The Persian Empire California Standard 6.4.5 Outline the founding, expansion and political organization of the Persian Empire.
How did it begin The Assyrian Empire was small Israelite state by Tigris River In 700 BCE it included Mesopotamia, some of Asia Minor, Egypt and Palestine They had a large and strong army and were known for committing atrocities against
enemies The Assyrians were conquered by the Chaldeans and King Nebuchadnezzar He rebuilt Babylon one of the greatest cities of the ancient world
King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia fell to the Persians in 539 BCE Persia gained all of the kings territory The leader of the Persians was Cyrus Map of the combined Persia Empire
Who were the Persians Lived in southwestern Iran Mostly nomadic and organized into tribes The Persians were lead by Cyrus Who was Cyrus the Great?
Cyrus (Sy-ruhs) 559-530 BCE He captured Babylon in 539 BCE by uniting Persians Turned Babylonia into a Persian providence and allowed many original officials to keep their positions
Created a postal system
Allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem His compassion made others accept him as a ruler Organized the capital in Pasargades Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargades Map of the Persian Empire under Cyrus
The largest empire the world has ever seen The Immortals Created by Cyrus included 10,000 highly trained soldiers Served as the Imperial Guard and in the army
Once one died they were immediately replaced Soldiers in Persia Soldiers were paid professionals In Greek city states citizens only took up arms in times of war
Cambyses Son of Cyrus 530-522 BCE Successfully invaded Egypt Darius
Darius (duh-RY-uhs) 521-486 BCE Added new Persian providence in western India Extended empire to Thrace and reached to
the Aegean Sea Persian Empire Moves the capital to Persepolis Divided empire into 20 providences called satrapies (SAY-truh-peez)
The providences were ruled by a satrap (SAY-TRAP) : protector of the kingdom They all answered to the king Ruins of Persepolis The Royal Road
Built by command of King Darius From Sardis to Susa Had stations with fresh horses for the kings messengers Was 1,400-1,500 miles long Xerxes
(ZURHK-seez) 486-465 BCE
Son of Darius Led soldiers in battle of Thermopylae Captures Athens Greeks and Persians clash!
Battle of Marathon 490 BCE Persians land 20,000 men in Marathon ( a few miles from Athens) The Athenians had 10,000 After a long wait the Persian s board the ships with the
strongest cavalry 1st That was when the Athenians attacked Caught foot solders waiting to get on the ships Persians were defeated! Athenians send Pheidippides running home with the
news (about 25 miles) modern marathons are named after this famous run Battle of Themopylae 480BCE Persians led by Xerxes Spartans lead by King
Leonidas lasted 3 days then the Persians advanced A narrow pass through mountains Greeks lost
Last Stand of the 300 The Kill Zone History.com Video (2).url Battle of Salamis Salamis (SA-luh-mush) 480BCE Greeks attack Persians
in the straight Had smaller , faster ships Greeks destroy most of the Persian fleet But Persians reach
Athens and burn the city Battle of Plataea Plataea (pluh-tee-uh) 479BCE Greeks unite to fight
and defeat Persians Persians retreat and Greeks are saved from invasion Burial site of Darius and Xerxes
What happened to the Persians? In the end Persian rulers went corrupt, charged to much taxes & cause rebellions Internal struggle for power Alexander the Great invades in 334 BCE and rules over all the Persian land
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