The ABCs of behavior Why do students behave the way they do?

The ABCs of behavior Why do students behave the way they do?

Collaboration for Effective Educator Development, Accountability and Reform Content Enhancement Module on Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions: Part 5 (Intensive Intervention) H325A120003 Part 5: Intensive Intervention Data-Based Individualization Functional Assessment of Behavior Function-Based Interventions Classroom Culture and Wraparound

Services Documenting Intervention and Evaluation Case Study: Supporting Ryan With DBI Restraint and Seclusion Additional Resources Note Part 5 of this module uses content and resources from The National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) www.intensiveintervention.org

OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) www.pbis.org The Evidence Based Interventions (EBI) Network http://ebi.missouri.edu/ Intensive Intervention Intensive behavioral interventions Are designed to address severe and persistent learning or behavior difficulties Should be Driven by data

Characterized by increased intensity and individualization CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (PBIS.org) ~5% ~15%

Universal: School-/ClassroomWide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students Individual/Intensive: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior Supplemental:

Specialized Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Who Needs Intensive Behavioral Intervention? Students with disabilities who are not making adequate progress with current services Students who present with very high-intensity or high-frequency behavior problems Students who have not responded

to supplemental interventions delivered with fidelity (within a multi-tiered system of supports) Data-Based Individualization Data-Based Individualization (DBI) DBI is a systematic method for using data to determine when and how to intensify intervention. Its origins lie in data-based program modification/experimental teaching.

It was first developed at the University of Minnesota (Deno & Mirkin, 1977). It has since been expanded upon by others (Capizzi & Fuchs, 2005; Fuchs, Deno, & Mirkin, 1984; Fuchs, Fuchs, & Hamlett, 1989). DBI Is a Process It is not a single intervention program or strategy. It is not a one-time fix. It is an ongoing process that consists of intervention and

assessment, adjusted over time. NCII DBI Process Graphic National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) http://www.in tensiveinterv ention.org /

Before Beginning DBI Before you begin DBI, take the following steps: Identify a supplemental intervention that is appropriate to the students needs. Deliver the intervention with fidelity. Provide the intervention long enough for the student to respond. Progress monitor to determine the students response to the supplemental intervention.

Functional Assessment of Behavior Hypothesize the Function of Behavior Identify target behavior(s) Monitor student progress and plan implementation

Hypothesize function of behavior(s) Develop function-based behavior intervention plan Diagnostic Assessment 14

Functional Assessment of Behavior Problem-solving process used to develop hypotheses about what predicts (antecedents) and maintains (consequences) behavior Often called functional behavioral assessment (FBA) Types of Functional Assessment Indirect assessments (rating

scales, questionnaires, etc.) Observational descriptive assessments (observe student behavior, identify consistent antecedents and consequences) Functional analysis (experimental manipulation of environmental variables) (Hanley, 2012) Efficiency is Key! Use the simplest possible form of functional assessment and

Start the intervention as soon as possible Use staff time efficiently Intervention and progress monitoring will allow you to test your hypothesis. You can then revisit the intervention if necessary. Reminder: Common Reasons Students Misbehave The student cannot perform the expected behavior because

He/she has not learned the behavior He/she has not generalized the behavior The students inappropriate behavior has been reinforced Positively (i.e., they have gained something) Negatively (i.e., they have avoided or escaped something) Indirect Functional Assessment Indirect functional assessment, the

simplest form of functional assessment, may not require specialist support. At the problem-solving team meeting, review information from Record review Indirect assessments You may need more than one meeting to identify a target behavior and then hypothesize its function. Record Review Attendance Health history/sensory screening

Academic records Behavior records Effectiveness of past services or interventions (academic and behavioral) Team Problem Solving Why is the behavior happening? What settings or antecedents predict the problem behavior? Can the student perform the expected behavior? What consequences seem to maintain

the problem behavior? The team may use indirect assessment completed before or during meeting. Examples of Indirect Assessments Questionnaires Semi-structured interviews Quick Case Study: Bobs Target Behavior Questionnaire

Mrs. Jenkin has asked to meet with the behavior problem-solving team to come up with strategies to reduce Bobs hair-pulling behaviors. She has already completed the Target Behavior Questionnaire. Handout #14: Bobs Target Behavior Questionnaire Bobs Problem-Solving Team Meeting The team compared the information from

the questionnaire with a record review and confirmed that Bobs misbehavior is limited to interactions with Judy. The team agreed that hair pulling is the highest priority and will be the target behavior to reduce through intervention. The team created an ABC hypothesis statement based on indirect assessment. Practice: Bobs ABC Hypothesis Hypothesis Statement

When [Antecedent] occurs, the student [problem Behavior] in order to [Consequence (function)]. Example When Bob is assigned to a group with Judy, he pulls her hair in order to escape working with her. Functional Assessment Interview A more detailed indirect assessment Target behavior must already be

identified Conducted by the problem-solving team or experienced staff, with information provided by the teacher Sample Functional Assessment Interview Identify the desired outcomes. Define the target behavior(s). Identify the typical antecedent and consequent events. Review the schedule. Summarize the information.

Handout #14: Functional Assessment Interview Observational Descriptive Assessments These assessments Are repeated, direct observations Offer a more formal analysis of the ABCs Examine the frequency of the antecedents and consequences that typically accompany the problem behavior (Hanley, 2012)

Look for Variations in the setting or time of day Whether multiple antecedents or consequences maintain one behavior Using Observational Data Observational data offer a stronger hypothesis, but collecting these data requires a more intensive process than indirect methods of assessment. The process Is more time consuming (because it requires repeated observations)

Often requires an external observer Requires training to collect and interpret the direct observation data Functional Analysis Experimentally manipulates environmental variables thought to influence behavior Confirms which antecedents or consequences maintain the problem behavior Requires a specialist, is very time intensive, and should only be used

when needed (Hanley, 2012) What if There Are Multiple Likely Functions? Start with a function that suggests an easy solution. Easier solutions are more likely to be implemented correctly and consistently (Gresham, 1989). If the intervention does not work, test a different function with a different intervention.

Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ Function-based Interventions Develop an Intervention Plan Based on the Function of Behavior Identify target behavior(s) Monitor student progress and plan

implementation Hypothesize function of behavior(s) Develop function-based behavior intervention plan Linking Hypothesis to Intervention

The intervention should address the identified function of the behavior. Select or adapt evidence-based interventions or strategies that are a match for the Function Students characteristics Setting

Interventionist preferences/ skills What student characteristics might impact intervention selection? Using Functional Assessment: Competing Behavior Pathway Setting Event Triggering Antecedent

Desired Behavior Maintaining Consequence Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequence Function Alternative

Behavior (Horner, 2004) Handout #15: Function-Based Behavior Intervention Plan Intervention Adaptation 36 Function-Based Adaptations

If functional assessment suggests that the supplemental intervention may still be an appropriate match, consider adapting that intervention rather than starting from scratch. How Can the Supplemental Intervention Be Adapted? Does the student need More time for the intervention to work? A higher dose of the intervention? Academic support?

Skill instruction? A motivational component? Check-in/Check-out Example Function-Based Intervention Strategies Strategies are organized by the type of reinforcement maintaining the behavior. Negatively reinforced behaviors allow the student to escape or avoid something (e.g., a task or a particular environment).

Positively reinforced behaviors allow the student to gain something (e.g., attention, a desired object, the opportunity to do a preferred activity, sensory stimulation). Handout #16: Function-Based Intervention Strategies Select an Intensive, EvidenceBased Intervention (EBI) Reminder: EBIs are treatments that rigorous outcome evaluations have proven are effective. This does not mean they will be effective for every student in every

situation. This is why we monitor progress. Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ NCII Behavioral Interventions Tools Chart http:// www.intensiveintervention.org/chart /behavioral-intervention-chart Intervention developers submitted studies as evidence Studies were reviewed in terms of

Participants Design Fidelity of Implementation Outcome measures Effect size/ results EBI Network: Interventions for Helping

the Student Perform the Expected Behavior Acquisition Interventions: The student needs help learning the appropriate behavior. http://ebi.missouri.edu/?cat=10 Generalization Interventions: The student needs help doing the behavior at a new time or in a new setting or manner. http://ebi.missouri.edu/?cat=15 Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/

EBI Network: Proficiency Interventions Negative reinforcement: The student escapes or avoids something (e.g., an academic or social task) when he or she engages in the behavior. http://ebi.missouri.edu/?cat=30 Positive reinforcement: The student gains something (e.g., attention) when he or she engages in the behavior. http://ebi.missouri.edu/?cat=29

Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ NCII Examples of EBIs For attention-motivated behaviors: Check In Check Out (CICO; see Part 3) Non-contingent reinforcement (NCR) For escape-motivated behaviors: Antecedent modification Instructional match (Cant do prerequisite skills) Handout #8: Examples of Evidence-Based

Interventions Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ What Is Non-Contingent Reinforcement (NCR)? A powerful method to reduce attention-seeking problem behavior Gives the student frequent access to a reinforcer so that he or she is no longer motivated to exhibit disruptive behavior to obtain that same reinforcer (i.e., saturates the environment with the reinforcer

before the behavior occurs) Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ Who Might Benefit From NCR? Photo Credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/familymwr/4919451795/; http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en NCR was originally studied with severely autistic students but is effective across students and behaviors. It uses the individuals preferred reinforcer.

Practice: NCR Example: A student consistently engages in disruptive behaviors to get attention during story time. Possible solution: The teacher will provide appropriate attention prior to the student asking for attention by exhibiting the problem behavior (e.g., the student sits with the teacher while she reads the book). Critical Components for

Success Identify the function of the problem behavior. NCR is for attention-seeking behavior. Schedule NCR to minimize problem behavior. NCR is most effective with a heavy dose of reinforcement early in the day. Critical Components for Success

Ignore problem behavior after the schedule is initiated. Slowly fade NCR as the problem behavior declines. Note: NCR is good teaching practice, so it should never be stopped. What Is Antecedent Modification? Alter antecedents to escapemotivated behavior to Decrease inappropriate behaviors Increase appropriate behaviors

(e.g., increase engagement in the task the student is avoiding) Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ How Is Escape Maintaining the Problem Behavior? The student does not have to do something when he or she exhibits the problem behavior. The problem behavior is working for the student by allowing him or her to escape something that he or

she does not want to do (or cannot do). Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ Example: Escape Behavior A student wants to escape a nonpreferred activity, such as mathematics or physical education. Every time the teacher announces the start of a specific activity, the student starts engaging in disruptive behaviors (e.g., runs away, shouts out, pretends to sleep).

Strategies to Make the Task Less Punishing Help the student perform the task by Preteaching the skills or content Teaching/modeling how to perform the task step by step Address motivation: Allow students to choose the task or the sequence of tasks they will complete. Modify the task to increase engagement. When teaching the task, remember that some

students may need explicit instruction and repeated practice in multiple settings. Critical Components for Success Provide positive reinforcement (e.g., praise) for engaging in the activity. Initially, reinforce appropriate behaviors in shorter intervals (e.g., change the schedule of reinforcement or task demand).

Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ Instructional Match Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/charlottel/154443920/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/dno1967b/8703319368/; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ When Do We Use Instructional Match? Instructional match is used to address escape behavior related to

academic tasks that are simply too hard. For example, a student might not be successful because the instructional materials are too difficult, or because he or she does not have the prerequisite skills. Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ Characteristics of Instructional Match Students who are failing academically are frustrated and often act out.

Instructional mismatch may reflect that The student lacks knowledge or skills in the subject The student lacks the skills needed to complete the task The student is struggling with the pace or duration of the task Students with attention difficulties may struggle with certain tasks even if they have the basic skills. Cycle of Learned Helplessness

Repeated failure Focus on limitations Learned helplessnes s Source: Seligman & Maier (1967) Student

expects to fail Generalized failure Ways to Improve Instructional Match Preteach content or skills. Reduce the difficulty of the task. Break down tasks into smaller, more manageable subtasks. Use curriculum-based

measurement (CBM) to determine the appropriate instructional level. Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ Resources for Determining Instructional Level Center on Response to Intervention http://www.rti4success.org/ Training modules on academic assessment Screening tools chart http:// www.rti4success.org/resources/tools-charts/screening-t ools-chart

National Center on Intensive Intervention Using Academic Progress Monitoring for Individualized Instructional Planning (DBI Training Series Module 2) http:// www.intensiveintervention.org/resource/using-academic -progress-monitoring-individualized-instructional-plannin g-dbi-training Progress monitoring tools chart http:// www.intensiveintervention.org/chart/progress-monitoring Practice: Instructional (Mis)Match

1. Doing addition problems without being able to count 2. Journal writing without being able to form two- or three-word sentences 3. Drawing without fine motor skills (such as pencil grip) Critical Components for Success Accurately assess the students current level of ability. Match curriculum and teaching

materials to the students instructional level. Match the task demands to the students current skill levels to ensure success. Differentiate instruction whenever possible and appropriate. Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ Classroom Culture and Wraparound Services Considering Additional

Supports Classroom culture. Teachers support student behavior and the impact of the intervention. Wraparound. Students with intensive behavioral issues often have other needs that require services beyond those provided by the school alone. At All Levels of Support: Consider Classroom Culture Is the classroom focused on

positives for guidelines, rewards, and consequences? Do instructional practices group together students who are likely to support or complement each others problem behavior? Are there mechanisms in the classroom that allow students to feel as though they are being heard? Classroom Culture What are student and teacher perceptions of fairness?

Is the classroom focused on student similarities or differences? Is group problem solving part of classroom activities? Are social skills directly taught as part of the classroom curriculum? Wraparound Wraparound is both a philosophy of care and a defined process for developing a plan of care for an individual youth and his/her family

(Burns & Goldman, 1999). Wraparound supports students and their families by proactively organizing and blending natural supports, interagency services, PBS, and academic interventions as needed. (Eber et al., 2009) Wraparound Planning This involves Building constructive relationships and support networks for students Including families, educators, and

caregivers Incorporating community-based agencies Emphasizing full and active partnerships with families The Wraparound Team Creates, implements, and monitors an individualized plan using a collaborative process driven by the perspective of the family Develops a plan that includes a mix of professional supports, natural supports, and community supports

Bases the plan on the strengths and culture of the youth and their family Ensures that the process is driven by the needs of the family rather than the services that are available or reimbursable (VanDenBerg, Burns, & Burchard, 2008) Discussion Think of a student that you know who needed more support than a single function-based intervention strategy implemented at school. Did this student need support from

the broader community (i.e., wraparound)? How could changes in classroom culture enhance other supports? Documenting Intervention and Evaluation What Should Intensive Intervention Plans Include? A description of what the intervention will look like (i.e., steps or procedures) Information about what materials

and/or resources are needed and whether these are available within existing resources Information on roles and responsibilities with respect to intervention implementation (i.e., who will prepare any needed materials and run the intervention) Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ What Should Intensive Intervention Plans Include? The intervention schedule

Information about context (where and with whom) Details about how the intervention and its outcomes will be monitored and analyzed: Who collects what measures? When? What are our decision rules? What criterion are we comparing student outcomes against? Source: Evidence Based Intervention Network (http://ebi.missouri.edu)/ Considerations for Behavioral Goals

Behavioral interventions should Reduce problem behaviors that interfere with school success Increase behaviors that contribute to Participation in school and the community Interpersonal relationships Independence Plan for Fidelity of Implementation Teaching

Coaching and feedback Scripts for adults to follow Data collection Follow-up support meetings Follow-up data evaluation Implementing and Monitoring Outcomes Determine the plan and who is responsible for executing the plan at each step. Identify training and resources. Monitor the plan.

Use a cycle of support. Evaluate the Plan Identify target behavior(s) Monitor student progress and plan implementation Hypothesize function of

behavior(s) Develop function-based behavior intervention plan Data-Based Decisions Were the goals of the support plan achieved? Was the plan implemented consistently and with integrity? Is more assessment needed?

How should the plan be modified? Is the Plan Working? Compare baseline data to the students current performance during the intervention. Has the intervention made a difference? If you have seen an improvement, is it enough to meet the students goals or decision rules for responsiveness?

If the Plan Is Working Continue to implement your interventions until you feel they are no longer needed or no longer working. When the student meets his or her goals, consider Simplifying the plan to make it more efficient Fading or terminating the plan If You Terminate the Plan

Continue to collect data to determine whether any positive effects are maintained following plan termination. If behavior worsens, provide the student with more support. What if the Plan Is Not Working? Ask the following questions: Is the progress monitoring tool sensitive to change? Was the intervention implemented

with fidelity? Was the student engaged in the intervention? Is the intervention a match for the students needs? Case Study: Supporting Ryan With DBI NCII Sample Behavioral Progression (Ryan) *CEEDAR and NCII do not endorse products. We use Check In Check Out (CICO) for illustrative purposes only.

Intensify the Intervention If appropriate, begin by intensifying the supplemental intervention. Possible ways to intensify include Providing the intervention more often Providing longer intervention sessions Increasing reinforcement Progress monitor the students response to intensified intervention before moving to diagnostic assessment. Intensifying Ryans CICO

More frequent check-ins Increased reinforcement for meeting goals: More frequent reinforcement More student choice in terms of the reinforcer used Ryan: Informal Hypothesis Meeting Because Ryan was not responding to CICO, the team met to review progress monitoring data.

NCII Sample Behavioral Progression: Ryan Ryans CICO Data The teams review of the CICO cards shows he struggles to earn points for Be Respectful. Teachers note he often disrupts class with both verbal (yelling out) and physical (throwing pencils, touching peers) outbursts. Ryan: Team Hypothesis Ryan will benefit from social skills

instruction in appropriate ways to get attention from others, as well as instruction and monitoring in goals specific to his needs. We will come back to this hypothesis when we talk about adaptations in the next section. Ryan: Adapting CICO Ryans Modified CICO Card Adaptation: Ryan will join a social skills

group that works on showing respect through language and physical interaction. GOALS Be Safe Be Respectful Work Hard TOTAL Perio d 1

Period Period Lunch Recess Period 2 3 4 Perio d 5 Keep hands and 0 1 2 feet to yourself. Use strategies to 0 1 2 cool down.

Use kind words. 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2

0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2

0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 Give others

0 1 2 space. Ask for help when 0 1 2 you need it. Follow directions 0 1 2 the first time. 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2

0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2

0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2

0 1 2 0 1 2 Ryans Progress Monitoring Data Ryan's Modified CICO Points 100 3 90

70 2 ODRs 60 50 40 1 30 20

% Total CICO Points 80 ODRs % Total CICO Points CICO Goal 10

0 0 21-Jan 22-Jan 23-Jan 24-Jan 25-Jan

26-Jan 27-Jan 28-Jan 29-Jan 30-Jan Ryan: Functional Assessment to Plan Intensive Intervention

Ryans Functional Assessment Teacher and parent interviews Direct observations Gain peer attention Pushing peers while in line Pulling peers hair during lessons Yelling out Avoid/escape a difficult task, gain

peer attention Hiding under the desk Running out of class Ryans Behavior Intervention Plan Explicitly teach positive replacement behaviors with examples, a rationale, modeling, and practice with feedback: Initiating contact with peers Appropriately making requests for assistance

Continue check-ins with modified goals, providing Increased opportunity for practice and prompting Reinforcement for appropriate behavior Ryans Progress Monitoring Plan The team continues tracking ODRs and modified CICO card points. The teacher continues completing daily DBRs that record

Disruptive behavior Academic engagement Appropriate requests for assistance Ryans DBR: Appropriate Requests for Assistance Definition: Ryan asks his teacher or a peer (during an appropriate group work situation) for help with an assigned task in a non-disruptive manner. Examples: Ryan raises his hand and is acknowledged by the teacher before asking a question during classwide

instruction or asking for help during independent seatwork. Ryans DBR: Appropriate Requests for Assistance Non-examples: Ryan calls out for help when it is inappropriate to speak out and without being acknowledged. Ryan tries to copy a peers work. Anchors/scale: Of all the times Ryan appears to need help with a task, the estimated percentage of times he asks for help appropriately.

Ryans Data After Six Weeks of Receiving the New Intervention ODRs decreased; none in the last two weeks Met CICO points goal on 90 percent of the days Teachers reported that Ryan was making progress in his social interactions Ryans DBR Data Standard DBR behaviors reached

typical class levels: 80 percent for academic engagement 10 percent for disruptive behavior Ryans requests for assistance were appropriate 70 percent of the time (compared to 10 percent of the time before the intervention was implemented). Next Steps for Ryan The team Determined that Ryan continues to

need this level of support to be successful Will continue to implement the intervention plan with no changes Will continue collecting and evaluating data In Summary DBI is a process that consists of ongoing assessment, intervention, evaluation, and adjustment to maximize student outcomes. Intensive interventions will not look the same for every student. They are

individualized based on a students unique needs. Students requiring intensive intervention are likely to need it for a significant amount of time. Things to Remember DBI is intenserelatively few students should require it (3 to 5 percent of the school population). Academic and behavior supports do not exist in isolation. Do not make too many intervention

adaptations at the same time. Restraint and Seclusion Restraint and Seclusion Extreme measures that should only be used When a students behavior risks harm to his or her self or others. By trained, qualified staff. U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report on Restraint and Seclusion

(2009) State regulations governing the use of restraint and seclusion in public and private schools varies widely No reliable national data on when and how often restraint and seclusion are being used in schools, or on the extent of abuse resulting from the use of these practices in educational settings. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-09-719T Additional US GAO Findings

Several hundred cases of alleged abuse, including deaths that were related to the use of restraint and seclusion of children in public and private schools, were documented. Problems with untrained or poorly trained staff were often related to many instances of alleged restraint and seclusion abuse. U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights (OCR) Provides operational definitions of:

Physical Restraint Mechanical Restraint Seclusion Source: http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/ whatsnew.html . OCR Definition of Physical Restraint Physical restraint is physical force that immobilizes or reduces the ability of a student to move his or her torso, arms,

legs, or head freely. OCR Definition of Mechanical Restraint Mechanical restraint is the use of any device or equipment to restrict a students freedom of movement. OCR Definition of Seclusion Seclusion is the involuntary confinement of a student alone in a room or area from which the student is

physically prevented from leaving. U.S. Office of Department of Education Fifteen principles for using restraint and seclusion in schools http:// www2.ed.gov/policy/seclusion/index.ht ml Highlights of Restraint and Seclusion Principles Prevent the need for use of restraint and seclusion through positive behavioral strategies and other

supports that address the underlying cause of behavior Schools should never use mechanical restraints Physical restraint and seclusion are only used, by those trained in their safe use, in cases of imminent danger of serious physical harm to self or others Every instance is monitored and reported to parents, who are informed of relevant policies and laws Additional Resources NCII DBI Resources

Data-Based Individualization: A Framework for Intensive Intervention http:// www.intensiveintervention.org/sites/default/files/D BI%20a%20Framework%20for%20Intensive%20Inte rvention.pdf Introduction to Data-Based Individualization (DBI): Considerations for Implementation in Academics and Behavior (DBI Training Series Module 1) http://www.intensiveintervention.org/resource/intr oduction-data-based-individualization

NCII Behavior Modules Using FBA for Diagnostic Assessment in Behavior (DBI Training Series Module 6) http://www.intensiveintervention.org/resource/using-fba-diag nostic-assessment-behavior-dbi-training-series-module6 Designing and Delivering Intensive Intervention in Behavior (DBI Training Series Module 8) http://www.intensiveintervention.org/resource/designing-and -delivering-intensive-intervention-behavior-dbi-training-seriesmodule-8

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