The French Revolution Part 1 The Revolution Begins What caused the Revolution? 1. DEBT Debt: France has paid too much to help the Americans in their war to separate
from Britain Debt: the Royal Family is spending too much money (Particularly Marie Antoinette) Taxes: not taxing the rich cant pay back the debt What caused the Revolution?
2. the Royal Family King believes in Absolute Monarchy and Divine rights of kings to the extreme (ex. Royal Awakening) King Louis XIV moved palace to Versailles too far from the people (dont see the problem) King Louis XVI is weak, un-kingly, and becomes laughing stock due to no child Marie Antoinette is Austrian (enemy)
What caused the Revolution? 3. new ideas vs. old ways Enlightenment thought questioning monarchy, desire for democracy France stuck in Middle ages - manor with lords and serfs, old technology, while elsewhere world is changing (poor gaining power and wealth)
What caused the Revolution? What does King Louis XVI do to try to save France?
4. Price of Bread Poor weather = drought = poor crops =famine Price of grain rises, and bread becomes too expensive Results in Bread riots in Paris Huge poverty already people now starving Louis XVI calls the estates general in 1789 to try to fix the tax system/ end bread crisis and
debt Appoints Jacques Necker (peoples favourite) to revise tax system Estates meet for 6 weeks What is the Estates General?
The estates general is the Parliament It hasnt been called since 1614 1st estate = clergy (church) 2cd estate = nobility 3rd estate = middle class (and lower) Unfair as 3rd estate represents 90% of
population, but can be out voted by 1st and 2cd Why did this not work to stop a revolution? Necker was fired because he wanted to tax the rich nobility dont want to pay 3rd estate arrives after 6 weeks and find the doors locked
How is the National Assembly formed? 3rd estates go to the tennis Court and swear to keep meeting until a new constitution is written. This is called the Tennis Court Oath Call themselves the National Assembly the
new government of France Reluctantly, the 1st and 2cd estate join them National assembly is nice idea, but has no power to enforce ideas What is the Bastille and why is it important? The price of bread is still too high
People of Paris form a National Guard King sends in Royal troops to keep peace National Guard goes to the Bastille to get the gun powder Bastille is the prison fortress, history of torture, symbol of royal power What happens at the Bastille?
July 14, 1789: mob attacks Bastille currently only 7 prisoners, eventually pull out the governor and cut off his head, parading it on a pike Flag of France is created Slogan Liberty, Equality and Fraternity is used Tear down Bastille with bare hands This day will eventually be the National day for France
What does the National Assembly do for the people? Aug 4, 1789 vote to abolish feudal rights and end serfdom Declares all people equal under the law Writes the Declaration of the Rights of Man
the Citizen Sold church property to repay debt What is the Declaration of the rights of man and the citizen? New constitution for France Freedom of thought, speech, religion, security,
and property Limits power of the King (no monarch in charge) No titles or nobility all equal Why do the women march to Versailles? Why is it important?
What are the people outside of Paris doing? Women are angry the price of bread is still high Women from fish market march to Versailles to complain to king gather thousands on way Mob surrounds Versailles yelling for royals No reply= enter, kill guards, destroy Marie
Antoinettes room Force Royal family to come to Paris as prisoners (guards heads on sticks) Countryside peasants fear will lose new rights, so attack Lords manors and kill hundreds of nobility (called great fear) The French Revolution Part 2 A Radical Revolution and the
Execution of the King What will the National Assembly do with the Royal Family? Who are the Jacobins?
Debate over constitutional monarchy vs. republic (killing king) Radical Jacobins (group) want the king dead Maximilien Robespierre, Jacques Danton, and Jean-Paul Marat are the leaders of the Jacobin groups want the king dead Maximilien Robespierre
Jean-Paul Marat Georges Danton Why does France go to war? What happens with
the war? Other countries fear what France is doing Nationalism makes citizens of France want to fight/ gain land Declare war on Prussia and Austria Everyone against revolution (or against Robespierre) is arrested and jailed, without trail The National Assembly becomes the National Convention
What do the San-Culottes do? Losing (at first) Prussian and Austrian troops head towards Paris San Culottes radical group kill all prisoners, with guillotine, without trail Why? They fear they will join attacking forces Eventually push Austria and Prussia out of France
What does the King do? King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette try to escape, but fail Are held separately, as prisoners Why does Robespierre execute the king?
Robespierre must kill the King to stop resistance to revolution Execute Louis XVI with the guillotine on Jan. 21, 1793 In October 1793, Marie Antoinette is executed Their son dies that year of abuse and neglect What does this mean?
France is officially a Republic The French Revolution Part 3 The Reign of Terror Who is Marat? Who is
Danton? Marat was a newspaper writer who wrote articles for the revolution, sating the only way to move forward is to kill everyone against them He is assassinated by Charlotte Corday (in a bathtub) He becomes a martyr the face of the revolution
Danton was a radical who worked with Robespierre to get rid of the monarchy What is the Committee of Public Safety and why was it created? What happens to
Danton? Committee of public safety is created to stop all enemies of the republic Run by Robespierre making him the most powerful in France Law of Suspects arrest any noble, check all for birth certificates executed Must be for revolution - say citizen - or executed Can be executed for any suspicion
Guillotined 40 000 citizens in 1 year Robespierre executes Danton when he questions this (1794) How does Robespierre lose power? Robespierre decides he doesnt want the church to have power either gets rid of the 7 day week, changes month
names, and declares himself to be the Supreme Being He tells his advisors he has an execution list, but doesnt read it In fear for their lives, his advisors arrest Robespierre Robespierre attempts suicide fails (shoots his jaw) He is executed with the guillotine End of the
Revolution? Government becomes the directory and remains until Napoleon tacks power France remains a Republic Did Robespierre do anything good?
Introduced the metric system, modernized the army, and created new schools and universities
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