure on the mantle Reduced pressure allows hot mantle material to rise up through the rift.
The magma pushes up around the rift It cools as it enters the surrounding water Creating a ridge Atlantic Ocean getting larger (Divergent) Creating New Seafloor
Repeating process makes the seafloor move away from the mid-ocean ridge Mid-ocean ridge form the edges of continents As the plates move the continent is carried with it (2.5 ~ 7cm/year)
Seafloor younger closest to the ridge Aleutian Islands pg 28 Trenches curve due to Earths spherical shape Volcanic islands follow trenches
Island Arcs Hot Spots pg 36 Hawaiian Islands (plate movement) vs Aleutian Islands (subduction) Hawaiian Islands are formed as a result of
the movement of plate over a hot spot Magma oozes from the thinner oceanic crust Cools and creates a seamount Eventually breaks the surface Southern islands are younger
Continental Volcanoes pg23 Collision between ocean and continental plates result in volcanoes Continent vs Continent Himilayas & Great Smokey Mountains
Transform Boundaries Shear boundary Plates that slide past each other Friction prevents the plates from sliding smoothly They lock up and stress builds up until the
plates break free Cause an earthquake San Andres Fault (pg 29) The Ocean Floor Sea floor is dominated by plate tectonics
Sea floor is divided into two main regions; Continental margin Deep-sea floor Continental Margins Region between the continental crust and
Hydrosphere 1. All of the water on Earth 71% of the Earth is covered by water and only 29% is terra firma Lithosphere The Earth's solid surface, often called the crust It includes continental and oceanic crust as well as...
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