The Reformation

The Reformation

The Reformation Ch 17 Section 3 Henry VIII Some Historical Context: Was he really a monster? He grew up just after an English Civil War known as the War of the Roses (1455-1485). It was one of the most turbulent times in English history as two rival families the House of Lancaster (red Rose) & the House of York (white Rose) fought for control of

crown. This was a war of succession when a king dies with no clear heir war is often the result. His father Henry VII won the crown at the battle of Bosworth field in 1485 and was king until 1509. When he died and Henry took over, he was just 18. But he grew up knowing the consequences of what happens when a king dies without an heir WAR! Henry VIII King of England 1509-1547. Had six wives.

Needed a divorce to ensure a male heir & avoid civil war. Divorced his first wife Catherine when she became too old to conceive any more children. Beheaded two wives (for treason). 1534 THE ACT OF SUPREMECY made the king of England the head of the Church of England eventually made the Anglican Church by Queen Elizabeth I.

3. What were the Causes of the Reformation? Political (Government): Rise of Nation States and the quest by monarchs for more power (centralization). Steal the power of the Church (Henry VIII nationalized all the Catholic Churchs lands in England = BIG $$$ = power) Economic ($$): Kings and merchants resented paying church taxes and wanted to be free of it. Social (people/cultural): The printing press made criticisms of the church impossible to cover up people were losing faith.

4. Protestantism come from The original protesting princes during the war in Germany between the Holy Roman Empire (Catholic) and the Princes who were supporting Martin Luther. Called Protesting Princes at the time the name stuck and all non-Catholic Christians became Protestants. 5. Henry VIIIs EFFECTS Henry VIIIs ACT OF SUPREMECY declared the English monarch the head of the Church of England

and made England Protestant. This break would lead to much bloodshed and many wars, both within the country and against foreign powers (like the Catholic King of Spain Philip II). LONG TERM EFFECT: The establishment of RELIGIOUS FREEDOM in the English Colonies, eventually becoming a guaranteed right by the United States Constitution comes DIRECTLY from the persecutions of minority religions by the Church of England and many other European powers (like France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire). 6. How did Elizabeth I bring relative religious peace to England?

She established the Anglican Church which was a compromise between the Protestants and Catholics. For example, the mass was said in English, not Latin. (the Catholic mass was still said in LATIN until 1964!) Much of the ceremony & ritual of the Catholic mass remained intact. 7. Who had a better reason to break with the Church Luther or Henry VIII?

YOU DECIDE! Henry VIII 1) Increased the power of the monarch by claiming all church lands his and himself as the head of the church (the Act of Supremacy) 2) Avoid CIVIL WAR by having a legitimate heir (a son) Martin Luther 3) Corruption in the Church like the selling of indulgences needed to be reformed. 4) More emphasis on the Bible as the source for Christian beliefs than on the Pope & Church. John Wycliff & Jan Hus (ch 14 review)

Early reformers (Ch 14) who said that the Bible and NOT the church was the supreme authority for Christians. (Jan Hus was burned at the stake for it!) Martin Luther The 95 Theses & 1517 A German Monk who started a church reform movement - posted 95 Theses (critical ideas & debating points) demanding church reform on October 31, 1517. His ideas were copied down and taken to a printing

press (no one knows by who) and then handed out to the whole town (Wittenberg, Germany). Luthers ideas went VIRAL his criticisms of the Church especially about the selling of Indulgences (tickets to heaven) eventually led to THE REFORMATION. Recant To take back to make a formal (public) retraction. Historical Context: Martin Luther was put on trial for heresy (herecy = teachings that went against the Church) and told to RECANT or take back his criticisms of the Church

Luther refuses & the Christian World would never be the same! Protestantism begins Key Idea: the unity of the Christian Church is broken Europe will be plunged into religious Civil War. German Peasant Revolt of 1524 Luthers radical ideas like all Christians are equal in the eyes of God was taken up by the German peasants (serfs) to end their bondage (being tied to the land). The peasant rebelled and burned, looted, and robbed many noble estates and monasteries.

Luther was horrified by the violence against the church and condemned the revolt. German Princes saw this is a license to Kill all the Rebels and 100,000 German peasants were massacred (killed). The Peasants now turned away from Luther as their spiritual leader but Luther made friends with those who had power THE NOBLES / Princes in Germany had the power (remember the Holy Roman Empire was run by the Princes). Indulgence The selling of forgiveness. This practice was often a way that corruption seeped into the Church. People were led to believe if they gave money to the church via buying an indulgence

they would have their sins forgiven and go to heaven. You could even buy indulgences for dead relatives so they could get out of Purgatory. How did the Catholic Churchs defend this seemingly corrupt practice? The church taught that in order to go to heaven a person needed to act for the good of their fellow man (people). To do good, or to do good works was necessary to get into heaven. MONEY is seen as a way of doing good (think of how much good you could do for other people with millions of dollars). SOOO if you gave money to the church they would do the good works for you ($$ = POWER), giving up your $$ was your sacrifice like giving $ to charity or supporting a cause today.

The Protestant Reformation The movement for religious reform in Western Europe starting with Martin Luther in 1517. Led to the creation of many Christian Churches and Europe no longer being united under one church. No longer unified by religion, Western European Nation States would now escalate the WARS between them. Instead of hundreds of soldiers fighting to take a castle like in the Middle Ages, Nations would now field armies of 10,000 or 100,000 soldiers against other nations often over RELIGIOUS differences.

Charles V: H.R.E and King of Spain H.R.E = Holy Roman Emperor. The most powerful monarch in the 16th century. The reason the pope would not grant Henry VIII an annulment.

Pope Leo X The Pope during the start of the Reformation. He had Martin Luther Excommunicated in 1520. Protestant Branches of Christianity that rise out of the Reformation in Western Europe who DO NOT

recognize the authority of the Pope. Ex: Lutheran, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist. The term comes from the first protesting princes who rebelled against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Pope in 1529. Peace of Augsburg In 1555 (after over 20 years of fighting) the Holy Roman Emperor and all the German Princes assembled in the city of Augsburg to end the fighting.

The Princes agreed that each Prince could decide for themselves the religion of their state - whether to remain Catholic or become Protestant. BUT that did not mean an end to the persecution massive migrations of people took place as Catholics and Protestants had to flee lands controlled by a Prince from the opposite side there was NO TOLERANCE of different religious views. Annul Like a divorce granted by the church which says your original marriage never took place and that it

would be ok to marry again. Annulments can only be granted under extreme circumstances - the Catholic Church today still does not believe in divorce. Ex: domestic abuse. Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry VIII. Came to power in 1558 and ruled until her death in 1603 (she never married or had any children so her cousin King James (Stuart) of Scotland became king of England in 1603.

Great sponsor of the arts (Shakespeare & the Globe Theatre) Famous for her defense of England during war with Philip II of Spain who promised to destroy England for being Protestant. Queen Elizabeths English Navy defeated a vast Spanish Armada (invasion fleet) in 1588 and would forever set England on the path to Empire by controlling the seas. Anglican The Church of England - The Protestant Church started by Elizabeth I.

Monarch was head of the church. It was a compromise between the moderate Catholics and moderate Protestants. Most of the English were happy with the compromise but some, like the Puritans, wanted more reform. (Many Puritans will leave and settle in the New World-remember your American History and the Pilgrims)

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