The Change Process The Change Process for Schools, Organizations, and Individuals Change Developed from the Contents of Reginald Leon Greens
Practicing the Art of Leadership: A Problembased Approach to Implementing the ISLLC Standards Chapter 7 The Concept of Change Change is a process, not an event. It can
be planned or unplanned and can be influenced by forces inside and outside of the schoolhouse. Factors Affecting the Change Process Capacity for change
Forces that positively influence change Forces that negatively influence change
Theories that inform change Steps in the Change Process Establishing the vision
Determining the state of existing programs Identifying a process that can be used to achieve the vision
Classifying the Change Magnitude Degree of the change of difficulty in making the change
Classifying the Change First-order or continuous change Second-order
or discontinuous change First-order or Continuous Change Change occurs without a disruption to the system. The system remains stable, and the equilibrium is maintained.
Second-order or Discontinuous Change The equilibrium of the system is disrupted as the fundamental properties of the system are changed.
Change Capacity Readiness for the desired change The Capacity for Change The level of dissatisfaction the stakeholders are experiencing with current conditions
The The short and long term costs extent to which individuals understand the vision to be achieved by the change
The Capacity for Change The consequences of the change The degree of difficulty in making the change
The Capacity for Change For the school leader to make change that is effective and sustained, producing the least amount of conflict, the school must have a capacity for change. The Capacity for Change
If the capacity for the desired change is absent, the leader can build capacity. Building a Capacity for Change Establish
effective lines of communication. Secure community support. Acquire support for the new program concept. Drive fear out of the schoolhouse. Building A Capacity For Change
Work out bargaining agreements. Acquire necessary approval from all agencies. Identify sources of needed resources. Become knowledgeable of effective change strategies.
Change Theories and Strategies Informing Capacity Building Change Theories and Strategies Force Field Analysis
Empirical-rational Strategy Normative-re-educative The Strategy
Power-Coercive Strategy Change Theories and Strategies Change Agentry Participatory
Change Data-Driven Change Force Field Analysis
Assessing the environment in which the change is to occur Force Field Analysis The environment in which change occurs
contains a force field. Force Field Analysis Driving Forces Restraining
Forces Driving Forces Driving forces move one toward the desired change.
Restraining Forces Restraining forces resist the desired change, inhibiting its attainment. A State of Equilibrium People
are viewed as constantly seeking a balance between the power of the two forces, which allows the status quo to be maintained in a frozen state of existence. A State of Equilibrium When one of the forces is substantially altered,
reflecting a change in the power status of the other, the state of equilibrium is unfrozen, and there is a break in the status quo. Driving Forces Restraining Forces Restraining Forces
Change Strategies EmpiricalRational Normative-Re-educative Power-Coercive EmpiricalRational A Non-coercive Approach
The leader assembles and presents the necessary information regarding the desired change. EmpiricalRational The
group selects the action suggested by the data. NormativeRe-educative A Consensus Approach The leader seeks change using a consensus
approach. NormativeRe-educative Group activities are initiated to bring about changes in the norms of the group through changes in attitudes, values, skills, and relationships.
PowerCoercive Using the Leaders Power Base The leader uses his/her power to bring about the desired change.
Fullans Change Agentry Theory Building Change Capacity Fullans Change Agentry Theory The leader establishes readiness for change by identifying and creating four leadership
capacities. These leadership capacities must be compatible with four organizational capacities. Leadership Capacities Personal
vision building Organizational Norms structure and practices of inquiry
Organizational development Shared Vision Every individual in the organization has a
vision, and that vision causes each individual to raise questions about his/her role in the change process and to take a stand for a preferred future. Inquiry Individuals internalize norms, habits, and
techniques for continuous learning. The individual continuously checks, views, and assesses the initial mental map to make sure it fits. Mastery Individuals clarify what is important and clearly
see current reality. Collaboration Forming productive mentoring and peer relationships, team building, and developing partnerships
The Purpose of Change in Schools Instructional Improvement The Purpose of Change in Schools
The primary purpose for change in schools is to improve the instructional program. Instructional Change Instructional
change should: Involve stakeholders. Make use of data. Involve an assessment of current materials. Make use of structured pupil and program evaluations. References
Chin, R., & Benne, K. D. (1969). General strategies for effective change
in human systems. In W. G. Bennis, K. D. Benne, & R. Chin (eds.), The planning of change (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Conley, D. T. (1997). Roadmaps to restructuring: Charting the course of change in American education. Eugene: University of Oregon (ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management). Fullan, M. (1999). Change force: The sequel. New York: Falmer Press Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social sciences. New York: Harper &
Row. Schmidt, W., & Finnigan, J. (1992). The race for the finish line: Americas quest for total quality. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
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