The French and Indian WarChapter 5 Section 3

The French and Indian WarChapter 5 Section 3

The French and Indian WarChapter 5 Section 3 Obvious Question (or is it?) Who do you think fought in the French and Indian War? Why was the war important? French and English Collide The French and Indian War, the colonial part of the

Seven Years War that ravaged Europe from 1756 to 1763, was the bloodiest American war in the 1700s. It took more lives than the American Revolution, involved people on three continents, including the Caribbean. The French and Indian War

1700s - France and England had been fighting for many years in Europe Now, both are settling in the New World How might this lead to conflict? The basic cause of the conflict among Native Americans west of the Appalachian Mountains was land and the fur trade. In the 1740s, both England and France traded for furs with the Native Americans in the Ohio Country. By the 1750s, English colonists, especially the investors in the Ohio Company, also hoped to convert the wilderness into

good farmland. Each side tried to keep the other out of the Ohio Country. In the early 1750s, French soldiers captured several English trading posts and built Fort Duquense (now called Pittsburgh) to defend their territory from the English. The French and Indian War French Advantages Large area of land From the St. Lawrence River to New Orleans

France and Native Americans were winning control of the American Before the War Began British colonists fought the French and Indians with little help from

Britain 1754- British government intervened Was alarmed by the French forts and defeat of Fort Necessity Fall of 1754 Great Britain appointed General Edward Braddock commander in chief of the British forces in America Braddock was to drive the French forces out

of the Ohio Valley George Washington By the time he was 20, he was commissioned in the Virginia militia. When he was appointed to lieutenant colonel he found out that his standing as a non-British-born officer afforded less pay than his fellow British officers of equal rank. It was his first glimpse of British treatment of Americans and a lesson he would not soon forget. Nonetheless, he carried the British flag into battle against the French and native Americans in what we in America call the French and Indian war.

The French and Indian War 1753 a 21 year-old major in the Virginia Militia, George Washington, is sent to demand a French withdrawal If you were France, what would you do? Why? What is now considered the French and Indian War

(though at the time the war was undeclared), began in 1753, when a young Virginian, Major George Washington, and a number of men headed out into the Ohio region to deliver a message to a French Captain demanding that French troops leave the territory. The demand was rejected by the French. A combined force of French soldiers and their native allies overwhelmed Fort Necessity on July 3, 1754, marking the start of the

French and Indian War in North America. The French permitted Washington and his men to return to Virginia safely, but made them promise they would not build another fort west of the Appalachian Mountains for at least a year. England did not officially declare war until 1756, although the conflict had actually begun two years earlier at Fort Necessity. Britain Declares War on France Fighting in America started a new war in Europe Seven Years War Britain formed an

alliance with Prussia in 1756 Prussia fought France in Europe Britain fought France in the Caribbean, India, and North America He went on three different British missions to try to take Fort Duquesne. All three missions ended in defeat. 1st-

1754, never even reached its destination, stopping to build Fort Necessity, which then was surrendered to French troops. Washington was allowed to return to Virginia, where he was told that all colonial officers were being forced to drop a rank, so he resigned. 2nd- 1755 The second mission was with Gen. Edward Braddock, but the result was the same and the defeat even greater: the French smashed the British again, and Braddock was shot dead. 3rd- 1758, British and American troops set out again to take fort Duquesne only to find it burned to the ground by the retreating French. In his years in the field, he learned one important fact: the British could be beaten.

1754 The First Clash British French Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne * George Washington * Delaware & hawnee Indians Braddock Marches to Duquesne

June 1755- Braddock started out from Virginia With about 1,400 redcoated British soldiers And a smaller force of blue-coated colonial militia George Washington was an aide to Braddock Washington said Braddock

[Halted] to level every mole hill, and to erect bridges over every brook, by which mean we were four days in getting twelve miles More of Braddock Marches to Duquesne Washington told

Braddock his armys style was not suited for the frontier Lined up in columns and wearing bright-colored uniforms Troops were easy targets Braddock ignored Washingtons advice French and Indian forces ambushed the British

Even More of Braddock Marches to Duquesne British were confused and frightened Could not see their attackers who were hidden in the forest Shooting at them behind trees Braddock was killed British lost about 1,000 men Washington led the

survivors back to Virginia General Edward Braddock British general who lost an intense battle at Fort Duquesne. He was the British commander in America for a time and one of his officers was a young George Washington. Braddock ordered a march through the wilderness to a heavily fortified Fort Duquesne. He paid for it with his life. Out of the 1,400 British soldiers who were in

involved in the battle, 900 of them died. One of them was Braddock. Washington organized the retreat to Fort Necessity, where the British awaited the inevitable French follow-up. The French and Indian War What role could the Native Americans play in the French & Indian War? Native American groups who were enemies, chose

sides with either the British or the French. Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea), Mohawk born in 1742, was a Mohawk chief who helped gain Indian support for the British in the French and Indian War between 1754 and 1763. Iroquois nation fought

along side the British The French and Indian War Seven colonies met with the Iroquois Confederacy Meeting called the Albany Congress Benjamin Franklin presented a plan of union(more about that on in a minute) but it wasnt passed The French and Indian War

Why should the colonists accept the plan? What might the Iroquois confederacy do now? Albany Plan of Union Aware of the hard times that war could put on the colonies, English officials suggested a "union between ye Royal, Proprietary & Charter Governments." Some colonial leaders agreed and in June 1754 delegates from most of the northern colonies and representatives from the Six Iroquois Nations met in Albany, New York. They decided on a "plan of union" drafted by Benjamin

Franklin. Under this plan each colonial legislature would elect delegates to an American continental assembly presided over by a royal governor. Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan-a formal proposal to unite the colonies 1754 Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA Albany Congress failed; Iroquois broke off relations

with Britain & threatened to trade with the French. First of all, Franklin knew there would be problems the government would need to deal with after independence, such as finance, dealing with the Indian tribes, control of trade, and defense. British officials realized that, if adopted, the plan could create a very powerful government that His Majesty's Government might not be able to control. The plan was rejected by the Crown and by the legislatures in several of the colonies. How Britain Almost Lost the War Chapter 5, Section 1

Event What Happened Results Albany Plan of Union To get the colonists to work together to defeat the French, Franklin proposed this plan for one

general government for the 13 colonies. The colonial assemblies turned the plan down. Fort Necessity Washington launched a surprise attack against the French. French and Indian forces outnumbered Washingtons forces. Washington surrendered.

Fort Duquesne General Braddock led British and colonial troops toward Fort Duquesne. The French launched a surprise attack and defeated Braddocks troops. Fort Oswego, Fort William Henry

The French succeeded in capturing these forts. Britains Indian allies began to doubt the British. How Great Britain Won the War Chapter 5, Section 1 Who or What William Pitt What

Happened Results Pitt became the new head of the British government. Pitts first goal was to win the war in North America. Major General Amherst captured the fort in 1758. Pitt sent his best generals, money, and supplies to North America.

Fort Duquesne The British seized it in 1758. Fort Duquesne became Fort Pitt. Fort Niagra, Crown Point, Fort Ticonderoga The British seized them in 1759. Added to British success.

Quebec, important city overlooking the St. Lawrence River In the dark, British troops led by General Wolfe quietly climbed the cliff and surprised the French. The British and French troops fought on the Plains of Abraham, outside the city of Quebec. The

British won. Quebec surrendered. Louisbourg With the capture of the most important French fort in Canada, the tide of battle turned. Early Stages of the War France captured British Forts French Indian allies raided frontier farms

Killed settlers, burned houses and crops, drove families back to the coast French forces from Canada captured British forts at Lake Ontario and Lake George After a year and a half of undeclared war, the French and the

English formally declared war in May 1756. For the first three years of the war, the outnumbered French dominated the battlefield, soundly defeating the English in battles at Fort Oswego and Ticonderoga. Perhaps the most notorious battle of the war was the French victory at Fort William Henry, which ended in a massacre of British soldiers by Indians allied with the French. The French and Indian War 1756 William Pitt unites colonies 1759 British defeat the French in Quebec 1760 Montreal

surrenders, ending the fighting in America Pitt

Takes Charge Great Britains prospects in America improved after William Pitt became prime minister Pitt decided that Britain would pay for the war supplies- no matter the cost Pitt ran up an enormous debt Pitt didnt just want to settle in Western territories, but wanted to conquer French Canada Troops were sent to America under Jeffery Amherst and

James Wolfe Many French forts were taken and renamed Including Fort Duquesne and renamed Fort Pitt Battle of Quebec-turning point of the war The tide turned for the British in 1758, as they began to make peace with important Indian allies and, under the direction of Lord William

Pitt began adapting their war strategies to fit the territory and landscape of the American frontier. The French were also abandoned by many of their Indian allies. Exhausted by years of battle, outnumbered and outgunned by the British, the French collapsed during the years 1758-59, climaxing with a massive defeat at Quebec in September 1759. William Pitt (the Elder) 1708 -- 1778 Pitt the Elder was Prime Minister during the French and Indian

War. When the British retook Fort Duquesne, they named it Fort Pitt in honor of their Prime Minister. Pitt was responsible for financing the British war effort, largely by taxing the British colonies (including those in America). 1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England Battle of Quebec In a heroic battle British General James Wolfe defeated French general Marquis de Montcalm that almost ended French occupation of Canada. Quebec was a natural fortress, a large city built on high bluffs, with steep cliffs on either side of the city.

James Wolfe Brilliant British general who won the two most different battles of the war, Louisbourg and Quebec. He was second in command to Jeffery Amherst but got most of the duties in these two battles. Always poor in health, he somehow managed to inspire his troops to victory. Right before the Battle of Quebec, he was shot while inspecting his troops.

He stayed the course and led them to victory. He later died from his wounds. Marquis de Montcalm French commander in charge of all French troops in Canada. He was the architect of the "fort strategy," by which French forts were built at key spots all across Canada. He won several small battles, but his greatest success was in the taking of Fort Ticonderoga in July 1758. The war took a decidedly British turn after that.

British victories at Crown Point and Louisbourg left the St. Lawrence River open to attack, and Montcalm retreated to Montreal then Quebec. He lost his prestige and his life at the Battle of Quebec. Treaty of Paris 1763 The Treaty that officially ended the French and Indian War. The British gained control over the area west of the 13 British Colonies all the way to the Mississippi River. Exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade and India. The French agreed to give up any colonies in East of the Mississippi, Canada, and India Since Spain had helped the French, the Spanish were also forced to give up Florida. But the Spanish still held their territory west of the Mississippi River and in Central

and South America. France lost power in North America North America 1763: Following the Treaty of Paris

Effects of the War on Britain 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged Englands debt. 3. Britains contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that amajor reorganization of her American Empire was necessary! Effects of the War on the Colonies 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time.

2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify. Pontiac's Rebellion Was After the Treaty of Paris After the French left, the British took over their forts. The British refused to give supplies to the Native Americans, as the French had. British settlers also moved across the mountains onto Native American land. Native Americans attacked settlers and destroyed

almost every British fort west of the Appalachians. They surrounded the three remaining forts. Then the British killed Indians that hadn't even attacked them. Pontiac's Rebellion cont. British officers then thought of a devastating plan They invited Delaware Indian leaders to talk and gave them blankets infected with smallpox. This started a deadly outbreak. By the fall, the Native Americans had retreated Even so, the uprising made the British see that defending Western lands would be costly and in response, they issued the Proclamation of 1763.

It forbade colonists to settle west of the Appalachians. Long Lasting Effects: Tension on the Frontier 1763 Pontiacs Rebellion Fort Detroit British gifts of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt. Pontiacs Rebellion (1763) Colonial Backlash British Proclamation Line of 1763.

Colonials Paxton Boys (PA) If an Indian injures me, does it follow that I may revenge that injury on all Indians? -Benjamin Franklin

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