Terms of Assessment

Terms of Assessment

Chapter 3 Assessment Reflections on Assessment Consider the various pros and cons of assessment. What benefits does it offer? What are its drawbacks?

What did you think of the various tests (especially the standardized ones) you had to take when you were in school? Types of Assessments NCTE/IRA Standards for Assessment of Reading and Writing

From Standards for the Assessment of Reading and Writing by the International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English, Copyright 2009 by the International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English. Reprinted with permission. Visit www.ncte.org/standards/assessmentstandards for the complete standards. Formal/Standardized Assessments Intelligence tests Achievement tests Diagnostic tests

Advantages/Disadvantages of Standardized Tests Primary advantages: Indicate whether an individual student needs additional screening Designed for validity and reliability

Primary disadvantages: Students can guess at the answers, which results in inaccurate scores Students might be able to answer questions without understanding a passage

Accommodations for English Learners When Taking Standardized Tests Make language understandable Give them more time Give the test orally Give the test in students own language, if possible Allow students to use

spell check On multiple-choice tests, reduce options to two On fill-in-the-blank questions, provide a word bank Interpret idioms Simplify directions

Use a peer interpreter Informal Assessment Instruments Gauge what an individual student can do Diagnose reading problems Check reading levels Analyze which cueing

systems are being used Highlight a students interests and attitudes toward reading/writing Monitor growth Allow a student to reflect on literacy accomplishments

Allow a student to set realistic goals Help a teacher plan for instruction Emergent and Beginning Readers Informal Reading Inventories (IRIs) Purpose:

Determine reading level of child based on miscues Determine reading comprehension based on retelling Types: Lists of leveled words, phrases, or sentences Sets of graded reading passages with accompanying questions

Miscue Analysis Analyzes the degree to which miscues change, disrupt, or enhance the meaning of a written text. (Goodman, Watson & Burke, 1987, p. 5) Types of miscues: Substitutions

Mispronunciations Repetitions/insertions Omissions Conventions Used for Miscue Analysis Running Records Give teachers the opportunity to observe, score, and interpret students reading

behaviors. Objectives: Determine a students instructional level Analyze cues used/neglected during oral reading Analyze a students strategic processing of a text Use the results to plan for individual instruction Qualitative Analysis of a Running Record

Determines which cueing system the student used when making an error: SemanticDoes this error make sense in the sentence? SyntacticDoes that sound right in the sentence? Visual or graphophonicDoes the error look like the word in the text? Running Record Conventions

Cloze Tests Purpose is to help teachers: Understand how readers use context and background knowledge to determine unknown words Determine the reading level for a particular text Sample Anecdotal Record

Checklist for Second Grade Based on Oklahoma Standards Rubrics List competencies that students are expected to master Act as scoring guides for particular assignments or for particular evaluation

periods Show growth in a particular area Identify the weaknesses of individual students Portfolios Collections of students work Purpose: Organize materials

Document growth Display exemplary work Types: Working, growth, best-work Can be electronic or in a physical format Authentic Assessments with English Learners

Measure the students knowledge base (through interviews) Allow the student to demonstrate knowledge using non-language methods Observe the student Use the language experience approach (LEA) Surveys Personal interest surveys

Attitude surveys To determine a students particular likes and dislikes of reading/writing To help a student build a more positive attitude Student Self-Assessment Instruments Book logs Skill logs

Reflection logs Accomplishment and goal-setting logs Sample Accomplishment and Goal-Setting Log Technology and Assessment Free resources for teachers to assess students in

different areas of literacy: Frontline Phonics (www.frontlinephonics.com) Test 4 Free (www.test4free.com) Vocabulary Test (www.vocabtest.com) Learningable Kids (www.learningablekids.com) World-English (http://world-English.org) More Reflections on Assessment Think back to when you took standardized tests

in school. Did test-taking make you nervous? How did a teachers attitudes about the test and its results affect you? How can you, as a teacher, make test-taking a pain-free experience for your own students? Related Video Presentation

You can see a video of the author demonstrating the running records analysis (which is related to material on page 56 of the text).

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