The Problem Oriented Medical Record

The Problem Oriented Medical Record

The Problem Oriented Medical Record (POMR or POVMR) Master Problem Lists Writing SOAPs Master Plan The purpose of a POMR Teaching & Learning Emphasize a systematic, analytic approach Help you learn patterns Review (learn) Integrate problems & causes Maintain focus on the patient & his/her problems

Student evaluation e.g. in your clinical blocks Communication among members of the medical team (optimize the quality of care and minimize the potential for mistakes) Legal Record (sign your entries!) Please remember 1. An academic SOAP is different from how you will SOAP cases in private practice! (some different goals) 2. There is NO ONE RIGHT WAY to write a SOAP or SOAP a case. 3. There will be different expectations from different

clinicians and different clinical services. (SA Referral is our model) 4. It takes PRACTICE! (and time). Part of our goal is to give you early exposure and some opportunity Dr. Lawrence Weed: 1968 Medical Records that Guide and Teach Patient focused Problem oriented POMR = part of an attempt to address the most common problems in diagnosis & case management: Inadequate hypothesis generation

Inattention or misinterpretation of findings history, PE, laboratory data, etc. Premature closure = the clinician stops generating new hypotheses before the correct diagnosis has been added to the list of DfDxs The most common interpretive error = overinterpretation or misinterpretation of findings in light of suspected disease Why are diagnosis USUALLY correct?

Common diseases occur commonly. Pattern recognition. Duh ! A function of experience and knowledge base. The Challenges: The uncommon presentation of the common disease The common presentation of the uncommon disease

The disease (common or not) that you personally POVMR Master Problem List A PROBLEM is anything that potentially threatens the health of the animal (or herd) and may require medical attention (at least eventually). MPL is always kept at the front of the record front and center The MPL is updated DAILY (or at each submission during a DC). Updating & Revising MPL Disposition of problems

NEW problems are added (e.g. new discoveries & new developments) Some problems are resolved Problems are re-defined Combined with other problems Upgraded to another problem (defined at higher level of understanding) Problems can be inactivated Example: 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 13 year-old intact male German Shorthaired Pointer Vomiting Hematemesis Inappetance Lethargy Pale mucous membranes 6. Tachypnea 7. Anemia nonregenerative

8. Azotemia 9. Isosthenuria 10. Hypoproteinemia Upgrade to #7 Use slide show function & click to see updating MPL (next slide) 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. Vomiting Upgrade to #11 Hematemesis Upgrade to #11 Inappetance Upgrade to #13 Upgrade to #13 Lethargy Pale mucous membranes Upgrade to #7 Tachypnea resolved 9/27 7. Anemia non-regenerative Upgrade to #11 and/or

12 Upgrade to #12 8. Azotemia 9. Isosthenuria Upgrade to #12 10. Hypoproteinemia Upgrade to #11 11. Gastric ulceration - endoscopy Upgrade to #13 Upgrade to #13 12. Interstitial nephritis & fibrosis (end stage kidney) renal biopsy 13. Chronic renal failure (final

Client Complaint START TREATMENT: symptomatic ACTIVE PROBLEMS supportive presumptive on MPL

END Diagnosi s Specific Rx S.O.A.P. Subjective: attitude, appetite, activity, improving?, Unchanged? - include clients observations Objective: Summarize the measurable clinical data (fever?, laboratory?, rads?, etc.)

In the VTH, S.O. are often combined: Problem 1. Pale mucous membranes SO: oral mucous membranes are pale on physical examination Problem 2. Icterus SO: Yellow tint to oral mucous membranes and sclera are indicative of icterus (accumulation of bilirubin in tissues). Problem 3. Tachypnea SO: A respiratory rate of 44 is higher than expected of a normal, inactive dog.

Problem 4. Diarrhea SO: Diarrhea in this animal is chronic and appears to be progressing (getting worse). The high volume & low frequency suggests that the diarrhea is small intestinal in origin, as does the absence of fresh blood, mucus, and tenesmus, which are the cardinal signs of large bowel diarrhea in small animals. The chronic small bowel diarrhea accompanied by weight loss is most suggestive of a small intestinal malassimilation syndrome, possibly with protein loss into the feces. Problem 5. Hepatomegaly SO: Physical examination revealed hepatomegaly characterized by extension of the liver beyond the ribs and by rounded edges. The hepatomegaly appears to be

diffuse, but further assessment (imaging) would be required to confirm. S.O.A.P. continued Assessment: = Analysis of the problem 3 components for each Assessment: [A] General pathophysiologic mechanisms for the problem. (a bit of review) [B] Pathophysiologic mechanisms likely for THIS CASE. [C] Differential Diagnoses (DfDx's) for THIS problem.

Rule-Outs Considerations: First: think & write about the problem by itself Before you think about other problems Before you try to think about specific DfDxs Then, think and write about the problem in relation to other problems on the MPL and other information. e.g. Hypoproteinemia The most common interpretive error = overinterpretation or misinterpretation of findings in light of suspected disease

CRITICAL THINKING & INTEGRATION Can you localize the disease? (e.g. to an organ system?) Is the signalment important or useful? species, breed, age, sex Duration & Course? Are other animals affected? Was there previous treatment / response? Has your understanding of the problems changed ? - notably changed in light of new data How can you pull the case or problems together ?

REMEMBER: The record should capture your THOUGHT PROCESSES DfDxs for the Problem: Localization Process (e.g. DAMNIT) Specific Diseases One goal is to avoid: Premature closure = the clinician stops generating new hypotheses before the correct diagnosis has been added to the list of DfDxs. As a result, inappropriate Rx is initiated

S.O.A.P. continued Initial PLAN to address THIS problem. The plan should help rule in / rule out your primary DfDx's, or treat the patient. The initial plan can include: specific diagnostic tests specific treatments doing nothing (wait & see) client communication plans (including

questions) The proposed plan is often stated as a sequence of plans or possible courses of actions. SOAP Example: Edema a) General mechanisms Increased hydrostatic pressure Heart failure, venous obstruction, overhydration Decreased plasma oncotic pressure: d/t hypoalbuminemia

albumin production d/t liver disease intake (malnutrition or protein malabsorption) protein loss Renal, GI, skin (wounds & burns), body cavities Lymphatic obstruction or hypertension (not common) Neoplasia, surgical or traumatic injury, lymphangitis, congenital b) This case:

No evidence of GI disease No evidence of heart disease or vasculitis No obvious evidence of lymphatic disease Good appetite Accompanied by weight loss Possible polyuria & polydipsia according to owners c) DfDxs: Protein-losing nephropathy (e.g. glomeronephritis or renal amyloidosis) Loss in GI, but without producing other enteric signs such as diarrhea (e.g. lymphangiectasia, chronic parasitism,

intestinal neoplasia) Chronic Liver disease would have to be severe (>80% loss) to produce Remember IMPORTANT SOAPs are written daily EACH DAY (or at each submission during a DC) You will SOAP all NEW problems

AND Re-SOAP all ACTIVE problems on your MPL In particular, your SOAPs of pre-existing problems should address your updated analysis/interpretation of the problem in light of new information and any changes in the case. Also .. Make sure everyone in your DC group is sharing his/her SOAPs and teaching the others what youve learned. Otherwise, its like everyone has a PIECE of the puzzle, but maybe no one has enough of the puzzle to pull it

together in a cohesive way. Do NOT Just copy and paste your SOAP from one day to the next or from one problem to another unchanged from yesterday, page 12 See Problem #9 P: Initial Plan to address this problem Panel:

WHY? - Provide a rationale! R/O hypoalbuminemia assess renal function via BUN & creatinine access liver enzymes as evidence of liver disease Urinalysis: R/O proteinuria in conjunction with BUN-creatinine, assess renal function Fecal floatation:

R/O intestinal parasites causing protein or blood losss Then (sequencing) Depending on results of minimal data base, consider future cardiac consultation to rule out congestive heart failure (chest rads, ECG, echocardiography, stress testing) Consider bile acids in future, as most sensitive measure of liver function Talk to owner about a more appropriate diet At the end of the days record, enter a:

Master Plan Panel Urinalysis Fecal Floatation CBC This is a To Do List = what you really want to do NOW.

Questions ? Look at the examples you were provided Please remember 1. An academic SOAP is different from how you will SOAP cases in private practice! (some different goals) 2. There is NO ONE RIGHT WAY to write a SOAP or SOAP a case. 3. There will be different expectations from different clinicians and different clinical services. (SA Referral is our model) 4. It takes PRACTICE! (and time). Part of our goal is to give you early exposure and some opportunity

MISCONCEPTION CHECK A couple of review questions - CLICKERS A 7-year-old MC Irish Setter presents for its annual exam and vaccinations. The owners report no problems. During the PE, however, you palpate a large abdominal mass which you suspect is spleen. Radiographs reveal a diffusely enlarged spleen, but no other abnormalities. Considering your findings and what you know about prevalence, etc, which of the following is the best DfDx? A.

B. C. D. E. Splenic hemangiosarcoma Splenic hematoma Lymphoma Nodular splenic hyperplasia Diffuse splenic hyperplasia Youve been called to deal with a suspected outbreak of Anaplasmosis in a herd of Hereford cattle near St. Maries, Idaho. Anaplasma marginale is a tick transmitted bacteria that produces a cell-associated bacteremia. It replicates within and destroys erythrocytes thereby causing life

threatening anemia. You necropsy 2 dead animals where you find icterus and also massively enlarged spleens. What is your explanation for the splenic lesions ? A. B. C. D. Enzootic leukosis (lymphoma) Splenic hematoma Splenic hyperplasia Visceral mastocytosis A 1.5 year old DSH cat presents with a sudden onset of severe dyspnea. PE reveals decreased

compressibility of the thorax and muffled heart sounds. Chest films reveals pleural fluid. Ultrasound confirms that the fluid is also obscurring a large mass in the anterior thorax. Given the findings, signalment, etc, What is the most likely diagnosis? A. B. C. D. Thymoma Lymphoma Thymic Branchial Cyst Hemangiosarcoma

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