Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment, and Revolution 1550 - 1789 World History Unit 2 Absolutism in Europe The Theory of Absolutism Total control Divine Right Growing Power of Europes Monarchs Reduced Church authority and increased trade and Nationalism leads to more power for Kings Crisis Leads to Absolutism Near constant warfare from fighting religious wars, wars of territorial control, wars to control the New World, wars to control trade leads many monarchs to try to consolidate power to raise taxes to fight wars.
All of this leads to heavy taxation of the poor, repression, and unrest and even rebellions. Renaissance and Reformation After the Black Death swept Europe around 1350 CE (about 1/3rd died) thinking about spiritual matters began to change as a wave of creativity revitalizes Italy and Europe. The Renaissance (rebirth of civilization) challenged old ideas about religion, government, art, and virtually every aspect of life. The Greek philosophers, lost after the fall of Rome, were rediscovered from Islamic translations brought back from the Crusades. Classical and Worldly Values Classics lead to Humanism Worldly Pleasures The Spiritual and the Secular Patrons of the Arts The Renaissance Man
Educated, worldly, Universal Man The Renaissance Woman Educated, charming, inspiring The Reformation was a direct challenge to the Roman Catholic Church by a German priest, Martin Luther, who wrote 95 Theses (essays) and published them on the church door, ranging from topics of poverty, church authority and the idea that each person could find their own path to God. The Reformation caused a split in Christianity Catholics who supported Rome Protestants who rebelled This resulted in many very bloody wars for church control, and brought about persecution such as the Spanish Inquisition. Renaissance Creativity Renaissance Revolutionizes Art
Realistic Painting and Sculpture Michelangelo Donatello Leonardo, Renaissance Man Raphael advances realism Anguissola and Gentileschi Women artists Renaissance Writers Change Literature Petrarch and Boccaccio Writers of poems and stories Machiavelli advises rulers Better to be feared than loved Vittoria Colonna Women writer and publisher The Courtier
The Printing Press Gutenberg Bible The Reformation Luther Challenges the Church 95 Theses (essays) In 1517, a monk and teacher, Martin Luther decided to take a public stand against the Church practice of indulgences, and other concerns. Martin posted a series of essays or theses on the door of St Peters Cathedral in Tetzel, Germany. These essays were collected and printed and became widely responsible for the Reformation Luthers Teachings People could achieve salvation through good works and faith Church teachings should be based on the Bible, and that the Church was a false authority All people of faith are equal, priests are not needed
The Response to Luther The Popes Threat The Emperors Opposition The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, put Luther on trial and declared him outlaw and heretic in the Edict of Worms. The Peasants Revolt Germany at War Legacy of the Reformation Religious and Social Effects of the Reformation The Catholic Church was unable to stop the spread of Protestantism. Both Protestants and Catholics hardened their positions. Political Effects of the Reformation Church authority declined Lays the groundwork for the Enlightenment Developments in England
Norman invasion 1066 (William the Conqueror) Ruthless conquest, unites all the parts of England Census taken to help in tax collection 1086 Henry II (1154) Use of royal judges to enforce common law, trial by jury King John (Brother of Richard the Lionheart) Nobles and clergy under John forced him to accept Magna Carta (1215) Nobles protected from the King Limited taxes (needed to consult Grand Council) Laws that protected people from arbitrary arrest (process of
law) Rights for Nobles and Clergy Even the King is subject to law War and Change in England Hundred Years War For many years, the English Crown maintained the control of large portions of France from the old Duke of Normandy, and lands from marriage (Eleanor of Aquitaine) The wars ended when England was forced off the continent by a resurgent France under Joan of Arc. England Rejects Rome Under Henry VIII, England broke away from Rome and the church to form the Church of England. When Martin Luther challenged church methods and doctrine, creating the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England supported the Protestants. The split with the Church in Rome caused much discontent, and rivalry for the throne between the Tudors (Protestants) and the Stuarts (Catholics) called the War of Roses. English Commonwealth Fighting between the families, and with Parliament, eventually caused a rebellion of the Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell,
who deposed the King, and established the Commonwealth of England without a King. (1647) The Commonwealth did not last long, and Parliament re-established the monarchy under Charles II. Charles death brought James II to the throne, and again tried to re-establish Catholicism. The Glorious Revolution Parliament acted quickly and asked James Protestant sister Mary to take the throne with her Dutch husband William of Orange, but only after they signed the English Bill of Rights. No suspending of Parliament laws No levy of taxes without approval of Parliament Freedom of speech No penalty for a citizen who petitions the king for redress of grievances Cabinet System Develops Parliament evolved from the Grand Council as a House of Lords.
Checks and balances Power of the Purse (control of taxation) English Bill of Rights King cannot suspend laws (ie. The King is subject to law) Limited monarchy Parliament has the power of the purse Right to petition No standing army without consent of Parliament Free elections
Freedom of speech No excessive fines, cruel or unusual punishment Parliament shall convene regularly Habeas Corpus (no imprisonment unless a crime is committed, and right of appeal) The Enlightenment The Roots of Modern Science During the Renaissance and the Reformation, something else was also happening. The questioning of the church and the role of god and church teaching in society opened up new ways of thinking and viewing the world and the universe. The Enlightenment challenged The divine right of kings The union of church and state The existence of unequal social classes The Medieval View Since the rise of the power of the Vatican (the seat of the Roman Catholic Church in
Rome), all questions of what was true or false came from study of the ancient Romans or Greeks, or from the church. Geocentric Theory of the Universe Aristotle Ptolemy (Greek mathematician, geometry, philosophy, secret school?) The Church taught that the Earth was the centre of the universe, all other things revolved around it. A New Way of Thinking In the mid 1500s, some began to question this model Scientific Revolution Test and observation Navigation, shipbuilding, gunsmiths, printing press Retrograde Motion of the Planets The Scientific Method Hypothesis, test, observation
Bacon and Descartes Bacon developed the experimental method, empiricism Descartes developed analytic geometry, linking algebra and geometry Everything should be doubted until it is proven Newton Explains the Laws of Gravity All objects attract all other objects, gravity The universe is like a clock, orderly universe The Scientific Revolution Spreads Scientific Instruments First microscope, Mercury barometer, Thermometer Medicine and the Human Body Discoveries in Chemistry People begin to use scientific ideas to other human pursuits, society, law, rights and liberties, government.
The Heliocentric Theory Nicolaus Copernicus Tycho Brahe Elliptical Orbits Galileo's Discoveries First to use a telescope Direct challenge to Church Authority Two Views on Government The Enlightenment (The Age of Reason) Intellectual movement that promoted Reason and Thought and the power of individuals to solve problems Rooted in the Scientific Revolution as philosophers and scholars reevaluated old beliefs regarding government, religion, economics, and education. Hobbess Social Contract Writing in his book Leviathan (1651), the horrors of the English Civil War convinced Thomas Hobbes that people are naturally selfish and wicked, and without government to restrain them there would be:
War of every man against every man. Life would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. To prevent this, people needed to submit to a strong ruler, give up their rights in exchange for life and safety the Social Contract Lockes Natural Rights People are naturally free and equal, and can learn from experience to improve themselves, and have three natural rights: Life, Liberty, Property. Governments exist by the consent of the governed to protect these rights. If government fails to protect the rights of the people, the people have a right to overthrow it. The Philosophes Advocate Reason Philosophes (French philosophers) believed people could use reason and logic in all aspects of life. Voltaire Combats Intolerance, I do not agree with a word
you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it. Montesquieu and the Separation of Powers Rousseau: Champion of Freedom, Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. Beccaria Promotes Criminal Justice, not about punishment or revenge Philosophers often tried to engage the rulers of Europe to use Enlightenment ideas in government, and some did, the Enlightened Despots. This was less about true belief in Enlightenment ideas and more about effective rule. Frederick the Great, the first servant of the state. Joseph II of Austria, Legal reforms, freedom of the press Catherine the Great Expands Russia New Artistic Styles Neoclassical Style Emerges The art of the 1600s and early 1700s was dominated by the
Baroque style, which was characterized by grand, ornate design. The influence of the Enlightenment brought about a new simple and elegant style, borrowing heavily from Rome and Greece, called the neoclassical (new classical) Changes in Music and Literature Heavy organ with choral music Johann Sebastian Bach George Friedrich Handel Classical, lighter, more elegant Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Franz Joseph Haydn Ludwig van Beethoven Writers developed the novel, , lengthy works of prose and fiction Carefully crafted plots, suspense, drama Samuel Richardsons Pamela
Henry Fieldings Tom Jones The English Arrive in North America The Settlement at Jamestown 1607 Pilgrims and Puritans Create a New England 1620 Dutch Found New Netherlands Colonizing the Caribbean The English oust the Dutch The Dutch colony in New Netherlands (New York) was in between Jamestown and Plymouth. England Belittles France The colonists wanted more land, and tried to move west, but the French had already staked out the Mississippi and Ohio valleys. This led to the French and Indian War in 1754
The Causes of African Slavery Initially, Native American labor was used on the plantations of the European colonists, but disease, harsh conditions, and runaways were a major problem. To deal with shortages of labor, Europeans began to import African slaves around 1500. Slavery in Africa Slavery has existed in Africa for a very long tie, but it was usually minor. Once Islam began to spread however, Muslims justified enslaving non-Muslims, and from 650 to 1600, some 17 million slaves were taken by the Muslim empires and Caliphates. Slave had some rights in the Muslim world, and could even reach positions of authority, like a general. The Demand for Africans The Portuguese trading posts in Africa were more interested in gold and ivory, but when Native Americans died in large numbers, slaves became more important and profitable. African slaves were preferred because
They had similar immunities as Europeans to disease They had experience in farming They did not know the land and could not escape Those who did escape could easily be caught (skin color) This started the Atlantic Slave Trade Between 1500 and 1600, some 300,000 Africans were forcibly taken across the Atlantic By 1700, 1.3 million By 1870, some 9.5 million Africans sold into slavery Spain and Portugal Lead the Way Most slavery did not take place in North America, but in the Caribbean and South America (mostly Brazil) Spain was the early leader in African slaves, but Portuguese needs for labor in Brazil (40% of all slaves) caused the largest transport of slaves. A Forced Journey
The Triangle Trade Colonies to Africa Bibles, Rum, Guns Africa to Caribbean Slaves, gold, ivory Caribbean to Colonies Sugar, slaves The Middle Passage The Middle Passage was the trip from Africa to the Caribbean or straight to the colonies. The passage was often brutal for Africans, and the usual loss during the voyage was about 20%, though sometimes much higher. Horse Latitudes Slavery in the Americas
A Harsh Life Slave life in the American Colonies was not as harsh as the Caribbean and Brazil, but still bad. Harsh punishments Runaways Field workers and house workers Community of different tribes (Aunties and Uncles) Language, culture, music, beliefs Resistance and Rebellion Passive resistance (breaking tools) Active resistance slave uprising Consequences of the Slave Trade Weakened Africa Profits for Europeans and Americans Families split (selling down the river) Culture of oppression and discrimination The Columbian Exchange
More than anything else, the Columbian Exchange introduced new foods, animals, and ideas all over the globe, transforming the lives of people virtually everywhere. From the Americas Corn Potatoes Tomatoes
The Columbian Exchange Americans Win Independence The Seven Years War (French and Indian War) cost Great Britain a large amount, and to pay British debts, parliament proposed a tax on the American colonies. Only the Irish, women and children were taxed without their consent, and this is what the colonists felt they were being treated as. Growing Hostility Leads to War Tensions rose over the next few years, as efforts to resolve the situation failed, with the Crown and Parliament seeing the colonists as spoiled children, and the colonists seeing the Crown and Parliament as Despots. Boston Tea Party 1773 First Continental Congress 1774 Lexington and Concord 1775 The Influence of the Enlightenment Colonial leaders used Enlightenment ideas to justify independence. Thomas Paine, Common Sense
Declaration of Independence 1776, Thomas Jefferson Success for the Colonists 1781 Yorktown, American victory French aid Why? British did not have the hearts and minds of the colonists British had long supply lines Colonists were more motivated British mistakes Declaration of Independence When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers
of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. Americans Create a Republic
A Weak National Government The Articles of Confederation Deliberately weak central government Unanimous approval meant nothing got done Trade difficult Veterans owed back pay A New Constitution Need for a stronger central government led to a new convention, which created the Constitution 1787
Compromises Representation 3/5 compromise The Federal System Checks and balances The Bill of Rights To get enough colonies to vote for the Constitution, many demanded a Bill of Rights
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