The Reformation 1517-1680 - Mr. Butryn's History Class

The Reformation 1517-1680 - Mr. Butryn's History Class

SECTION 3- REFORMATION IDEAS SPREAD Radical Reformers As Reformation continued, new protestant sects sprang up Calvinists Anabaptists Anglicans Video Clip-Crash Course 7 min-15 minutes English reformation

4 SECTION 3- REFORMATION IDEAS SPREAD ENGLAND AND THE CHURCH In 1528, King Henry VIII asked the pope to annul, or cancel, his marriage. The pope refused Henrys request. Henry took the Church from the popes control and created the Church of England. Protestant King Edward VI brought Protestant

reforms to England. Queen Mary wanted to restore Catholicism to England. She had hundreds of English Protestants burned at the stake. Queen Elizabeth forged a compromise between Protestants and Catholics. THE ENGLISH REFORMATION 1527, Henry VIII, King of England

Wanted to end Papal control of English Church Did not support the Reformation Pope refused his annulment, or cancelation of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon Did not want to insult H.R.E. Charles V, Catherines Nephew HENRYS PAPAL REQUEST Catherine of Aragon could no longer

bear children. Henry decided that she had to go. Henry asked the Pope for an annulment. But the Pope could not give Henry what he wanted. Since Catherine was the favorite Aunt of Charles V whose troops occupied Rome HENRYS RESPONSE TO THE POPES DENIAL

When the Pope failed to respond, Henry took matters into his own hands. Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy making the King the head of the Church in England not the Pope. Henry then seized all Church lands. Then the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer granted Henrys annulment.

This freed Henry to marry Anne Boleyn. Henry was married six times in all. NO MATTER HOW THINGS CHANGE, THEY STILL STAY THE SAME Henry was no Protestant. Parliament passed the Six Articles that maintained traditional Catholic Doctrine. Both Protestants and Catholics that challenged Henry met the same fate. Only during the short reign of his son,

Edward VI (1547-53) did England move in the direction of Protestantism. THE MANY WIVES OF HENRY TUDOR Wife #1 - Catherine of Aragon Wife #2 - Anne Boleyn Wife #3 - Jane Seymour Wife #4 - Anne of Cleves

Wife #5 - Katherine Howard Wife #6 - Katherine Parr VICTIMS OF SECULAR-RELIGIOUS DISPUTES Sir Thomas More Roman-Catholic / Advisor to Henry VIII Refused Oath of Supremacy, 1534

Executed in 1535 The Kings good servant, but Gods First. RELIGIOUS TURMOIL IN ENGLAND 1535-1558 Henry VIII Establishes the Anglican Church- Church of England Takes Catholic Land and wealth 1547, Edward VI, Henrys son moves for Protestant reform

After his death, his sister Mary Tudor is queen, restoring Catholicism 1558, Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603) est. the Elizabethan Settlementcompromise between the protestants and Catholics VIDEOS Henry VIII Pope Francis Loyola 9 minutes in READINGS 14/pope-francis-is-a-jesuit-seven-things-you-ne ed-to-know-about-the-society-of-jesus.html 3/03/economist-explains-who-are-jesuits-exactl

y\ THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION Led by Pope Paul III During 1530s-1540 placed reformers to fight corruption Council of Trent- 1545-1563- Fought corruption, reaffirmed faith and good works as paths to salvation, est. schools to educate clergy and laity Strengthened The Inquisition- testimony, torture, and execution to root out heretics

THE JESUITS/ THE SOCIETY OF JESUS Founded by Ignatius of Loyola Recog. by Pope Paul III as a holy order in 1540 A Soldier by profession, he became a Soldier of God after a battle wound Set up school- taught humanist and Catholic beliefs to battle heresy and Protestantism Known for Absolute obedience, strict

discipline, and intense knowledge. (They went to school for 10-12 years before ordination) Vision of St. Ignatius of Loyola Peter Paul Rubens 1617-1618

FAMOUS JESUITS POPE FRANCIS orld-with-groundbreaking-interview/ al-topics-during-first-morning-in-u-s/ Pope Francis Loyola 9 minutes in SECTION 4 VIOLENCE AND PERSECUTION From 1400 to1700 A.D.- 70,000100,000 people were executed as witches Those accused were Jews, outcasts, strangers, and the

elderly. Witch panics were most times political- Which Christian group (Protestants or Catholics) was going to protect towns from the Devil? Centers of Witch hunts- France, GAME Video- Pear of Anguish

Inquisition torture techniques History Mysteries - Inquisition- 2 minutes in Witch Hunt Germany 1628: index.html JEWS AND THE REFORMATION Widespread Persecution

Expelled from Spain in 1492 Forced into Ghettos, Jewish Quarter of a city, in Protestant and Catholic Lands After 1550, The Netherlands, Poland, and Ottoman Empire welcomed Jews and allowed them to prosper. VIOLENCE- FRANCE Civil War in France August 24, 1572-Paris, France- St. Bartholomews Day Massacre Charles IX of France- on the

orders of his mother Catherine de Medici orders attack Due to a marriage between catholic princess Margaret and Huguenot Prince Henry III, many Huguenots were in the city of Paris Igniting a civil war in France until 1598 1598- Edict of Nantes granted religious freedom in France

Painting by Franois Dubois, a Huguenot painter born circa 1529 in Amiens, who settled in Switzerland. Although Dubois did not witness the massacre, he depicts Admiral Coligny's body hanging out of a window at the rear to the right. To the left rear, Catherine de' Medici is shown emerging from the Louvre castle to inspect a heap of bodies. ST. BARTHOLOMEWS DAY MASSACRE CATHERINE DE MEDICI AFTER ST. BARTHOLOMEWS DAY

MASSACRE THIRTY YEARS WAR- 1618-1648 A.D. VIOLENCE- H.R.E.- THIRTY YEARS WAR Peace of Augsburg -1555 temporary peace in Holy Roman Empire between the Catholics and Protestants 1618-1648 A.D. -War waged between protestants, CalvinistProtestants, and Catholic states within the H.R.E.

Involved Sweden, France, Spain and Austria all waging campaigns primarily on German soil. Led to collapse of the Holy Roman Empire Death of 20-40% of German Population- Disease, war, and pillaging Gunpowder and canon technology was used on a mass scale. Barbarity of the war convinced Catholics and Protestants to finally end their grudges Peace of Westphalia in 1648 VIOLENCE- ENGLAND VS. SPAIN

VIOLENCE- ENGLAND VS. SPAIN English Protestant Support for Protestant Netherlands against Catholic Spanish Control King Phillip II of Spain- sends the Invincible Armada in 1588 for the overthrow of Queen Elizabeth I and the conquest of England - 132 ships - 30,000 sailors and marines Superior British ships and Officers win- British supremacy of

the seas for the next 350 years ps:// EFFECTS OF THE REFORMATION Emerging idea of Individual rights Growing National Identity- No longer people see themselves as subjects of the Pope and God, but as subjects of nations and kings

Collapse of the Holy Roman Empire Education- People had to learn how to read the bible in order to be good Christians Religious and Secular motivated wars throughout Europe Catholic Reformation Expulsion of Jews from Western Europe/ migration to Eastern Europe Increased Anti-Semitism- Intolerance of Jews in Europe Growing desire for people to understand the natural world- increasing growth of Science ELIZABETH VIDEO CLIPS v=lMpigAUQt_4 L7c Q v=0wNboYbgYjo

4 CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects Peasants Revolt Religious wars in Europe

Founding of Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican, Presbyterian, and other Protestant churches Catholic Reformation Weakening of Holy Roman Empire

Jewish migration to Eastern Europe Luther calls for Jews to be expelled from Christian lands Increased antisemitism Strengthening of the Inquisition


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