SUPREME COURT CASES CONTINUED The Judicial Branch of Government New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985) What Happened? A student was caught smoking in bathroom & asked to open purse. VPrincipal found rolling paper used for marijuana and asked student to dump out purse- found money, marijuana, and list of people owing
her money Decision- Schools can search students if they have reasonable suspicion; rights are restricted at school because of safety for all students 4th Amendment Bethel School District v. Fraser (1983) What Happened? A student gave a Speech using
obscene language at an assembly Decision- Schools may limit the profane, obscene lewd speech of a student 1st Amendment In re Gault (1967) What Happened? Gerald Gault a 15 year old was sent to a juvenile detention center for an alleged obscene phone
call, no lawyer and no witnesses Decision- Juveniles are provided due process as well as adults 5th and 14th Amendments- Due Process McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) What Happened? The State of Maryland tried to put a tax on a branch of the Bank of the US a Federal Bank; ALSO
is a National Bank Constitutional Decision- A state cannot tax a federal institution & Yes a National Bank is constitutional Supremacy Clause Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) What Happened? Ogden state license to ferry people from NYC to NJ, Gibbons also ferried people but had no
state license Decision- The Federal govt has the power over the state to regulate interstate commerce. Federal ferry license prevails over a State Ferry License Supremacy Clause Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) What Happened? Sanford, a slave owner, lived in MO (a
slave state) took Dred Scott his slave to IL (a free state) and Scott said he was now free Decision- Dred Scott was not a citizen because he was of African decent, therefore he could not sue or be a free citizen. Also to deprive a person of property (in this case, Dred Scott) without due process or just compensation violated the 5th Amendment, which states that No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law
Dred Scott Furman v. Georgia (1971) What Happened? Georgia death penalty law was vague and many people were claiming the punishment was too harsh based on the crime Decision- Furman not put to death- In some cases the
death penalty is considered cruel and unusual punishment 8th and 14th Amendments Gregg v. Georgia (1976) What Happened? Gregg sentenced to death for 2 counts murder Decision- Upheld sentences of death death penalty itself does not violate the Constitution
8th Amendment Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) What Happened? Gideon charged with crime and at that time in FL lawyers were only given for death penalty. He had no money to pay a lawyer and was found guilty. Decision- All accused persons are entitled to a lawyer, even if they cannot afford one
6th Amendment Miranda v. Arizona (1966) What Happened? Miranda arrested but not told his right to not confess to the crime, he signed a confession and was convicted Decision- A person must be read his or her rights before being arrested
5th Amendment Mapp v. Ohio (1961) What Happened? Police searched Mapps house with a fake warrant and found illegal material Decision- Illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court Amendments 4th and 14th
Olmstead v. US (1928) What Happened? Olmstead was line was tapped during the time of prohibition and he was arrested for alcohol smuggling Decision- Reasonable expectation of privacy did not include wiretapping- 4th amendment does not protect individuals form wiretapping. And this evidence may be
used in court Engel v. Vitale (1962) What Happened? School board required students to say a prayer at beginning of each day Decision- A school cannot require students to pray; this court case upheld separation of church and state 1st Amendment
Schenck v. US (1919) What Happened? Anti-WWI leader who urged men to resist the draft by passing out flyers Decision- Free speech is limited during times of war 1st Amendment
Bush v. Gore (2000) What Happened? Case over recounting votes in the state of FL Decision- Ruled that the recount of presidential votes in FL violated the 14th Amendment; recount stopped and Bush became president
halophile. pathogen. bacteriophage. How Diseases are Spread. airborne. direct contact. touching a sore on the skin or on a mucous membrane. includes bloodbornepathogens. How Diseases are Spread. airborne . direct contact. indirect contact. touching a contaminated object.
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