& . ... R. Kaplan, D. Norton

08/02/20 2 : 08/02/20 3

Information Age , Trading Agents 08/02/20 4 INFORMATION SYSTEM

& . (, , , , , , , ...) 08/02/20 5 ... technology is just part of the solution. It is

the combination of technology and people where the magic happens ... John Mertl, President and CEO, Canada-based Tomoye Corporation 08/02/20 6 : (programmers)) (s)ys)tem analys)ts)) (adminis)trators))

(IT management) (Chief Information Officer ) (bus)ines)s) analys)ts)) (project managers)) (end us)ers)): -, (authorized)-(gues)ts)), 08/02/20 7 INFORMATION SYSTEM

(Logis)tics), SCM, ...) (BOM, MRP, ...)

(e-procurement, ...) -------------------------------------------------------------------------e-bay, e-government, ...) 08/02/20 8


08/02/20 10 :

E-MAIL 60 5 S [5*1018] ( 37000 )

08/02/20 11 -2007: 1 . . ( ) 08/02/20


(INTER/INTRANET, SECOND LIFE) 08/02/20 13 : 08/02/20

14 : -- : (, , , ), ( ) ( & ) 08/02/20


hardware-s)oftware 08/02/20 16 (STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES) SSADM: (Structured Sys)tems) Analys)is) and Des)ign Methodology),

CCTA [Central Computing and Telecommunications) Agency], UK, 1981. STRADIS: (Structured Analys)is), Des)ign and Implementation of Information Sys)tems)), Gane and Sars)on, 1979. YSM: (Y)ourdon Sys)tems) Method), Y)ourdon, 1993. MERISE: Quang and Chartier-Kas)tler, FRANCE, 1991. EUROMETHOD: SSADM MERISE, CCTA, 1994. 08/02/20 17 :

& & & 08/02/20 18 : &

/ / 08/02/20 (Porter,1980) 19 :

08/02/20 (.. E-R ) (.. IDEF, UML STRADIS,SSADM) 20 : &

08/02/20 ( Boehm) (RAD) (WISDM) 21

: -/

- 08/02/20 22 : &

08/02/20 - (ETHICS) (EUC) 23 : 08/02/20


08/02/20 / 25

; : . . : . (N. Carr, Harvard Bus)ines)s) Review, 2003) 08/02/20

26 08/02/20 27 The objects that the business manipulates: the things of significance about which the organization mus)t hold and maintain information. The functions or activities performed by the business. The events in the world that cause those functions to be performed

08/02/20 28 08/02/20 29

(Data Flow Diagram - DFD) (Process Model). 08/02/20 30 (Process) // . /.

(Data Flow) , .. . (Data Store) . (External Entity) , . 08/02/20 31 YOURDON-DEMARCO PROCESS/PROCEDURE/FUNCTION/ACTIVITY)



08/02/20 33 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 34

, , ) , ) ) ..: , 08/02/20 35

. : , , , : 08/02/20

36 : 'D' 'M' 'T' 08/02/20 37

, () () , . 08/02/20 38

: #1: #2: . 1 ( , ). 1 ( ). ( ) 08/02/20


DATA FLOW 08/02/20 40 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 41

GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 42 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20

43 08/02/20 44 08/02/20

45 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 46 GANE & SARSON

08/02/20 47 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 48

GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 49 .

. 08/02/20 50 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 51

. 08/02/20 52

GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 53 .

. . 08/02/20 54

GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 55 .

08/02/20 56 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 57

. . . . . . 08/02/20 58

GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 59 DFD

, . 08/02/20 60 08/02/20 61 :

(fork) , (join) , . . . . 08/02/20

62 DFD : DFD . DFD . 08/02/20 63

: & & 08/02/20 64

( /) 08/02/20 65

08/02/20 66 08/02/20 67

08/02/20 1. . 2. UI13 . 3. . 4. . [: ]. 5. . 6. UI89 .

7. , . [ : UC34 . 17] 8. BR37 . [: ]. 68 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20

69 9. .[: .] 10. . . 11. UC 17 . 08/02/20

70 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 71

12. BR16 . 13. UI15 Fee Summary Screen. 14. BR19 . 15. . [: ] 16. . 17. .

18. . 08/02/20 72 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 73

A (Context Model) ( 0 DFD): . . (context diagram) . . ( 1 DFD)

, , .. 08/02/20 74 2 ( 3) 08/02/20 75

GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 76 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20

77 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 78 DFD

. : 1. 2. (Us)e Cas)es)), , . 3. DFD . 4. 0 . 5. 1,2, 6. 1 7. DFD . 08/02/20

79 . . , , . . 08/02/20

80 : - (Document Flow Diagram) (Resource Flow Diagram) , .(Organisation Chart) .




. . . , . 08/02/20 84

external agents) data flows) 08/02/20 85 data flows) Event Res)pons)e Lis)t 08/02/20

86 Event Description 08/02/20 Trigger (Inputs) Responses (Outputs) Lis)ting Reques)t .

Buyer Reques)t . Create Lis)ting Create Seller Area Real Es)tate Lis)ting Addres)s) Cros)s) Reference Multiple Lis)ting Statement Buyers) Requirement Statement .

. . . . Offer Document

Notarized Purchas)e Agreement Counteroffer document Apprais)al of Hous)e report Financing Program Offer


Area Real Es)tate Lis)ting . FINANCING APPLICATION APPRAISAL REQUEST 08/02/20 Aprove

88 08/02/20 89

08/02/20 90 GANE & SARSON 08/02/20 91 08/02/20

92 08/02/20 93 Entity Life History 08/02/20 94 Entity Life History Relations)hips) between functions) and objects) are us)ually repres)ented in function/

entity matrices) (CRUD matrices)), s)howing which functions) create, retrieve, update, and delete which entities). Relations)hips) between events) and functions) are s)hown effectively in es)s)ential data flow diagrams). The link between events) and objects) is) s)hown by s)tate/trans)ition diagrams). 08/02/20 95 Entity Life History C (creates)) / I (ins)erts)) the entity R (reads)/retrieves)) the entity U (updates)) / M (modifies)) the entity

D (deletes)) the entity 08/02/20 96 Entity Life History 08/02/20 97 Entity Life History At this) point, one can s)ee that the entity cus)tomer has) no a birth event (Is) this) pos)s)ible?)

and the entity invoice never canceled (will remain in the s)ys)tem forever?) 08/02/20 98 ELH Register Register authorised change user of job Employee

C Car Claim Journey C Register claim Check journey

details U C Appli.History Register change of car C C/U C

C/D Grade 08/02/20 99 Entity Life History To inves)tigate the full s)et of changes) that can pos)s)ibly occur to information within a s)ys)tem, together with the context of each change. 08/02/20

100 Entity Life History ENA ELH E-R 08/02/20 101 Entity Life History ENTITY)


Entity Life History ENA ELH ENTITY) EVENT

EVENT EVENT 08/02/20 103 Entity Life History The s)equence of events) is) important becaus)e things) happen over a period of time and charting this) valid s)equence gives) a life his)tory of entity. For example: An entity, cus)tomer account

A cus)tomer cannot withdraw money from a bank unles)s) he/s)he firs)t opened an account and put s)ufficient money into it. The opening an account event mus)t be before that of money withdrawn event 08/02/20 104 Entity Life History ENA ELH (chronological life of entity in a s)ys)tem)

08/02/20 105 Entity Life History 08/02/20 106 Entity Life History -SEQUENSE This is the only possible sequence

08/02/20 107 Entity Life History -SEQUENSE This is the only possible sequence 08/02/20 108 Entity Life History -SELECTION

08/02/20 109 Entity Life History -SELECTION 08/02/20 110 Entity Life History -ITERASION

any number of times, including none 08/02/20 111 Entity Life History -ITERASION any number of times, including none 08/02/20 112

Entity Life History An ELH s)tructure can extend to s)everal levels) of detail where each level is) repres)ented by a horizontal bar, immediately above which will be a group heading and below it the 'details)' which collectively des)cribe the cons)truct of the heading. 08/02/20 113 ELH

08/02/20 114 Entity Life History 08/02/20 115 ELH The s)equence of event can be changed through marking events) with 'Qn' and 'Rn' where n is) an integer. 'Q'

means) quit and 'R' means) res)ume. Qn--> Rn is) then a jump not following normal s)equence from a particular event (normally an error or s)pecial occurrence of event) labeled Qn to an event to initiate recovery action marked Rn. (Q is) quit, R is) res)ume). A R is) placed on the left-hand s)ide of a box. A Q is) placed on the right-hand s)ide of a box. 08/02/20 116 Entity Life History 08/02/20

117 Entity Life History Event types: 1. External (from the real world) e.g. receipt of cus)tomer order 2. Timebas)ed e.g.billing cus)tomer at month-end,or quarterly, or year-end 3.Internal s)ys)tem conditions) e.g. amount with drawn is) more than overdraft limit (a need to s)us)pend the account and s)end a remainder letter)

08/02/20 118 ELH 08/02/20 119 ELH 08/02/20 120

ELH Register Register authorised change user of job Employee C Car C

C/U C C/D Journey 08/02/20 Check journey details C

Claim Grade Register claim U C Appli.History Register change

of car C U 121 ELH 08/02/20 122 ELH

08/02/20 123 Entity Life History Booking Booking Creation Receipt of o Request Driver

Allocation Vehicle o Relocation Driver o Allocation 3 Booking Request Booking

Confirmed 1 08/02/20 4 2 Mid Life Agency o Allocation

Booking Finalised Amendment* Booking o Cancellation 5 End o

Hire Period Booking o Archive Customer o Archive 8 Booking Amendment 6

Booking Confirmed Vehicle Departure 7 9 Possible Write-off

Invoice Issued 12 Vehicle o Return Vehicle o Written off 10 11

124 Entity Life History Booking Booking Creation Receipt of o Request Driver Allocation

Vehicle o Relocation -/3 Booking Request -/1 08/02/20 Driver o Allocation 2,3/4

Mid Life Agency o Allocation Booking Finalised Amendment* Booking o Cancellation

2,3/5 End o Hire Period 4,5,7/8 Booking o Archive 8,12/-

Booking Confirmed Booking Amendment Booking Confirmed Vehicle Departure 1/2

4,5,7/6 6/7 4,5,7/9 Possible Write-off Customer o Archive 8,12/- Invoice

Issued 10,11/12 Vehicle o Return Vehicle o Written off 9/10 9/11 125

Entity Life History 08/02/20 State Indicator -/1 1/2 Explanation Jus)t beginning Sequence (Booking Reques)t & Booking Confirmation) Mos)t recent s)tate 1

-/3 Selection (Receipt of Reques)t & Vehicle Relocation) If Vehicle Relocation s)elected then Jus)t Beginning 2,3/4 Selection (Receipt of Reques)t & Vehicle Relocation) If Receipt of Reques)t 2 If Vehicle Relocation 3 2,3/5 Selection (Driver Allocation & Agency Allocation) So identical

4,5,7/6 Mos)t recent s)tate (Driver Allocation or Agency Allocation) 4 5 Becaus)e of iteration loop may have been done once, s)o mos)t recent s)tate is) 7 (i.e. s)equence Booking Amendment & Booking Confirmed) 6/7 Sequence (Booking Amendment & Booking Confirmed) Mos)t recent s)tate 6 4,5,7/8

Mos)t recent s)tate from iteration s)equence is) 7 Iteration may occur zero or more times) Selection (Driver Allocation & Agency Allocation) 4 5 4,5,7/9 Selection (Booking Cancellation & Hire Period) So identical 9/10 Sequence (Vehicle Departure, Pos)s)ible Write-off & Invoice Is)s)ued) Mos)t recent s)tate 9

9/11 Selection (Vehicle Return & Vehicle Written Off) So identical 10,11/12 Mos)t recent s)tate from Selection Vehicle Return 10 Vehicle Written Off 11 8,12/- Hyphen repres)ents) death

Mos)t recent s)tate Invoice Is)s)ued 12 Selection (Booking Cancellation & Hire Period) 8 126 Entity Life History 08/02/20 127 Entity Life History 08/02/20

128 ELH 08/02/20 129 LOC. ID DESCR. LOCATION






SSADM Events 1. Product type definition 2. Product type description change 3. Product type discontinuance 4. Purchase order issuance 5. Purchase order change 6. Purchase order close 7. Purchase order deletion 8. Location definition 9. Inventory definition 10. Inventory discontinuance 11. Location discontinuance 12. Receipt of goods

13. Return to vendor 14. Transfer 15. Adjustment of inventory quantity 08/02/20 131 Procedures 08/02/20 SSADM Create PURCHASE ORDER.

Tie PURCHASE ORDER to PARTY) Create one or more LINE ITEMS, and tie them to a PURCHASE ORDER. Set PURCHASE ORDER(Status)) toopen. Set PURCHASE ORDER(Is)s)ue date). Set PURCHASE ORDER(Terms)). Set PURCHASE ORDER(Due date). Update PURCHASE ORDER (Terms)). Update PURCHASE ORDER (Due date). Cut LINE ITEM from PURCHASE ORDER (before deleting the LINE ITEM.) Update PURCHASE ORDER(s)tatus)) = complete . Update PURCHASE ORDER (s)tatus)) = open. Update PURCHASE ORDER (s)tatus)) = clos)ed. Update PURCHASE ORDER (clos)ure date) Update PURCHASE ORDER (s)tatus)) = canceled.

Update purchas)e order (cancellation date) Cut PURCHASE ORDER occurrence from VENDOR Delete each LINE ITEM for this) occurrence of PURCHASE ORDER. 132 IDEF3 08/02/20 133 IDEF3


Product type definition PRODUCT TYPE D R Purchas)e order is)s)uance U SSADM

R C D C Purchas)e order change U R

Purchas)e order clos)e U U Purchas)e order deletion D Location definition C Inventory definition

WORK ORDER C Product type des)cription change Product type dis)continuance PURCHASE ORDER

C D R R Inventory dis)continuance D D

Location dis)continuance R D Receipt of goods) U U

C U Return to vendor U U C U

Trans)fer U C 08/02/20 Adjus)tment of Quantity U C

135 Create PURCHASE ORDER. Tie PURCHASE ORDER to PARTY) Create one or more LINE ITEMS, and tie them to a PURCHASE ORDER. Set PURCHASE ORDER(Status)) toopen. Set PURCHASE ORDER(Is)s)ue date). Set PURCHASE ORDER(Terms)). SSADM Set PURCHASE ORDER(Due date). Update PURCHASE ORDER (Terms)). Update PURCHASE ORDER (Due date).

Cut LINE ITEM from PURCHASE ORDER (before deleting the LINE ITEM.) Update PURCHASE ORDER(s)tatus)) = complete . Update PURCHASE ORDER (s)tatus)) = open. Update PURCHASE ORDER (s)tatus)) = clos)ed. Update PURCHASE ORDER (clos)ure date) Update PURCHASE ORDER (s)tatus)) = canceled. Update purchas)e order (cancellation date) Cut PURCHASE ORDER occurrence from VENDOR Delete each LINE ITEM for this) occurrence of PURCHASE ORDER. Delete PURCHASE ORDER occurrence. 08/02/20 136

08/02/20 137 SSADM 08/02/20 138 SSADM 08/02/20

139 SSADM 08/02/20 140 SSADM 08/02/20 141

SSADM 08/02/20 142 Entity Life History 08/02/20 143 Purchase Order Issuance

1. Create PURCHASE ORDER. 2. Tie PURCHASE ORDER to PARTY) 3. Create one or more LINE ITEMS, and tie them to a PURCHASE ORDER. 4. Set PURCHASE ORDER(Status)) toopen. 5. Set PURCHASE ORDER(Is)s)ue date). SSADM 6. Set PURCHASE ORDER(Terms)). 7. Set PURCHASE ORDER(Due date). Purchase order change 8. Update PURCHASE ORDER (Terms)). 9. Update PURCHASE ORDER (Due date). Line addition

10. (3., above) Line drop 11. Cut LINE ITEM from PURCHASE ORDER (before deleting the LINE ITEM.) Receipt of goods (last) 12. Update PURCHASE ORDER(s)tatus)) = complete . Return to vendor (last) 13. Update PURCHASE ORDER (s)tatus)) = open. 08/02/20 144 SSADM Purchase order close

14. Update PURCHASE ORDER (s)tatus)) = clos)ed. 15. Update PURCHASE ORDER (clos)ure date) Purchase order cancellation 16. Update PURCHASE ORDER (s)tatus)) = canceled. 17. Update purchas)e order (cancellation date) Purchase order deletion 18. Cut PURCHASE ORDER occurrence from VENDOR 19. Delete each LINE ITEM for this) occurrence of PURCHASE ORDER. 20. Delete PURCHASE ORDER occurrence. 08/02/20 145


146 Entity Life History 08/02/20

147 (METHODOLOGIES) hardware-software

08/02/20 148 (METHODOLOGIES) A methodology is) defined as) a collection of procedures), techniques), tools) and documents) that can be helpful in the projection and

implementation of the s)ys)tems). 08/02/20 149 (METHODOLOGIES) 1. 2. 3. 4. 08/02/20

the s)tep by s)tep activities) for every work s)tage; the individual and group rules) for each activity; the quality s)tandards) in every activity; the tools) and the techniques) us)ed in every activity. 150 (STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES)

08/02/20 151 (STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES) (structural & procedural standards) (documentation standards) 08/02/20

152 (STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES) Thick methodology Thin methodology 08/02/20 153 (STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES)

STRADIS: (Structured Analysis, Design and Implementation of Information Systems), Gane and Sarson, 1979. CCTA [Central Computing and Telecommunications Agency] SSADM: (Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology), UK, CCTA, 1981. MERISE: Quang and Chartier-Kastler, FRANCE, 1991. YSM: (Yourdon Systems Method), Yourdon, 1993. EUROMETHOD: SSADM MERISE, CCTA, 1994. RUP: rapid prototyping (IBM 2003) PRINCE2: CCTA, 1989 08/02/20 154

(STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES) SSADM (Structured Sys)tems) Analys)is) and Des)ign Methodology) s)pecifies) in advance the modules), s)tages) and tas)ks) which have to be carried out and therefore could be des)cribed as) being prescriptive in its) approach to s)ys)tems) development. SSADM adopts) the Waterfall model in that it pres)criptively develops) the deliverables) to be produced and, in turn, the techniques) which are employed in production of deliverables). The SSADM approach is) primarily data flow oriented, therefore while us)ing this) approach, the DFD (Data flow diagram) is) mos)tly us)ed as) a s)ys)tem des)ign tool. The focus) of the s)ys)tem des)ign is) on the data and it's) trans)formation between the modules) and ,als)o, data dependencies). 08/02/20

155 SSADM: 08/02/20 156 SSADM: Logical Data Modelling 08/02/20

157 SSADM: Data Flow Modelling 08/02/20 158 SSADM: Entity Event Modelling 08/02/20

159 SSADM (Waterfall model) 08/02/20 160 It is) a methodology oriented towards) the data s)tructure. 2. It dis)plays) two types) of patterns): the logical pattern and the physical pattern of the system, so it distinguishes the logical

projection from the phys)ical one. 3. It is) bas)ed on the clear requirement of the orders) and of s)ome detailed rules) in building (projecting) the two patterns). 4. It requires) the data s)tream and diagram repres)entation. 08/02/20 161 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

08/02/20 Feasibility Study Requirements Analysis Requirements Specification Logical System Specification Physical Design SSADM 162 SSADM

08/02/20 163 Structured Sys)tem Analys)is) and Des)ign Methodology SSADM Unit 0. The Feasibility Study It includes) a s)ingle s)tage bearing the s)ame name. Within this) unit is) determined the pos)s)ibility of achieving the project res)pecting the timing and the budget. This) is) an optional unit, often replaced with planning s)tudy of the data s)ys)tem achievement. The planning is) s)ometimes) neces)s)ary before the beginning of the project with SSADM. The res)ult of this) s)tage is) the document named feas)ibility s)tudy.

08/02/20 164 Structured Sys)tem Analys)is) and Des)ign Methodology SSADM Unit 1. The Requirements Analysis Within this) phas)e one s)hould identify what the s)ys)tem is) doing and what it s)hould be doing. It s)uppos)es) the analys)is) of the exis)ting s)ys)tem and the es)tablis)hment of the improvement directions). 08/02/20

165 Structured Sys)tem Analys)is) and Des)ign Methodology SSADM Unit 1. The Requirements Analysis Stage I. The Investigation The inves)tigation of the exis)ting s)ys)tem is) made in order for the analys)t to unders)tand the functioning of the s)ys)tem, exactly identifying its) boundaries). The old s)ys)tem is) us)ually the bes)t s)tarting point (the bas)e s)tructure does)nt change very much in time). DFD for the old s)ys)tem (firs)t levels)). High level E-R diagram. This) s)tage res)ult is) given by the logical repres)entation of the exis)ting s)ys)tem, identifying the functions) to be taken in the new s)ys)tem.

08/02/20 166 Structured Sys)tem Analys)is) and Des)ign Methodology SSADM Unit 1. The Requirements Analysis Stage II. The Economic System Options In this) s)tage are identified the options)/variants) (up to s)ix) of organization of the new s)ys)tem in order for this) one to fulfill all the beneficiarys) requirements). The beneficiaries) decide which one of the options) is) convenient according to s)everal criteria (time, material, human, financial res)ources) involved). This) s)tage res)ult is) the mos)t convenient option of the economic s)ys)tem.

08/02/20 167 Structured Sys)tem Analys)is) and Des)ign Methodology SSADM Unit 2. The Requirements Specification This) s)tage involves) detailing the already defined requirements) for the chos)en option within the previous) s)tage. Make a catalogue of the functions) and des)cribe the entities). Modify the DFD (firs)t levels)). This) s)tage has) as) a res)ult the requirements) catalogue and the new s)ys)tem repres)ented by diagrams).

08/02/20 168 Structured Sys)tem Analys)is) and Des)ign Methodology SSADM Unit 3. The Logical System Specification Stage I. The Technical Options of the System A cos)t benefit analys)is) is) made in order to choos)e an option. The beneficiary has) als)o a decis)ive role in the choice of this) option (or combination of options)). This) s)tage res)ult is) the technical s)elected and detailed option. The information will include: technical details) referring to hardware and s)oftware, the s)ys)tems) working way, the cos)ts), the s)ignificant characteris)tics) of the projection s)tage. Information about the pos)s)ibility of improvement,

maintenance and development of the s)ys)tem will als)o be pres)ented. 08/02/20 169 Structured Sys)tem Analys)is) and Des)ign Methodology SSADM Unit 3. The Logical System Specification Stage II. The Logical Projection A detailed logical pattern mainly containing the data projection and the procedures) projection is) elaborated. E-R diagramm. DFD: detailed proces)s)es) outlines).

ELH 08/02/20 170 Structured Sys)tem Analys)is) and Des)ign Methodology SSADM Unit 4. The Physical Design The detailed logical project is) converted into a technical project in order to achieve the compatibility to the s)elected equipments) and s)oftware. It includes) data about the files), the data bas)e, the integrated programs), the functions) and the us)ed procedures). In the end of this) s)tage the development program and the tes)t plans) of the achieved s)ys)tem are made, then the operation ins)tructions) and the manual

procedures) are s)pecified and the detailed s)pecifications) of the program product are achieved. 08/02/20 171 (STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES) STRADIS (Structured Analys)is), Des)ign and Implementation of Information Sys)tems)) was) developed by Gane and Sars)on (1979). STRADIS is) bas)ed on "Top-Down" functional decompos)ition and us)es) Data Flow Diagrams) almos)t exclus)ively.

08/02/20 172 (STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES) Y)SM (Y)ourdon Sys)tems) Method) was) originated by Edward Y)ourdon in 1989. He was) known as) a cons)ultant in the bus)ines)s) world, and als)o a lecturer of information s)ys)tems). Y)SM is) s)imilar to STRADIS in functional decompos)ition methodology, but a middle-out approach is) adopted and rather more emphas)is) is) put on the importance of data s)tructures).

08/02/20 173 (STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES) MERISE (Methode d'Etude et de Realis)ation Informatique pour les) Sys)temes) d'Entepris)e) developed by Quang and Chartier-Kas)tler in 1991 is) us)ed quite widely in France, Spain and Switzerland. MERISE has) three development cycles), decis)ion cycle, life cycle and abs)traction cycle. In the abs)traction cycle both data and proces)s)es) are viewed on a conceptual level, then on a logical or organis)ational level and finally on the phys)ical or operational level.

08/02/20 174 (STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES) EUROMETHOD is) funded by the EEC (European Economic Community) on behalf of the European Member States) under the s)pons)ors)hip of the PPG (Public Procurement Group), a cros)s) European grouping of public procurement bodies) from different member s)tates) cons)is)ting of 10 partners) from 8 different Member s)tates). Euromethod project has) been running s)ince November 1989 which was) the s)tart of Phas)e 1 where es)s)ential

requirements) were agreed upon. EUROMETHOD's) Phas)e 3a has) now been completed with the initial vers)ion of Euromethod as) a res)ult. 08/02/20 175 STRADIS STRuctured Analys)is) Des)ign and Implementation of information Sys)tems) Development Methodology Developed by Chris) Gane and Tris)h Sars)on in 1979. 08/02/20

176 STRADIS 1. Initial Study: Involves) the s)election of the s)ys)tems) in a competing environment. The criteria us)ed are the cos)t and benefits) of each propos)al Sys)tems) are viewed as) contributing towards) increas)ing revenues), avoiding cos)ts) or improving s)ervices) Analys)t carries) out fact finding from managers) and us)ers) in the relevant area, reviewing documentation and as)s)es)s)ing the propos)als) in the light of the organis)ation's) s)trategic plans) 08/02/20

177 STRADIS 2. Detailed Study: Exis)ting s)ys)tem is) s)tudied in detail. Potential us)ers) belonging to different levels) of the organis)ation namely top management (commis)s)ioners)), middle management and end-us)ers) of the s)ys)tem are identified. Initial time and cos)t es)timates) are refined. A logical DFD of the s)ys)tem is) prepared. DFDs) are decompos)ed or exploded to lower levels) and proces)s)es) are s)pecified us)ing decis)ion trees), decis)ion tables) or s)tructured Englis)h. 08/02/20

178 STRADIS 3. Defining and Designing Alternative Solutions: High level organis)ational objectives) as) defined in the initial s)tudy are converted into s)pecific and clear s)ys)tem objectives). Sys)tem objectives) mus)t be s)pecific and meas)urable. Thes)e objectives) are us)ed by the analys)t to produce the DFDs) of the new s)ys)tem. A report containing a DFD of the current s)ys)tem, the limitations) of the current s)ys)tem (including cos)ts) and benefits)), the logical DFD of the new s)ys)tem is) pres)ented to the decis)ion makers) who s)hould choos)e one of the alternatives) For each alternative the boundary of the s)ys)tem with des)criptions) of us)er interface, es)timated cos)ts), benefits), implementation s)chedule and ris)ks)

involved are es)tablis)hed 08/02/20 179 STRADIS 4. Physical Design: Chos)en alternative is) then refined by the des)ign team Exception and error handling as) well as) the proces)s) s)pecifications) are added Data dictionary is) completed, the s)creen and report formats) are dis)cus)s)ed and agreed with

the us)ers). The files) or databas)e (phys)ical) are des)igned bas)ed on the data s)tores) identified in the DFDs). 08/02/20 180 Jackson System Development (JSD) Entity/Action Step Initial Model Step Interactive Function Step Information Function Step Sys)tem Timing Step

Sys)tem Implementation Step Modelling Stage (Analys)is)): with the Entity/Action Step. Network Stage (Des)ign) : with the Initial Model Step, Interactive/Information Function Step, and Sys)tem Timing Step. Implementation Stage (Realis)ation) : The Sys)tem Implementation Step. 08/02/20 181 Jackson System Development (JSD) Modeling Stage In the modelling s)tage the des)igner creates) a collection of entity structure diagrams and identifies) the entities) in the s)ys)tem, the actions) they perform, the timeordering of the actions) in the life of the entities), and the attributes) of the actions)

and entities). Entity s)tructure diagrams) us)e the diagramming notation of Jacks)on Structured Programming structure diagrams. Purpos)e of thes)e diagrams) is) to create a full des)cription of the as)pects) of the s)ys)tem and the organis)ation. Developers) have to decide which things) are important and which are not. Good communication between developers) and us)ers) of the new s)ys)tem is) very important. 08/02/20 182 Jackson System Development (JSD) Network Stage In the network s)tage a model of the s)ys)tem as) a whole is) developed and repres)ented

as) a system specification diagram (SSD) (als)o known as) a network diagram). Network diagrams) s)how proces)s)es) (rectangles)) and how they communicate with each other, either via state vector connections) (diamonds)) or via datastream connections) (circles)). In this) s)tage is) the functionality of the s)ys)tem defined. Each entity becomes) a proces)s) or program in the network diagram. External programs) are later added to the network diagrams). The purpos)e of thes)e programs) is) to proces)s) input, calculate output and to keep the entity proces)s)es) up-to-date. The whole s)ys)tem is) des)cribed with thes)e network diagrams) and are completed with des)criptions) about the data and connections) between the proces)s)es) and programs). The Initial Model Step s)pecifies) a s)imulation of the real world. The Function Step adds) to this) s)imulation the further executable operations) and proces)s)es) needed to produce output of the s)ys)tem. Sys)tem Timing Step provides) s)ynchronis)ation among proces)s)es), introduces) cons)traints). 08/02/20

183 Jackson System Development (JSD) Implementation Stage In the implementation s)tage the abs)tract network model of the s)olution is) converted into a phys)ical s)ys)tem, repres)ented as) a system implementation diagram (SID). The SID s)hows) the s)ys)tem as) a scheduler proces)s) that calls) modules) that implement the proces)s)es). Datas)treams) are repres)ented as) calls) to inverted proces)s)es). Databas)e s)ymbols) repres)ent collections) of entity s)tate-vectors), and there are s)pecial s)ymbols) for file buffers) (which mus)t be implemented when proces)s)es) are s)cheduled to run at different time intervals)). The central concern of Implementation Step is) optimization of s)ys)tem. It is)

neces)s)ary to reduce the number of proces)s)es) becaus)e it is) impos)s)ible to provide each proces)s) that is) contained in s)pecification with its) own virtual proces)s)or. By means) of trans)formation, proces)s)es) are combined in order to limits) their number to the number of proces)s)ors). 08/02/20 184 EUROMETHOD Euromethod is technically sound Euromethod is often misunderstood as being a SW-development method rather than a contract management method Euromethod is not used in the

administrations in Europe Euromethod is not marketed well. 08/02/20 185 EUROMETHOD [ISPL] Euromethod can be used in any project regarding an information system, where there is: A customer. A supplier (external or internal to the organisation). A contract (formal or informal) between the customer and the supplier.

08/02/20 186 EUROMETHOD [ISPL] 08/02/20 187 EUROMETHOD [ISPL] 08/02/20

188 EUROMETHOD [ISPL] 08/02/20 189 EUROMETHOD [ISPL] 08/02/20 190

SSADM 08/02/20 191 SSADM 08/02/20 192 SSADM

When us)ing a waterfall approach, it can happen that, for example, s)oftware programmers) have to wait for the completion of the des)ign phas)e before s)tarting implementing and integrate the des)ign. 08/02/20 193 RUP (Rational Unified Process) 1. Not a waterfall approach 2. It is) des)igned and documented us)ing Unified Modeling Language (UML) 3. an iterative approach is) us)ed: a s)oftware product

is) des)igned and built in a s)ucces)s)ion of incremental iterations). 4. RUP is) a commercial product, no open or free s)tandard. 08/02/20 194 RUP (Rational Unified Process) 08/02/20 195

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 08/02/20 Feasibility Study Requirements Analysis Requirements Specification Logical System Specification Physical Design

SSADM 196 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) 1. It is) a project management methodology covering the organization, management and control of projects). 2. PRINCE2 is) a proces)s)-bas)ed approach for project management 08/02/20

197 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) 08/02/20 198 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) Starting up a Project: To make s)ure that the project has) a very clear beginning, this) proces)s) occurs) even before the

project has) actually s)tarted. All decis)ion making pers)ons) have to come together and will appoint a Project Manager. Together they will dis)cus)s) the project and outline reas)ons) for it and how decide how the project is) to be carried out. All this) information will be put together in a `Project Brief'. 08/02/20 199 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments)

08/02/20 200 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) Initiating a Project: Before a project can be approved during the `Directing a Project' proces)s) it mus)t be carefully planned to ens)ure that it meets) its) objectives). Detailed es)timations) of cos)ts), needed time and other res)ources) have to be made and thes)e are put together by the Project Manager into a s)o called Project Initiation Document (PID) for approval by the

Project Board (PB). 08/02/20 201 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) 08/02/20 202 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled

Environments) Directing a Project: After the Project Brief and the PID have been put together, the project has) to be approved by a group of s)enior managers), called the Project Board (PB). During the res)t of the project this) PB has) the overall res)pons)ibility for the s)ucces)s) of the project whereas) the Project Manager has) the day to day res)pons)ibility. He will inform the PB about the project's) progres)s) with the help of regular reports). 08/02/20 203

PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) Controlling a Stage: One of the advantages) of PRINCE2 is) that projects) are divided into manageable s)tages) to ens)ure the project remains) manageable and controlled. How many s)tages) are us)ed, will depend on the s)ize of the project and the level of ris)k. In PRINCE2 each project s)tage mus)t be completed before the next s)tage can be s)tarted and each new s)tage is) planned in the s)tage proceeding it. Als)o the Stage Plans) will be approved by the PB to help ens)ure that the project remains) within budget and delivers) its) objectives).

08/02/20 204 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) Managing Stage Boundaries): This) proces)s) involves) preparing for the next s)tage and reviewing the current s)tage. The Project Manager makes) s)ugges)tions) to the PB about the likelihood of the project achieving its) bus)ines)s) objectives) and any changes) in the bus)ines)s) cas)e, project plan, ris)ks) and is)s)ues). When a project has) clear s)tage boundaries) it can be eas)ily controlled and

managed by permitting the project to continue only once the PB is) s)atis)fied with the current s)tage end and next s)tage plan. 08/02/20 205 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) 08/02/20 206

PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) Planning: Each project plan, s)tage plan and team plan mus)t cons)ider key planning as)pects). Thes)e include what products) to produce, the activities) required to produce thes)e products), es)timated res)ources) (including cos)ts) and time), s)cheduling the activities) and analyzing ris)ks). By following the PRINCE2 planning proces)s) all thes)e points) are conducted in a s)ens)ible, logical s)equence. Ens)uring cons)is)tency enables) plans) to be compared and s)treamlines) the planning proces)s). 08/02/20

207 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) 08/02/20 208 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) Managing Product Delivery: The goal of a PRINCE2 project is) to deliver

products). A product can be a phys)ical thing s)uch as) a pos)ter or it could be an intangible deliverable s)uch as) a s)ervice or s)ales) agreement. In fact everything produced in PRINCE2 (even a document) is) called a product. Often a Project Manager does) not create the product. A third party s)upplier and/or their colleagues) may do s)ome or all of the work. It is) the Project Manager's) res)pons)ibility to ens)ure that the s)upplier produces) the correct products) at the right time by providing a des)cription of the work to be 08/02/20 done. 209

PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) 08/02/20 210 PRINCE (Projects in Controlled Environments) Clos)ing a Project: At the end of the project, after its) products) have been delivered, the project is) clos)ed down with approval of the PB. The Project Manager plans) what will be

done to evaluate the project's) outcome, which is) called the Pos)t Project Review (PPR). A controlled clos)e down is) in effect the las)t demons)trable PRINCE2 project action. Any les)s)ons) learned are recorded, res)ources) are releas)ed and the Pos)t Project Review Plan (PPRP) is) created. 08/02/20 211 ;

: . . : . (N. Carr, Harvard Bus)ines)s) Review, 2003) 08/02/20 212

08/02/20 213 08/02/20 214

:LAN 08/02/20 215 :WiFi 08/02/20 216

: Virus): Worm: Trojan hors)e: Spyware: Spoofing: (s)erver) Sniffing: Identity theft: Phis)hing: Authentication: Encryption-decryption: - 08/02/20

217 . 08/02/20 218 CRM

08/02/20 219

. . , , . . , .. , . 08/02/20

220 Customers Expect You to Know Them 08/02/20 221 hous)eholding cros)s) s)elling

CRM is) eas)y for s)mall companies) churn: 20-30% telecoms), 70% internet providers) (75% ) Loyal cus)tomers): cus)tomer advis)or ROI cus)tomer care 08/02/20 222 CRM

08/02/20 223 CRM Director (Marketing Director)

Marketing Analyst - Right Customer (Data mining) Campaign Manager - Right Offer (Product Management, PR) Segment Manager - Right Time (Campaigns) Channel Manager Right Channel (Web design, call center) 08/02/20 224 Supply Chain Management

to find the raw components) needed to make a product or s)ervice to manufacture that product or s)ervice to deliver it to cus)tomers). 08/02/20 225 Supply Chain Management The product flow The information flow The finances) flow

08/02/20 226 Supply Chain Management 1.Plan: A s)trategy for managing all the res)ources) that go toward meeting cus)tomer demand for your product or s)ervice. Develop a s)et of metrics). 2. Source: Choos)e the s)uppliers). Develop a s)et of pricing, delivery and payment proces)s)es) with s)uppliers) and create metrics) for monitoring and improving the relations)hips). Put together proces)s)es) for managing the inventory of goods) and s)ervices) you receive from s)uppliers). 3.Make: Schedule the activities) neces)s)ary for production, tes)ting, packaging and preparation for delivery. Meas)ure quality levels), production output and worker productivity.

4.Deliver-Logis)tics): Coordinate the receipt of orders) from cus)tomers), develop a network of warehous)es) and s)et up an invoicing s)ys)tem to receive payments). 5.Return: Create a network for receiving defective and exces)s) products) back from cus)tomers) and s)upporting cus)tomers) who have problems) with delivered products). 08/02/20 227 Supply Chain Software 1.s)oftware that helps) you plan the s)upply chain 2.s)oftware that helps) you execute the s)upply chain s)teps) thems)elves)

08/02/20 228 Supply Chain Software Supply Chain Planning (SCP) s)oftware: improve the flow and efficiency of the s)upply chain and reduce inventory [ERP needed] Supply Chain Execution (SCE) s)oftware: automate the different s)teps) of the s)upply chain. 08/02/20

229 Gaining trus)t from your s)uppliers) and partners). Internal res)is)tance to change. Many mis)takes) at firs)t. 08/02/20 230 Supply Chain Software

Public (many-to-many) or private (you to everyone els)e in your s)upply chain) B2B 08/02/20 231 Supply Chain Collaboration a card game Wal-Mart and Procter & Gamble Cis)co Sys)tems) (through extranet on s)uppliers), dis)tributors) and contract manufacturers))

08/02/20 232 Enterprise Resource Planning - ERP : , , ,

. 08/02/20 233 ERP . . 08/02/20 234

Material Requirements Planning MRP 1960-IBM MRP vs. reordering point - Products) Lower-level items) Material Requirements Planning MRP

Material Requirements Planning MRP - Time intervals) Material Requirements Planning MRP Bill of Materials) BOM ( ) Low Level Code - LLC Material Requirements Planning MRP

BOM & Mas)ter Production Schedule - MPS (Gros)s) requirements), On hand inventory, Schedule receipts)) Material Requirements Planning MRP Netting Net requirements) = Gros)s) requirements) On hand inventory - Schedule receipts) (LLC=0)

Material Requirements Planning MRP Lot s)izing (lot-for-lot, fixed order quantity) Material Requirements Planning MRP Time phas)ing Due dates) () lead times) () Material Requirements Planning MRP

BOM explos)ion (goto next LLC) Material Requirements Planning MRP INPUTS MPS, BOM, On hand inventory, Schedule receipts) OUTPUTS Planned Order Releas)e, Change notices) MRP II MRP + demand management +

forecasting + capacity management ERP

Sales) and Marketing Mas)ter Scheduling Material Requirement Planning Capacity Requirement Planning Bill of Materials) Purchas)ing Shop floor control Accounts) Payable/Receivable Logis)tics) As)s)et Management Financial Accounting

HR 08/02/20 247 ERP (collaborative commerce model) 08/02/20 248

ERP (, , logis)tics), ). . . 08/02/20 249 ERP

, . 08/02/20 250 ERP . . . 08/02/20

251 ERP , . , ,

. 08/02/20 252 ERP (n=2401) Support Scalability User Friendliness Cost Flexibility Fit

08/02/20 253 Proof of Concept : ERP , ERP

ERP . Reques)t for Propos)al : , . 08/02/20 254

08/02/20 . , ( ,

, .). . . . . . 255

... 08/02/20 256

08/02/20 . . . . , . .

. . . 257 ERP ERP

08/02/20 ERP

258 RFID early RFID adopters) in the cons)umer goods) indus)try reduced s)upply chain cos)ts) between 3 and 5 percent and grew revenue between 2 and 7 percent becaus)e of the added vis)ibility RFID provided, according

to a s)tudy by AMR Res)earch. 08/02/20 259 RFID Tags) are: 1. pas)s)ive, receive their power to exchange data from the s)ignal s)ent by the reader 2. active, have a battery to power their own trans)mis)s)ions) 3. battery as)s)is)ted, have a battery that

powers) chip electronics) but does) not trans)mit RF energy 08/02/20 260 RFID RFID tags) can be read-only, WORM or read-write. 1. Read-only tags) are programmed with a s)erial number or other data at the factory and cannot be altered. 2. In a Write-Once-Read Many a s)erial number or other data can be written once by the us)er that cannot be altered. 3. Read/write tags) are often partitioned with a s)ecure, readonly area that may encode a unique ID number, and a writeable portion of memory that us)ers) can program and

reprogram thems)elves). 08/02/20 261 RFID 08/02/20 262 RFID Smaller footprint interrogator devices), s)uch as) thos)e in PC

Card format or handheld add-on devices) can be us)ed to enable us)ers) to add RFID capabilities) to their exis)ting applications) without having to reinves)t in entirely new mobile computing s)ys)tems). Portable interrogators) can als)o be connected to fixed or mobile computers) like a forklift mounted PC, a handheld computer, a des)ktop computer or a laptop. Thes)e portable interrogators) can be connected either wireles)s)ly or tethered with a wire cable. 08/02/20 263

RFID RFID , 2KB , . , , , . 08/02/20 264

RFID O RFID . , , , , , , . 08/02/20 265

RFID Radio frequency is) not an optical technology RFID can be s)us)ceptible to interference from other radio trans)mis)s)ions) and metal Some materials) abs)orb RF s)ignals) more readily than others) Sens)itivity to interference varies) by frequency and the us)age environment. 08/02/20 266

RFID Frequency Band 125 134 KHz 13.553 13.567 MHz 400 1000 MHz* 2.45 GHz

Description Low frequency High frequency Ultra-high frequency (UHF) Microwave Range To 18 inches) 3 -10 feet 10 - 30 feet 10+ feet *Mos)t RFID s)ys)tems) in the UHF band operate between 860 and 930 MHz.

08/02/20 267 RFID , , . cas)e s)tudies) : 08/02/20 268

RFID RFID , Famar, . RFID , Coca Cola 3E, ORASY)S. 08/02/20 RFID , .., Mobile Technology

RFID , , TREDIT. RFID & , , . RFID , , Bus)ines)s) Effectivenes)s) RFID , , Datalex 269 Internet of Things Kevin Ashton, 1999, MIT Innovators)

(Innovators)-early adopters)-mas)s)es)-laggards) in technology adoption curve by Bohlen, Beal, Rogers), 1957) Internet of Things Internet (7 billion us)ers) 2015, 12 billion connected devices) 2015 - es)timation 50 billion 2020, Internet economy:10 trillion dollars)) iPhone 2007 (1.9 billion / 2015 - es)timation 5.6 / 2019) iPad 2010 RFID Near Field Communication Cloud Computing nanobots) Internet of Things

Object types): 1.Phys)ical firs)t (generate digital data by augmentation or manipulation e.g. tagged) 2.Digital firs)t Indus)trial Internet (machines) with s)ens)ors)) M2M, H2M, M2S Internet of Humans) -------------------------------------Internet of Everything (by Cis)co) Internet of Things Security 614 data breaches) in 2013 - >92 million records) only in USA (Identity Theft Res)ource Center)

Internet of Things International Data Corporation: By 2020 40 zettabytes) (1 zettabyte=250 billion DVDs)=35 years) of nons)top viewing HD video or 3 million books) per pers)on on the planet) Internet of Things Doug Laney, analys)t, 2001: Volume (s)ize) Velocity (generate) Variety (types)) Internet of Things

FUTURE Mobile devices): accelerometers), gyros)copes), s)mell, tas)te (Google Chauffeur) Drones) Nanos)ens)ors), Optical Fiber Real Time Location Sys)tems) (e.g. track pers)ons) route in a s)tore) Internet of Things Industry 4.0 Value of perfect information Big Data (15% machine-generated) Data Analytics

Internet of Things Data Bas)es): uns)tructured, multimedia, graph Internet of Things Matter of protocols) & Standards) (e.g X10, Z-Wave, PAN) (2014 AT&T, CISCO, GE, IBM, INTEL) Open s)ys)tems) Information Age

(OLAP) (Data Mining) (Bus)ines)s) Proces)s) Modelling) DIAXEIRISH & ANALYSH (CRM) (ERP) 08/02/20


Customer relationship management: improve customer retention rate direct mail response campaigns Retail. Market basket analysis

point of sale transactions Finance. Potential fraudulent transactions risk analysis (credit risk, bankruptcy prediction) movement of the data (exchange rate fluctuations, managing stock

portfolios) E DATA MINING Manufacturing Job shop scheduling Match Health part requirements

and Medical Administration Fraudulent Most of patient services insurance claims cost-effective health care providers Diagnosis Energy and Utility

Whether Power forecasting demand prediction THE 80:20 RULE profit customer base 80 60


MINING MINING VIRAL MARKETING Bus)ines)s) vs) Software Modelling the requirements) for the information s)ys)tems) are often written by the s)ame people that make des)ign decis)ions). The cons)equence is) a technology-driven rather than a bus)ines)s)-driven information s)ys)tem (i.e. concentrating on is)s)ues) like the us)er interface or s)pecific implementation techniques), rather than on what the bus)ines)s) really requires from the system).

A bus)ines)s) model hold the bas)is) for all the information s)ys)tems) within a bus)ines)s). ot all of the objects) or proces)s)es) within the bus)ines)s) may be directly mapped onto the information s)ys)tem. changing of a bus)ines)s) the bus)ines)s) proces)s) improvement (BPI) the bus)ines)s) innovation (BI) the bus)ines)s) proces)s) re-engineering (BPR) - 'radical' form of BI BPI: incremental change in s)mall continuous) s)teps), (pos)s)ible negative impact on the bus)ines)s) is) minimized) BI proces)s)es) are cons)iderably changed,

(s)ubs)tantial improvements) - a higher ris)k of failure) BPR: double/triple the bus)ines)s) efficiency, (s)trong res)is)tance from the human res)ources)) Information s)ys)tems) are a key element in whatever bus)ines)s) change approach is) us)ed Bus)ines)s) Model Business Architecture a s)et of elements) and the well-defined relations) between them that form a whole defined by its) functionality Business Rules ens)ure that the bus)ines)s) is) run in accordance with external or internal

res)trictions) and/or goals) Business Views (Vision, Process, Structure, Behaviour) tackle the complexity of bus)ines)s)es), should not be accomplished in isolation Unified Modeling Language (UML) "The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system. The UML offers a standard way to write a system's blueprints, including conceptual things such as business processes and system

functions as well as concrete things such as programming language statements, database schemas, and reusable software components." Unified Modeling Language (UML) 1. The Us)er Interaction or Us)e Cas)e Model - des)cribes) the boundary and interaction between the s)ys)tem and us)ers). Corres)ponds) in s)ome res)pects) to a requirements) model. 2. The Logical or Clas)s) Model - des)cribes) the clas)s)es) and objects) that will make up the s)ys)tem. 3. The Interaction or Communication Model - des)cribes) how objects) in the s)ys)tem will interact with each other to get work done. 4. The State or Dynamic Model - State charts) des)cribe the s)tates) or conditions) that clas)s)es) as)s)ume over time. Activity graphs) des)cribe the workflows) the s)ys)tem will implement.

5. The Phys)ical Component Model - des)cribes) the s)oftware (and s)ometimes) hardware components)) that make up the s)ys)tem. 6. The Phys)ical Deployment Model - des)cribes) the phys)ical architecture and the deployment of components) on that hardware architecture. Unified Modeling Language (UML) The domain is) the actual world from which the problem comes). A model is) an abs)traction of the underlying problem. Models) cons)is)t of objects that interact by s)ending each other messages. Objects) have things) they know (attributes) and things) they can do (behaviors or operations).

The values) of an object's) attributes) determine its) state. Classes are the "blueprints)" for objects). A clas)s) wraps) attributes) (data) and behaviors) (methods) or functions)) into a s)ingle dis)tinct entity. Unified Modeling Language (UML) 1. Us)e cas)e diagrams) 2. Clas)s) diagrams) 3. Package/Object diagrams) 4. Sequence diagrams) 5. Collaboration diagrams) 6. Statechart diagrams) 7. Activity diagrams)

8. Component diagrams) 9. Deployment diagrams) 1. 3. Us)e cas)e diagrams) 2. Clas)s) diagrams) Package/Object diagrams) behavior diagrams: 4. Statechart diagrams)

5. Activity diagrams) interaction diagrams: 6. Sequence diagrams) 7. Collaboration diagrams) implementation diagrams 8. Component diagrams) 9. Deployment diagrams) UML: Use Case Model A Us)e Cas)e repres)ents) a dis)crete unit of interaction between a us)er (human or machine) and the s)ys)tem.

This) interaction is) a s)ingle unit of meaningful work, s)uch as) Create Account or View Account Details). can include another Us)e Cas)e's) functionality or extend another Us)e Cas)e Use Case Communication Association UML: Use Case Diagrams The emphas)is) is) on what a s)ys)tem does) rather than how "A patient calls) the clinic to make an appointment for a yearly checkup. The receptionis)t finds) the neares)t empty time s)lot in the appointment book and s)chedules) the appointment for that time s)lot."

UML: Class Diagrams (Business View:Structure) Clas)s) diagrams) are s)tatic - they dis)play what interacts) but not what happens) when they do interact. The clas)s)es) may repres)ent information, products), documents), or organizations). Links) connecting Clas)s)es) Association: a relations)hip between ins)tances) of the two clas)s)es). There is) an as)s)ociation between two clas)s)es) if an ins)tance of one clas)s) mus)t know about the other in order to perform its) work. Aggregation: an as)s)ociation in which one clas)s) belongs) to a collection. An aggregation has) a diamond end pointing to the part containing the whole. Generalization: an inheritance link indicating one clas)s) is) a s)uperclas)s) of the other. A generalization has) a triangle pointing to the s)uperclas)s).

UML: Class Diagrams UML: Class Diagrams An end may have a role name to clarify the nature of the link. A navigability arrow on a link s)hows) which direction the lik can be travers)ed or queried. Links) with no navigability arrows) are bi-directional. The multiplicity of a link end is) the number of pos)s)ible ins)tances) of the clas)s) as)s)ociated with a s)ingle ins)tance of the other end. Multiplicities) are s)ingle numbers) or ranges) of numbers). Multiplicities Meaning

0..1 zero or one instance. The notation n . . m indicates n to m instances 0..* or * no limit on the number of instances (including none) 1 exactly one instance 1..*

at least one instance UML: Class Diagrams UML: Package/object Diagrams Package: group of clas)s)es) (to s)implify complex clas)s) diagrams)) A package is) a collection of logically related UML elements). Dependencies: dotted arrows). One package depends) on another if changes) in the other could pos)s)ibly force changes) in the firs)t. UML: Package/object Diagrams Object diagrams s)how ins)tances) ins)tead of clas)s)es). They are us)eful for explaining s)mall pieces) with complicated relations)hips), es)pecially recurs)ive relations)hips).

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