Teaching Pre U Chinese History Strategies

Teaching Pre U Chinese History Strategies

Strategies for Teaching Pre U Chinese Culture Paper Xiaoming Sun Ibstock Place School 18 May 2016 Scheme of Assessment Paper 4 Chinese Culture Syllabus 2016-18

Section 1 Topics in Chinese culture (30 marks) The founding of the Peoples Republic of China (1936-57) Chinese economic trends since 1978 Emerging China: population, environment and migration Section 2 Chinese literature and film 30 marks Fiction Love in a Fallen City and other stories, Eileen Chang Fiction Boat to Redemption, Su Tong Film Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress, Dai Sijie Key Things to Know

2 essays , one question on Culture, one literature or film

2 hours 30 minutes, 60 marks , 600-750 words in English A assessed for content (25 marks) and structure (5 marks) Questions set and answered in English Principal Course VS Short Course Principal course 2 questions to be answered in the examination (1 from each section)

Worth 25% of the total marks for the syllabus Short course 1 question to be answered in the examination (can be taken from either section) Worth 60% of the total marks for the syllabus How to be accessed? Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of aspects of Chinese Society The examination will assess candidates

knowledge and understanding of their chosen cultural options and ability to use this knowledge to answer a question in a clear and focused manner. The founding of the Peoples Republic of China (1936-57) Key Areas to Study

The United Front The Yanan Period The mass line Sino-Japanese War, 19371945 The Civil War, 19461949 Land Reform Sino-Soviet relations The Nationalists The Korean War First Five Year Plan

Education Politics in Command Mass Campaigns in the fifties. Suggested Resources Topic Resources Main Textbooks The Peoples Republic Of China 19491976 Lynch M ISBN 9780340929278 China 19001976 Stewart G

ISBN 9780435327699 China: From Empire to Peoples Republic 1900 -49 Lynch M ISBN:9781444110128 Topic Resources Recommended Reading China: From Empire to Peoples Republic Lynch M ISBN 9781444110128 A Short History of China Kerr G ISBN 9781842439685

China: A History Keay J Year ISBN 9780007221783 The Tragedy of Liberation: A History of the Chinese Revolution 1945 1957 Dikotter F ISBN 9781408837573 Chinas War with Japan, 1937-1945: The struggle for survival Mitter R ISBN 9781846140105 Scheme of work

Strategies for Teaching Paper 4: Chinese Culture Mock Teaching Topic: Teaching Strategies: How were the Communist Party able to consolidate control? What would Mao do?

PRC: The Early Years - Political and Social Reform Problem 1 (S) Order and Control: 37 years of warlord rule has produced social disintegration and criminal habits on a vast scale. It has been estimated that there were 1 million bandits in the countryside by 1949. Thieves and gangsters stalked the cites and many women turned to prostitution as a means of survival. There were also many ex-GMD sympathisers who had not

managed to escape to Taiwan. 2 (S) Foreigners: there are still many foreigners living and working in China. The regime is VERY suspicious of them. 3 (L /S) The Bureaucratic / Capitalist Class: its 1952 and you are concerned that

there are still remnants of this class of people in China. 4 (L) Political Parties: there are still multiple political parties which worries you. 5 (L) The general population: you are worried about the way the population are thinking. Are they plotting against you? Are they having un-communist

thoughts? Are they supporting other parties / political groups? 6 (L) The middle class: you are increasingly worried about Chinas bourgeoisie. You have used them to help settle the teething problems of the PRC. However you are determined to turn China into a fully Marxist state in which only one class will exist the proletariat (revolutionary workers).

7 (L) Who are you ruling? You are worried about the lack of information you have about your population. 8 (S) You are concerned about the position of women in china. In a truly communist society all citizens should be equal.

WWMD? What did Mao do? Change / Continuity? Extent? Mock Teaching Topic : The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945

Background Characteristics of Yanan Soviet Quality of Life Maos Revolution CCP Control in Yanan

The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945 Background The Communist Party established a base at Yanan after having completed its escape from the Nationalists at the end of the year-long Long March in October 1935. During the march, Mao Zedong had come to a dominant position within the CCP, and upon arrival in Yanan, it was Mao that established a ruthless authoritarian dictatorship over the Soviet, a rule that would last nearly ten years.

The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945 Characteristics of Yanan Soviet The Yanan Soviet, although under Maos authoritarian rule in practice, was actually an improvement on the past for many Communists. By moving to Yanan, the peasants were able to enjoy better living conditions and quality of life than what they had had to endure in Jiangxi and on the Long March. The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945

Quality Of Life The Yanan people lived in caves sculpted out of the loess hillsides in Yanan, which were a significant improvement on the mud huts that the peasants had traditionally lived in. Furthermore, some loess caves were so vast that there were hospitals, entertainment centres and other such facilities that improved their quality of life significantly. The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945 Quality Of Life

As well as the caves, the people in Yanan were able to grow their own food. This, again in contrast to past experiences, meant that there was minimal threat of famine or hunger for the people, and although the food supply was not necessarily plentiful, it was significantly better than it was in Jiangxi. The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945 Quality Of Life

Furthermore, the Yanan lifestyle introduced a genuine sense of a closer community than there had ever been in Jiangxi, due to the collective feeling of having survived the Long March, and the anticipation of building a never-before-seen type of society in Yanan. The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945 Maos Revolution The Yanan period was hugely significant in Mao Zedongs

process of creating and forming his political ideas with regards to Chinese revolutionary concepts and political rule. After he had taken dominance in the party by denouncing his opponents at the Zunyi Conference in January 1935, Mao promoted the idea of a rural revolution from the peasantry, which resulted in the CCP permanently divorcing itself from the Russian Cominterns ideology. The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945 Maos Revolution

However, it was not until Yanan, where Mao had sufficient time, that a strong ideology of Maoism was formed. Here, Mao suggested that, in order to comply with the dialectical process, the CCP had to ally with the GMD to bring about the bourgeois stage of the revolution. He then noted that Chinas ultimate aim was not the peasant revolution that he had promoted before, as he viewed this as the precursor to the final proletarian revolution, once Marxism would suit China, not when China would suit

Marxism. Maos Revolution Maos definition of the proletariat was somewhat different to the Soviets, as he saw them as anyone who had suffered at the hands of so-called class enemies (i.e. landlords or elites). This is when he began his strategy of imposing complete conformity over the Yanan Soviet

and its surrounding areas by creating an authoritarian rule. CCP Control in Yanan Upon liberation of Yanan and its surrounding areas, the Communists took to eliminating all of the class enemies by either driving them out, arresting or executing them, and then redistributing land amongst the peasantry in order to gain local support for the Communist cause.

This created various pockets of anti-Nationalist and anti-Japanese peasants, which led to an even greater spread and sphere of influence over Northern China. The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945 CCP Control in Yanan In the Soviet, the Communists control was largely exercised by Maos authoritarian regime. This rule consisted of many brutal strategies intended to

impose total conformity and support for the CCP and Maoism from the local people and the party members. It consisted of characteristics such as: The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945 CCP Control in Yanan Maos Rectification Movement (1941-45) a period in Yanan where Mao used brutal oppression of the peoples freedom in order to indoctrinate them with the Maoist ideology and force

them to conform fully with his rule. This movement consisted of such brutal characteristics as forced confessions, torture and waterboarding, and thought examinations, which were intended to drive out all antiMaoist thoughts and create a sense of total indoctrination. The Communists in Yanan 1935-1945 CCP Control in Yanan Furthermore, Mao continued his strategies of purging internal party enemies as he had done in the 30th May Incident (1925), but he also introduced the concept of public denouncements

and humiliations of party and class enemies, intended to create a sense of fear for the people, while also to further promote his own ideology. This is seen as particularly significant as it was one of the key characteristics of Maos rule in the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s when he had control of all of China. Essay Writing Practice question How far were the policies and ideology developed in the Yanan period

implemented in the early years of the People's Republic of China? Indicative contents need to demonstrate a knowledge of the Yanan period, looking at for example democratic centralism, politics in command, mass line dominant role of Mao and Mao Zedong thought Part discipline (purges and self-criticism) political control of all cultural activities (Yanan

forum) land reform the development of a distinctive Chinese version of Marxism Leninism and analyse how far these were implemented post 1949 Peer Feedback Identify what went well try and explain what you liked and why it was good Identify even better if how could they

improve it Essay Writing Question types how far questions and why questions. How far questions can be identified by certain key words and phrases, Discuss (often following a quotation) Analyse Evaluate

To what extent How far How far includes other phrases which begin with how, e.g. how valid or how accurate or how successfully How Far Vs How How did the Chinese Communist Party become the party of government in 1949 How far did the Chinese Communist Party become the party of government in 1949

Essay Writing Question types why questions. I It invites discussion and debate, requires an argumentative approach. Why did the Chinese Communist Party seize power in 1949 Essay Writing For a distinction, learners must write

a well-argued essay clear focused Essay Writing Key messages Questions are open to interpretation: candidates should consider the wording of the question and outline their approach to answering it No right or wrong way to answer a question: candidates should

develop an argument and produce evidence to support it As well as facts, candidates should include discussion (backed up by examples), analysis and evaluation To score highly, candidates should write a well-argued essay which is clear and focused Candidates should write in a formal style Essay Writing Key messages

The introduction Summary Essay Writing Points to Remember Use technical terms accurately Language, punctuation, vocabulary, paragraph us Give evidence and quoting

Essay Writing Preparation and Planning Check you understand what question is asking Highlight the key words Brainstorm- list all the ideas and materials you are going to use and put them in order Essay Writing Writing An introduction, a coherent and well-developed

argument and a conclusion Keep referring back to the question at the end of every paragraph Your argument is logical and progressive Support each point with reference to quotes and explain clearly Conclude by bring together your key points Proof- read and make corrections Teaching Strategies

Suggested games and activities True / false Gap fill Who am I? Time lines What happened next?: Spidergrams or mind maps: How much can you say? Alphabet game Emotions

Quotation game Strategies for Examining Paper 4: Chinese Culture Key things to know One question on Culture, one on Literature and Film 2hr 30 (therefore 1hr 15 for the culture section)

Recommendations 1. Spend 15 minutes planning and one hour writing 2. To get the top marks 600 words is not enough. An excellent answer would be 750 words or more(as a guide) but it needs to be firmly focused on the question. Key Points from the mark scheme

1. Knowledge should be used 2. Answers should be clear and focused 3. They should also be coherent and structured 4. There should be a sense of direction, clarity and balance What does this mean? Knowledge should be used -When giving examples, these then need to be explained (using the word because, for

example) and linked to the question set. Otherwise they are not being used they are being dumped What does this mean? Answers should be clear and focused They should also be coherent and structured There should be a sense of direction, clarity and balance This means follow the structure I will tell you

to use. It will showcase all of these things! ____________________________________________________________________________________________ GOS Discussion of Factors Judgement in relation to the question Factor Evidence/Explanation

Analysis Judgement Conclusion: Explain important factor and why. Explain the interrelationship between factors. Make sure you provide a concise answer to the question here. Types of Essay 1. How far would you agree? 2. How successful?

3. To what extent? 4. Discuss Types of Judgement Type of Essay Type of Judgement How far?/ To what extent

Ensure you give an extent that you agree or disagree. There should be an explanation as to WHY this is the case, showing the relative importance of factors How successful? You will need to define success in your introduction and then evaluate each factor in relation to your criteria. In the conclusion it is important to assess which area was the most successful and why.

Discuss Dont be caught out by this one! A discuss question still requires a judgement to be reached. There should be a discussion of the most important factor/ reason depending on the question, and a clear explanation as to why this is the case. Essay writing: Key things the examiner will be looking for

Introduction Opening Sentence which addresses the question; Tell the examiner your paragraph headings; Give your answer to the question Which introduction would you chose? (Think about the checklist.. Can you guess the question?) In September 1945, the Empire of Japan surrendered to

the Western Allies and thus brought an end to the Second World War and the Second Sino-Japanese War. There were many key reasons for why the Chinese were able to defeat Japan despite its weak start from 1937-41, such as the increased role of the USA, Japanese mistakes, and the growth in strength of the Chinese Communists .

Which introduction would you chose? (Think about the checklist.. Can you guess the question?) The period 1937-49 was a transformative one for China, one in which the two greatest enemies, the Communists and the Nationalists, united to defeat a greater evil in the form of Japan, and then returned to their fight for supremacy within China, ultimately resulting in the victory of the Chinese Communists (CCP) in 1949, leading to the founding of the People's Republic of

China (PRC). This outcome can be attributed to several key factors, such as the wider international situation, as well as the strengths of the CCP over this period and the weaknesses of the Nationalists. Teaching a novel, short story, film Importance of background so that candidates can make sense Importance of a thorough knowledge and understanding of the text/film

Exposure to different points of view group work / class discussion Guidance on essay writing (see chapter in the Teacher guide) Film Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress Practice questions 1.How does the Dai Sijie portray the harshness of life in China during the Cultural Revolution? To what extent is the film an

historical document? 2. What does Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress by Dai Sijie reveal about the nature and purpose of China's Cultural Revolution and the suffering it caused? 3.How does the novel offer a more intimate portrait of what life was like under Chairman Mao than a strictly historical account could? 4.Discuss the role of women in the film 5. Discuss the role and the theme of Literature in the film 6.Examine the importance of friendship in the film. Who do you

feel was the dominant character of the three friends? How convincing is Dai Sijies portrayal of the relationships between the three friends? Film Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress Essay titles on the following themes from the spec:

Power and the impact of classical literature and art

Brutality and the Cultural Revolution Political repression and freedom of thought Youth and love Cinematography Audience impact and critical reaction Change and tradition The individual and the collective The role of women Nostalgia and reality Rural Sichuan

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