Unit 1: What is Biology I. What is Biology? A. Biology study of life, of all living things 1. Many branches: biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, evolutionary theory, microbiology, botany, zoology, et.
B. Six (6) Major Themes in Biology 1. Cell Structure & Function a) Unicellular organisms made of one cell b) Multicelluar organisms made of more than one cell 2. Stability & Homeostasis
a) Homeostasis a level or stable internal environment in cells/living things 3. Reproduction & Inheritance a) Sexual Reproduction DNA from 2 parts or 2 organisms is combined b) Asexual Reproduction DNA is not combined, rather an organism copies its DNA and splits
4. Evolution a) Evolution how organisms change and come to exist b) Natural Selection survival of the fittest; drives evolution 5. Interdependence of Organisms
6. Matter, Energy, & Organization a) Organisms obtain, use, & transfer energy & matter b) Autotrophs organisms that can make their own food to obtain energy c) Heterotrophs orgnanisms that cannot make their own food, but must take it in for energy
C. Characteristics of Life 1. Made of units called cells. Prokaryote Cell cell that lacks a true nucleus and true organelles Eukaryote Cell cell that has a true nucleus and
true organelles 2. Reproduce 3. Based on a universal genetic code 4. Grow & develop 5. Obtain and use materials, and energy Metabolism (Energy use) sum of all
chemical reactions in an organism 6. Respond to external environment 7. Homeostasis maintain a stable internal environment 8. As a group, living things change over time FSGPT: Discuss examples of sexual & asexual reproduction. Give an example of a prokaryote and a eukaryote
II. Spontaneous Generation vs. Biogenesis A. Spontaneous Generation early theory that nonliving material could give rise to living organisms
B. Francesco Redi - In 1668, tested the theory of spontaneous generation, specifically that maggots come from rotting meat. Control Group Experimental Group - Placed raw meat in an - placed meat in a jar open jar
covered with netting - In a few weeks, maggots - in a few weeks, maggots were on the meat were on the netting - Flies layed eggs on meat, - flies could smell meat, maggots are fly larva but only lay eggs on netting
3rd Experiment by Redi - Placed meat in a sealed jar - Maggots never appeared - Flies could not smell the meat Redis Experiment
C. Lazzaro Spallanzani 1768, microscopes have been invented & microorganisms are known to exist; tests the spontaneous generation of microorganisms. Control Group Experimental Group - Boiled broth to sterilize - boiled broth - Left flask open to air - sealed flask immediately
- in several days, broth - in several days, broth remains was cloudy clear Spallanzanis Experiment D. Louis Pasteur 1862 1. Many refused to give up their belief in
spontaneous generation. They argued that life required a vital force, and that Spallanzani killed this force and prevented it from entering by sealing the flask. 2. Pasteur completely disproved spontaneous generation and the idea of a vital force. Pasteur cont.
3. Pasteur boiled broth in a flask with a curved neck. This allowed him to sterilize the broth and leave in open for the vital force. After 1 year, the broth remained clear and sterile. FSGPT Discuss and write down similarities and differences between the three scientists experiments.
E. Biogenesis current, accepted theory that living organisms can only arise from preexisting living organisms. III. Scientific Method Steps: A.Observing & Asking Questions
1. Observation act of noting or perceiving objects or events by using the senses B. Formulating a Hypothesis 1. Hypothesis possible explanation that can be tested by observation or experimentation.
C. Perform an Experiment 1. Experiment carried out under controlled conditions to test a hypothesis. A. Control Group group used as a comparison; results are known
B. Experimental Group identical to control group except for one factor, making the outcome unknown. i. Independent Variable the factor that is different in the experimental group ii. Dependent Variable During the experiment, this is what is being observed or measured
2. Example: FSGPT Hypothesis adding food coloring to a white flowers water will change the flowers color Control Group Experimental Group Independent Variable Dependent Variable - D. Analyzing Results complete
calculations, plot data, summarize observations, etc. E. Draw Conclusions & Verify Results 1. Draw conclusions that explain experimental results. 2. Verify conclusions by repeating experiments & checking other scientists results.
F. Scientific Theories highly tested, generally accepted principle that explains a vast number of observations and experimental data Hypothesis = specific, testable prediction for a limited set of conditions Theory = general explanation for a broad range of data
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