The Bohr Model

The Bohr Model

The Bohr Model Recall the structure of the atom Recall the structure of the atom Electron Neutron Shells

Nucleus Proton Valence shell Recall the structure of the atom Electron Neutron Shells

Nucleus Proton Valence shell Sometimes, we need to represent atoms in a simplified way Bohr Diagrams Bohr Diagrams

Bohr diagrams are a simplified way to represent atoms Bohr Diagrams Bohr diagrams are a simplified way to represent atoms The key features of a Bohr diagram are: Bohr Diagrams Bohr diagrams are a simplified way to represent atoms The key features of a Bohr diagram are: Electron shells

Bohr Diagrams Bohr diagrams are a simplified way to represent atoms The key features of a Bohr diagram are: Electron shells Electron placement within the shells Bohr Diagrams Bohr diagrams are a simplified way to represent atoms The key features of a Bohr diagram are:

Electron shells Electron placement within the shells A simplified nucleus to show what element it is (this can be done in different ways) Bohr Diagrams Bohr diagrams are a simplified way to represent atoms The key features of a Bohr diagram are: Electron shells Electron placement within the shells

A simplified nucleus to show what element it is (this can be done in different ways) Bohr Diagrams Bohr diagrams are a simplified way to represent atoms The key features of a Bohr diagram are: Electron shells Electron placement within the shells A simplified nucleus to show what element it is (this can be done in different ways)

Bohr Diagrams Bohr diagrams are a simplified way to represent atoms The key features of a Bohr diagram are: Electron shells Electron placement within the shells A simplified nucleus to show what element it is (this can be done in different ways) The primary purpose of a Bohr diagram is to show electron placement

Electrons Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells Electrons Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons Electrons Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells

Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons First shell: up to two electrons Electrons Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons First shell: up to two electrons Second shell: up to eight electrons Electrons

Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons First shell: up to two electrons Second shell: up to eight electrons Third shell: up to eight electrons Electrons Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons

First shell: up to two electrons Second shell: up to eight electrons Third shell: up to eight electrons Fourth shell: up to eighteen electrons Electrons

Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons First shell: up to two electrons Second shell: up to eight electrons Third shell: up to eight electrons

Fourth shell: up to eighteen electrons Etc. (there are more shells but we will deal with just the first four) Electrons Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons

First shell: up to two electrons Second shell: up to eight electrons Third shell: up to eight electrons Fourth shell: up to eighteen electrons Etc. (there are more shells but we will deal with just the first four) The electron shells fill in a specific order

Electrons Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons First shell: up to two electrons

Second shell: up to eight electrons Third shell: up to eight electrons Fourth shell: up to eighteen electrons Etc. (there are more shells but we will deal with just the first four) The electron shells fill in a specific order The first shell must be filled before any electrons can enter the second shell Electrons Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells

Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons First shell: up to two electrons Second shell: up to eight electrons Third shell: up to eight electrons

Fourth shell: up to eighteen electrons Etc. (there are more shells but we will deal with just the first four) The electron shells fill in a specific order The first shell must be filled before any electrons can enter the second shell The second shell must be filled before any electrons can enter the third shell Electrons Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons

First shell: up to two electrons Second shell: up to eight electrons Third shell: up to eight electrons Fourth shell: up to eighteen electrons

Etc. (there are more shells but we will deal with just the first four) The electron shells fill in a specific order The first shell must be filled before any electrons can enter the second shell The second shell must be filled before any electrons can enter the third shell Etc. Electrons Electrons are not randomly dispersed amongst the electron shells Each electron shell can only hold a specific number of electrons

First shell: up to two electrons Second shell: up to eight electrons Third shell: up to eight electrons Fourth shell: up to eighteen electrons

Etc. (there are more shells but we will deal with just the first four) The electron shells fill in a specific order The first shell must be filled before any electrons can enter the second shell The second shell must be filled before any electrons can enter the third shell Etc. The only electron shell that can be partially filled is the valence shell Example: Carbon

Example: Carbon Carbon has: 6 protons 6 electrons Example: Carbon Carbon has: 6 protons 6 electrons

Recall: in order to be neutral, an atom must have the same number of protons as electrons Assume atoms are neutral unless specified otherwise (more to come next lesson) Example: Carbon Carbon has: 6 protons

6 electrons 1. Draw nucleus Example: Carbon Carbon has: 1. Draw nucleus 6 protons

6 electrons Label number of protons 6 Example: Carbon Carbon has: 1. Draw nucleus

6 protons 6 electrons Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell 6

Example: Carbon Carbon has: 1. Draw nucleus 6 protons 6 electrons Label number of protons

2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell Can contain up to two electrons 6 Example: Carbon Carbon has: 1. Draw nucleus

6 protons 6 electrons Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell Can contain up to two electrons 6 2 = 4 electrons, we still need to

draw four more electrons 6 Example: Carbon Carbon has: 1. Draw nucleus 6 protons 6 electrons

Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell Can contain up to two electrons 6 2 = 4 electrons, we still need to draw four more electrons 6

4. Draw second shell Example: Carbon Carbon has: 1. Draw nucleus 6 protons 6 electrons

Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell Can contain up to two electrons 6 2 = 4 electrons, we still need to draw four more electrons 6 4. Draw second shell

5. Place final four electrons in shell Example: Magnesium Example: Magnesium Magnesium has: 12 protons 12 electrons

Example: Magnesium Magnesium has: 12 protons 12 electrons 1. Draw nucleus Example: Magnesium Magnesium has: 12 protons 12 electrons

12 1. Draw nucleus Label number of protons Example: Magnesium Magnesium has: 12 protons 12 electrons

12 1. Draw nucleus Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell Example: Magnesium Magnesium has:

12 protons 12 electrons 1. Draw nucleus Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell Can contain up to two electrons

12 Example: Magnesium Magnesium has: 12 protons 12 electrons 1. Draw nucleus Label number of protons

2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell Can contain up to two electrons 12 2 = 10 electrons, we still need to draw ten more electrons 12 Example: Magnesium Magnesium has:

12 protons 12 electrons 1. Draw nucleus Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell Can contain up to two electrons 12 2 = 10 electrons, we still need to

draw ten more electrons 4. Draw second shell 12 Example: Magnesium Magnesium has: 12 protons 12 electrons

1. Draw nucleus Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell Can contain up to two electrons 12 2 = 10 electrons, we still need to draw ten more electrons 12

4. Draw second shell 5. Fill second electron shell Can contain up to eight electrons Example: Magnesium Magnesium has: 12 protons 12 electrons

1. Draw nucleus Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell Can contain up to two electrons 12 2 = 10 electrons, we still need to draw ten more electrons 4. Draw second shell

5. Fill second electron shell 12 Can contain up to eight electrons 10 8 = 2 electrons, we still need to draw two more electrons Example: Magnesium Magnesium has: 12 protons

12 electrons 1. Draw nucleus Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell Can contain up to two electrons 12 2 = 10 electrons, we still need to draw ten more electrons

4. Draw second shell 5. Fill second electron shell 12 Can contain up to eight electrons 10 8 = 2 electrons, we still need to draw two more electrons 6. Draw third shell

Example: Magnesium Magnesium has: 12 protons 12 electrons 1. Draw nucleus Label number of protons 2. Draw first electron shell 3. Fill first electron shell

Can contain up to two electrons 12 2 = 10 electrons, we still need to draw ten more electrons 4. Draw second shell 5. Fill second electron shell 12 Can contain up to eight electrons 10 8 = 2 electrons, we still need to draw

two more electrons 6. Draw third shell 7. Place remaining two electrons in shell Practice Time!!! Draw the following Bohr diagrams Draw the following Bohr diagrams

Hydrogen Phosphorous Draw the following Bohr diagrams Hydrogen Phosphorous 1

Draw the following Bohr diagrams Hydrogen Phosphorous 1 15

What element is represented by the Bohr diagram? What element is represented by the Bohr diagram? What element is represented by the Bohr diagram? Answer: Neon

What element is represented by the Bohr diagram? Answer: Neon What element is represented by the Bohr diagram? Answer: Neon

Answer: Sodium What element is represented in the following Bohr diagrams What element is represented in the following Bohr diagrams What element is represented in the

following Bohr diagrams Answer: oxygen There are 8 electrons Must have 8 protons Must be oxygen What element is represented in the following Bohr diagrams

? Answer: oxygen There are 8 electrons Must have 8 protons Must be oxygen What element is represented in the following Bohr diagrams

? Answer: oxygen There are 8 electrons Must have 8 protons Must be oxygen Answer: argon There are 18 electrons Must have 18 protons Must be argon

How many shells would the following elements have? How many shells would the following elements have? Lithium How many shells would the following elements have?

Lithium Answer: 2 Lithium has 3 protons Must have 3 electrons First shell: 2 Second shell: 1 How many shells would the following elements have? Lithium

Answer: 2 Lithium has 3 protons Must have 3 electrons First shell: 2 Second shell: 1 Calcium How many shells would the following elements have?

Lithium Calcium Answer: 2 Lithium has 3 protons Must have 3 electrons Answer: 4 calcium has 20 protons

Must have 20 electrons First shell: 2 Second shell: 1

First shell: 2 Second shell: 8 Third shell: 8 Fourth shell: 2

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