Teaching & Assessing History Pre-U Mandarin Paper 4 Ashley Hern Manchester Grammar School [email protected] Challenges of teaching Paper 4 History Scope of the curriculum Balancing depth vs. breadth Available teaching time
Writing and marking essays Complexity of ideological issues Encouraging independent study skills Making it relevant But there are also opportunities! Placing contemporary China into a historical context: o South China sea conflict o Chinese/Japanese relations o Understanding contemporary Chinese politics
Challenging Euro-centrism - making China part of a global history A gateway into Chinas rich historical & cultural heritage Remembering the SinoJapanese War China and Japan are divided by the way they remember World War II In Japan the official position has been to forget, while in China the CCP gains legitimacy from remembering the wars atrocities Rape of Nanjing (1937) & the Comfort
Women both regularly surface as public issues when relations between China and Japan are strained Xis look of distaste in 2014 handshake with Shinzo Abe reflect the importance of antiJapanese feeling tolerated and encouraged by the CCP in China https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnFQmh1Xya8 Where do I start? The syllabus begins with the Xian incident of 1936 and the creation of the Second United Front but how did we get there? The syllabus requires an overview of the developments that led
to Xian various potential starting points: o Chinas difficult 19th century? o 4th May movement o The Northern Expedition and the end of the First United Front 1926 27 o The Long March 1934 35 Seeing this as an opportunity for independent learning (using In Our Time (Radio 4) Pre-U History Syllabus Breakdown The Sino-Japanese War 1937 1945
The Second United Front The GMDs strategy & conduct of the war The CCPs strategy & conduct of the war The international context especially the role of the USA Key exam questions: What was more significant in Chinas victory over Japan: internal developments or external factors?
Who emerged stronger from the Sino-Japanese War the GMD or the CCP? Key debate (see Rana Mitter) Did Chiangs mistakes lose him the war? How important was the role of the USA? Were the CCP the real anti-Japanese resistance, rather than the GMD? Rana Mitter Book Club! Pre-U History Syllabus Breakdown Maos theoretical developments in the Yanan period
The key elements of Mao Zedong Thought Two Revolutions theory The Mass Line Rectification & thought control Role of art & literature in society The relationship with the USSR
Key exam questions: How important were the policies and ideas developed in the Yanan years in the CCPs success? How far were Maos ideas put into practice during the early years of the PRC? Key debate To what extent did the Yanan period represent liberation or a new form of social control? How significant was the use of intimidation & the development of the Cult of Personality in shaping the CCPs policies? Were they a means to seize power or a betrayal of the original movement? Understanding Maostalgia in modern China ( http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/world-asia-pacific-13987651/china-s-red-tourism-makes-revolution-fun) Understanding Mao Zedong Thought
Pre-U History Syllabus Breakdown The Civil War 1945 1949 (usually examined in the context of 1937 45) The end of the Second United Front The GMDs weaknesses & their conduct of the war The CCPs strengths and strategy esp. support of the peasantry The international context: how did the USSR & the USA determine the outcome?
Key exam questions: Was it GMD mistakes or the CCPs strengths that led to the victory of the CCP in 1949? What was more significant: internal developments or external factors? Key debate Did Chiangs mistakes lose him the war? How far did the CCP win the Civil War by default? How important was the attitude of the USA in allowing the CCP victory? Pre-U History Syllabus Breakdown
The Establishment of the Peoples Republic The new political and administrative structures of the PRC The effects of the Korean War Role of the USSR Land Reform
The First Five Year Plan Education Mass mobilisation projects Key exam questions: How far did the CCP succeed in changing China between 1949 and 1956? How far did Mao put the ideals of the Yanan years into practice? What role did the USSR play in the PRC? Key debate How far were the 1950s a golden age in China? How far did Mao act in his own interest rather than the CCPs or Chinas?
1949 1956: A Golden Age for the PRC? Resources - textbooks Websites Alpha History an excellent resource http://alphahistory.com/chineserevolution/ Asia for Educators a useful background resource http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ Podcast Series: Modern China https:// www.history.org.uk/student/categories/495/module/3374/podc
ast-series-modern-china Techniques for independent learning Guided note-taking Using learning grids Reading articles & multiple-choice tests Student presentations Class debates Essay writing What makes a good essay? Answers the question that is asked, not the question the
student wishes was asked Each paragraphs focus is analysis rather than description Analysis is supported by precisely recalled examples There is a coherent argument which shows prior thought and planning: integrative argument An introduction which highlights the key issues A conclusion which brings the threads of the essay together Assessing essays - Content 2325 Excellent Excellent ability to organise material in relation to the question. Comprehensive response with an extensive number of relevant points targeting the terms of the question with precision. Displays detailed knowledge and sustained analysis. 1922 Very good
A thoughtful and well-argued response to the question. Includes a large number of relevant points, well illustrated. Displays thorough knowledge, good understanding and analysis of the material. 1518 Good A well-argued response to the question. Includes a good number of relevant points, most of which are developed and illustrated. Some limitations of insight, but a coherent approach. 1114 Satisfactory A mainly relevant response to the question. Shows fair knowledge and understanding of the material. Includes a fair number of relevant points, not always linked and/or developed. 610 Weak An uneven OR basic response to the question. Shows some knowledge and understanding of the material. Includes some relevant points, but development and illustration are limited. Contains padding AND/OR has some obvious omissions OR is largely narrative/description. 15 Poor Little attempt to answer the question. Only elementary knowledge and understanding of the material. Makes very few relevant points
and even these are largely undeveloped and unsubstantiated OR a response which makes hardly any attempt to address the terms of the question but which displays a basic general knowledge of the material. 0 No rewardable content. Assessing essays - structure 5 Very good A well-structured and coherent piece of writing, with ideas and arguments clearly linked throughout. All paragraphs well-constructed. Includes a comprehensive introduction and conclusion. 4 Good A clear structure, with logical presentation of ideas. Most paragraphs well constructed. Includes an adequate introduction and conclusion. 3 Satisfactory Some success in organising material and ideas into a structured piece of writing. A reasonable attempt to
paragraph but weakness in introduction and conclusion. 2 Weak Some attempt to organise material and ideas into a structured piece of writing. Many single-sentence paragraphs or no attempt at paragraphing. Organisation of ideas not always logical. 1 Poor No attempt to organise material and ideas into a structured piece of writing. Incoherent. Ideas introduced in no apparent order. 0 No rewardable structure.
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