The Executive Branch

The Executive Branch

The Executive Branch National, State and Local US Executive Branch Led by the President of the United States. All presidents have been white males, except for Barack Obama. All but one has been Protestant. Cabinet: Group of advisors to the president. Qualifications

Literally only three qualifications listed to be President in the US Constitution (Article II) 1. Must be a native-born US citizen. 2. Must be 35 years old. 3. Must have lived in the United States for 14 years. The president is elected every four years by the Electoral College. Presidential Amendments 22nd Amendment o President can serve a max of two terms, or ten

years. o Amendment was put in place when FDR served FOUR terms. 25th amendment o VP takes over if the president can not fulfill his duties for any reason. o The presidential line of succession provides a lay out of who would be president in many cases. Presidential Perks Salary o $400,000/year plus money for expenses and travel

White House o Private movie theater, small gym, heated pool, bowling alley, large staff Camp David, Air Force One Presidential Elections Occurs every 4 years through the Electoral College o Constitution does not provide for the direct election of the President, instead we have this indirect method Each state gets as many electoral votes as their total of Congressmen (HoR + Senators)

Winner take all system per state (Except for Nebraska and Maine) Electoral College has 538 electors o You need at least 270 to win The Vice President Vice President o Same qualifications as the President. o Leader of the Senate, votes only in case of a tie. o Becomes President if the President dies. o William Henry Harrison was the first President to die in office, and his VP, John Tyler finished out his term.

o My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived. John Adams (1st VP) -Order determined by when the office was established (Homeland Security established in 2002 is last in line) -One of these people must be absent from the Presidents State of the

Union address The Vice President Joseph Biden Speaker of the House John Boehner President pro tempore of the Senate1 Patrick Leahy Secretary of State John Kerry Secretary of the Treasury Jacob Lew Secretary of Defense Ashton B. Carter Attorney General Loretta Lynch Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewel Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker

Secretary of Labor Thomas E. Perez Secretary of Health and Human Services Sylvia Mathews Burwell Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Julin Castro Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz Secretary of Education Arne Duncan Secretary of Veterans Affairs Robert McDonald Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson

Foreign v. Domestic Policy The President carries out laws passed by Congress and his own beliefs through foreign and domestic policy. Foreign policy is a nations plan for dealing with other nations Domestic policy includes policies and programs that deal with issues within the country. Presidential Roles

1) Chief Executive o The president can issue executive orders, a command that has the force of law. o The president appoints many officials which must be approved by the Senate. o Can issue a pardon - forgiveness and freedom from a punishment. o Can issue amnesty - a pardon for a group of people. o Can issue a reprieve - delay of punishment. Presidential Roles 2) Chief Diplomat

o Appoints ambassadors and makes treaties. o Ambassador: Official representative to a country. o Treaty: Agreement between two or more countries. Must be approved by the Senate by a 2/3 majority. o Executive Agreement: Agreement between the president and the leader of another country. Does not require Senate approval. Presidential Roles 3) Commander in Chief o Congress is given the power to maintain an

army and declare war. Only the President can order troops into battle. o War Powers Act (1973): The president must inform Congress when troops are sent into battle. Troops must be brought home after 60 days unless Congress grants an extension. o The president can order troops to stop disturbances in the United States during peace time. Presidential Roles 4) Legislative leader o Presidents should have the support of

Congress. o The president can write a bill, but someone from Congress must introduce the legislation. o The President tries to make deals with Congress. o The President tries to gain support from the American people through the use of the mass media. Presidential Roles 5) Party Leader o The president helps other party members get elected (coattail effect).

o Appoints people with his views. 6) Economic Leader o Deals with problems of the economy like unemployment, rising prices, high taxes. o Plans the federal governments budget. 7) Chief of State o The president represents the entire nation. o Acts as the symbolic leader of the United States. o People are very interested in the president and his family. Executive Office of the President (EOP)

Executive Office of the President: the Presidents administration who carry out a wide range of jobs o o o o o White House Office (Presidents closest advisors, the most important is the chief of staff) Office of Management and Budget (OMB,

prepares budget and monitors federal spending) National Security Council (NSC, helps President with military issues and foreign policy, supervises the CIA) Office of Administration (administrative services); Council of Economic Advisors (CEA, gives President information on the economy) Federal Bureaucracy Federal Bureaucracy o The network of agencies and departments of the government. o Lots of red tape: Inefficiency caused by rules

and regulations. o Each person has a designed function and must operate within a chain of command. o People must be well-trained and managed. Executive Departments There are currently 15 depts. o The most recent of which is the Dept. of Homeland Security The head of each is led by a Secretary, appointed by the Pres and approved by the Senate These 15 secretaries make up part of the

Presidents cabinet. The cabinet is there to advise the President Independent Agencies The President appoints the heads of these agencies with Senate approval o Executive Agencies deal with specialized areas IRS, FBI, FEMA o Government Corporations US Postal Service

o Regulatory Boards/Commissions - protect the public by making rules for certain groups or industries FTC, FDA, FCC, EPA Government Workers Top jobs like Cabinet Secretaries are appointed by the President with Senate approval and leave their office when a new President is elected; Other jobs are hired through the civil service system which is based on exams, experience or merit and their job is permanent, or until they quit.

Before the Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 federal jobs were given as a reward to those who had given political support to the elected President which was also called the spoils system. NC Executive Branch Led by a governor. Our current governor is Roy Cooper. In most states a person must be 30 years old, a US citizen, and a resident of the state for five years. Serve a four year term. Recall: An election where voters can remove

state officials (ex. Scott Walker in Wisconsin). Lieutenant Governor: Takes over for the governor and is head of the state senate. (Is like the Vice Pres. of the state) Powers of the Governor Chief Executive, Chief Legislator, Judicial Leader, Commander in Chief, Party Leader, Ceremonial Leader. As judicial leader a governor can: o Commute: Reduce a sentence. o Parole: Early release from prison.

o Extradition: Governor orders a suspect to be returned to the state where the crime was committed. o Can offer pardons and reprieves. Calls in the National Guard if problems occur in the state. NC Executive Officials Most officials are elected by voters. There is a Council of State, which are elected heads of state agencies in North Carolina that are independent of the governor. There is also a NC cabinet, where leaders are

appointed by the Governor. Local Executive Government Mayor-Council government o Separate legislative (city council) and executive (mayor) branches.

o There are strong and weak mayor plans. Use common sense -- Strong mayor has more power than weak. Council-Manager o Voters elect a city council. o City manager runs the city. Appointed by the city council. o If the manager does not do a good job, he can fired by the council. Commission government o Separate departments led by a commissioner. The commission has executive and legislative powers. Holly Springs

Holly Springs has a council-manager form of govt o 5 board members on the city council, plus the mayor, plus a city manager that runs the day-to-day operations. Responsible for passing town ordinances (local laws); Holly Springs has a code of ordinances. Dick Sears is the Mayor

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