The Chemistry of Life 2007-2008 Everything is made of matter Matter is made of atoms Hydrogen 1 proton 1 electron Oxygen 8 protons 8 neutrons 8 electrons Proton
+ Neutron 0 Electron The World of Elements H C N O Na Mg P S K Ca
Different kinds of atoms = elements atoms Atomic # = number of protons Atomic Mass = protons + neutrons How do you figure out how many neutrons in an atom? Electrons? Practice Symbol Atomic number
Mass number N 7 14 B 5 11 H
1 1 C 6 12 C 6 14
Protons Neutrons electrons Isotopes! Same element Different number of neutrons Mass number relates to the particular isotope C14 and C12
Medical uses for radioactive isotopes A PET scan is one of the many medical uses for radioactive isotopes PET, short for positronemission tomography, can detect intense chemical activity in the body. Brightly colored areas indicate elevated levels of radioactively-labeled glucose and high metabolic activity, which is a strong indicator of cancerous tissue. Bonding properties Effect of electrons
Whats the magic number? chemical behavior of an atom depends on number of electrons in its valence shell How does this atom behave? How does this atom behave? Chemical reactivity Atoms tend to complete a partially filled valence shell or empty a partially filled valence shell
This tendency drives chemical reactions and creates bonds Bonds in Biology Covalent Bonds: atoms Hydrogen bond H2O
share electrons (strong) H2O Ionic bonds: give/take electrons and oposites attract Covalent bond Van der Waals forces Hydrogen Bonds!! H2 (hydrogen gas)
Chemical Formula A chemical formula shows the kinds and number of atoms in a substance. Letters are used to represent the elements Number of molecules Subscript is used to represent the # of each element (for example 2 Hydrogens) ones are assumed Covalent bonds
Why are covalent bonds strong bonds? two atoms share a pair of electrons both atoms holding onto the electrons very stable Forms molecules H HH H2 (hydrogen gas) H H
O Oxygen H H2O (water) Multiple covalent bonds 2 atoms can share >1 pair of electrons double bonds 2 pairs of electrons
triple bonds 3 pairs of electrons Very strong bonds H HCH More is better! H
Nonpolar covalent bond Pair of electrons shared equally by 2 atoms example: hydrocarbons = CxHx methane (CH4 ) balanced, stable, good building block Polar covalent bonds Pair of electrons shared unequally by 2 atoms example: water = H2O
oxygen has stronger + attraction for the electrons than hydrogen oxygen has higher electronegativity water is a polar molecule + vs poles leads to many interesting properties of water H Oxygen
H + Ionic Bonds Electrons are transferred from one atom to the other making them charged ions. Opposites attract
All compounds have properties that are different from the elements that make them. These are called Emergent Properties Emergent properties + CHEMICAL REACTIONS: Describe the process in which elements react to form new compounds. Result in the release or absorption of energy. Ex. What does this chemical equation represent?
energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Sunlight + 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water molecules reacts to form glucose + 6 oxygen gas molecules Hes gonna earn a Darwin Award! Any Questions? Do one brave thing todaythen run like hell!
Cultural Relativism It is important to keep an open mind toward cultural variation. Cultural Relativism is the belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather then by applying the standards of another culture. It is an attempt...
All genuine learning comes through experience. - John Dewey...most introductory courses rely on "transmission-of-information" lectures and "cookbook" laboratory exercises - techniques that are not highly effective in fostering conceptual understanding or scientific reasoning.
Before we can write a chemical formula or a chemical name: We must identify the type of compound that is going to be formed by the chemical bond! The two compounds are: Ionic. Covalent . Let refresh our minds ONE...
Who is Shakespeare? little of Shakespeare's life is documented. Born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564 to John and Mary Shakespeare. an English poet, playwright, and actor (Chamberlain's Men) His works consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets (poems), two long narrative poems,...
Moroni 10:4-5. 4 And when ye shall receive these things, I would exhort you that ye would ask God, the Eternal Father, in the name of Christ, if these things are not true; and if ye shall ask with a...
Coordination with other OSIS nodes once they were online . NOSIC . Became our merchant shipping expertise and data base. Served as our advocate, liaison, (and gopher) in Washington intelligence community . Provided them with operational info as well as...
An estimated 2.8 million infections occur annually in the U.S. Women are frequently re-infected if their sex partners are not treated. Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Chlamydia is easily passed from mother to child in...
Even if you personally don't care about fairness, you'll do financial and reputational harm to your employer if your model is discriminatory." ... GE Healthcare - workforce diversity and mature data practices. Employs a diverse workforce in AI teams -...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!