THE FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY Chapter 15 Chapter 15 Is the bureaucracy essential to good government? The Federal Bureaucracy What is the structure and purpose of the federal bureaucracy? WHAT IS BUREAUCRACY? Definition: is a large, complex administrative structure that handles the

everyday business of an organization. These are the departments and agencies that are part of the executive branch that carries out laws passed by Congress. The people who work for these organizations are called bureaucrats. The federal bureaucracy is organized into departments, agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and advisory committees. Nearly 3 millions civilians work for the federal government. Federal agencies are located in more than 440,00 buildings scattered across the nation and world. WHAT IS BUREAUCRACY? While it is not mentioned in the Constitution, Article II does give the president the power to require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments Beyond this the Constitution is silent on the organization of the executive branch. The federal bureaucracy is composed of three broad groups of

agencies: (1) the Executive Office of the President, (2) the 15 Cabinet departments, (3) and a large number of independent agencies. Executive Office of the President What agencies and advisors are part of the Executive Office of the President and what are their functions? Executive Office of the President The Executive Office of the President is an umbrella agency composed of several sub-agencies staffed by the Presidents closest advisors and assistants. This includes the White House, Office of the Vice President, Council of Economic Advisors, Council on Environmental Quality, National Security Council, Office of Administration,

Office of Management and Budget, Office of National Drug Control Policy, Office of Science and Technology Policy, and Office of the United States Trade Representatives. The White House This is where most of the Presidents key personal and political aids work. They work in the West Wing of the White House. Over 500 people now serve in The White House The White House chief of staff directs all of the operations within The White House and is considered among the most influential presidential aides. West Wing of The White House National Security Council They meet with the President to advise him in all domestic,

foreign, and military matters that relate to the nations security. The President chairs the Council. Its other members include the Vice President and the secretaries of state, treasury, and defense. The Director of National Intelligence and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff also regularly attend the meetings. Office of Management and Budget It is the largest and, after The White House, the most influential unit in the Executive Office. The OMB is headed by a director who is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The OMBs major task is the preparation of the federal budget, which the President must submit to Congress every year.

The Cabinet Departments What is the cabinet and what does it do? The Cabinet Departments 15 cabinet departments are a major part of federal bureaucracy. Each department is headed by a secretary, except for the Department of Justice, whose work is directed by the attorney general. These department heads serve in the Presidents Cabinet. Each department head is the primary link between presidential policy and his/her own department The Cabinet Departments

DEPARTMENT OF STATE Created in 1789 Responsible for the overall foreign policy of the United States Protects the rights of United States citizens traveling abroad Staff embassies, or offices of ambassadors in foreign countries

Issues passports Represents the U.S. at the United Nations Negotiates agreements with foreign countries Represents the United States abroad and in international organizations. John Kerry DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Created in 1789 Manages the monetary resources of the United States Oversees the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)

Collects federal taxes Borrows money Pays the governments bills Prints money Jack Lew DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Ashton Carter Created in 1789

First called the Department of War Conducts military intelligence Carries out military research, engineering, builds bases, and naval yards Protects the nations security Joint Chiefs of Staff Leaders of Army, Navy, Marines and Air Force DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

Created in in 1789 Founded as the Office of the Attorney General; renamed in 1870 Prosecutes those accused of violating federal law Provides legal advice to the President Represents the United States in court Operates federal prisons Supervises U.S attorneys and marshals Well known agencies: FBI US Marshall Service

Drug Enforcement Agencies (DEA) Loretta Lynch Department of Interior Created in 1849 Manages public lands, wildlife refuges, and national parks Operates hydroelectric power plants

Helps Native Americans manage their affairs Protects fish, wildlife, and natural resources Sally Jewell Department of Agriculture Created in 1889 Assists farmers and ranchers Administers food stamp and school lunch programs Inspects food and ensures quality standards Manages national forests Fights animals and plant diseases

Tom Vilsack Department of Commerce Department of Labor Created in 1913 Created in 1903 Promotes international trade,

economic growth, and technological development Conducts Census Maintains official weights and patents Three agencies carry out constitutional directives: 1. The Bureau of the Census 2. The Patent and Trademark Office 3. The National Institute of Standards and Technology Penny Pritzker Charged with protecting American workers Ensures safe working conditions

Safeguards a minimum wage and maximum working hours Administers unemployment insurance and workers compensation programs Keeps track of prices, unemployment, and labor information Thomas Perez Department of Housing and Urban Development Department of Health and Human Services

Created in 1953 Founded as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Manages the federal Medicare and Medicaid programs Helps senior citizens and less fortunate Americans through the Social Security Administration Public Health Service Implements a national health

policy Conducts medical research Ensures the safety of food and drugs Sylvia Mathews Burwell Created in 1965 Operates home-financing for the elderly and low-income families Operates public housing programs

Enforces fair housing laws Makes grants for improvements to streets, sewers, and parks Julin Castro Department of Transportation Department of Energy Created in 1967

Administers programs to promote and regulate highways, mass transit, railroads, waterways, air travel, and oil and gas pipelines Federal Aviation Administration Air Travel Federal Railroad Administration Nations Railroads Federal Highway Administration Nations Highways

Created in 1977 Promotes production of renewable energy, fossil fuels, and nuclear energy Transmits and sells hydroelectric power Conducts nuclear weapons research and production Regulates interstate gas and electricity sales Federal Transit Administration Nations Mass transit Anthony Foxx

Ernest Moniz Department of Veterans Affairs Department of Education Created in 1979 Coordinates federal assistance programs for public and private

schools Ensures equal access to education Conducts educational research Develops educational goals Arne Duncan Created in 1989 Formerly known as the Veterans Administration

Administers benefits, pensions, and medical programs for veterans of the armed forces Oversees military cemeteries Robert McDonald Department of Homeland Security

Created in 2002 Terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 led to the creation of this department Controls the Coast Guard, the Border Patrol, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Customs Service, the Federal Emergency Management Agency Analyzes information collected from the FBI and CIA Ensures border and transportation security Develops emergency preparedness and response programs Safeguards national infrastructure and information systems

Jeh Johnson Independent Agencies What are the roles and structures of the independent agencies? Independent Agencies The federal bureaucracy also contains over 150 independent agencies President appoints the heads of these agencies, some are just as large as cabinet departments Example: NASA Most independent agencies have few employees, small budgets, and little publicity Example: American Battle Monuments Commission

Independent Agencies Some independent agencies perform services for the executive branch The General Services Administration (GSA) Central Intelligent Agency (CIA) Other independent agencies directly serve the public United States Postal Service The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Independent Regulatory Commissions Independent from all three branches of the national government Purpose: There are 12 agencies today, each created to regulate-monitor, policeimportant aspects of the nations economy.

They are given their power by Congress. These agencies exercise their powers when they make rules and regulations that have the force of law. They implement and spell out the details of the laws that Congress has directed these bodies to enforce Example: SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission Creates the rules for borrowing money, issuing stock and bonds - Example: FCC: Federal Communications Commission Creates the rules for radio, television, wire, cable, satellite

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