Summer Assignment Brinkley Readings Selections of Chpt 16 ...
Summer Assignment 2016-2017 American Industrial Growth Labor supply Tech innovations Entrepreneurs Govt assistance of business Domestic market for manuf. goods Transcontinental RR Union Pacific (Omaha) going west &
Central Pacific (Sacramento) going east Land grants Promontory Point, Utah (May 1869) created 4 time zones out of necessity Changing Nature of Economy Economy of scarcity to abundance (Simon Patten) National brands Chain stores A&P, Woolworths (natl network) Greater variety & low prices
Mail-order Catalogs- Montgomery Ward, Sears & Roebuck Rural areas included in trends & tech Entertainment & Lifes Extras Electricity plays major role Meant going out public places Amusement parks, movie palaces, vaudeville houses,
dance halls, saloons, sports Race, class & gender all factors high brow/low brow Men spectator sports & gambling (baseball #1) Working class leisure New found time but not $ Street camaraderie Saloons regularsethnic basis, political connections, dark vices Movies 1st true mass enter. medium Birth of a Nation had real plot (totally racist but elaborate) Role of Pragmatic thinking
Encouraged by Darwinism Govt promotion of higher ed. land grant institutions Big Changes Iron/steel industry & rr interrelated Petroleum- lubricant & then multiple uses Dawning of auto industry by 1910 total social influence Beginning of corporate r&d - corp/univ partnerships Scientific management Frederick Taylor Mass production & assembly line Corporations- new ventures so costly needed size & capital corps provide lure of limited liability
Managerial style hierarchy of control (middle management) Corporate integration vertical & horizontal Captains of Industry or Robber Barons Carnegie steel industry vertical integration Morgan buys out Carnegie US Steel(billion $ comp) Who holds the power
(and how did he get it)? Trusts shift to holding companies (lots of power in hands of the few) Corp. size grew, costs cut, complex industrial infrastructure, new mrkts, more jobs, mass production Hugely controversial Undemocratic or Protestant work ethic on steroids? Corrupt rise to power or ingenuity of self made men?
Gap bwtn rich & poor growing Series of recessions blamed on monops. Workers Massive influx Domestic rural migrations Foreign 1865-1915 huge #s recruitment of unskilled Increased ethnic tensions Vulnerable @ work conditions &
cycles Centralized control of factory work (no control or connection to product) Women threatened social values Children social ill but laws weak or bypassed Urbanization Massive immigration (southern & eastern Europe) b/c opportunities Nativism inspires xenophobic organizations
@ all levels Quality of housing for poor not a concern South former slave quarters Cities tenements (large occupancy & low rent) How the Other Half Lives Jacob Riis City Planning Public spaces & services Public park as counter to congestion Frederick Law Olmstead Central Park Museums & libraries cities as source of
knowledge City Beautiful Movement Euro inspiredrevitalize old sections w/new impressive structures Daniel Burnhams Great White City (1893 Chicago Worlds Fair) whole-scale redesigning attempted but not achieved Back Bayout ward expansion Boston marsh zone neighborhood Skyscrapers upward expansion Passenger elevators, steel girder construction, architectural design
City Strains Crime Fire great fires destroyed large areas Less flammable building materials Professional fire dept. Disease close quarter living & working conditions Indigence Pollution as related to health issues Public Health Services (TB, poisonings) *public health as responsibility of fed. govt forerunner of OSHA (1970)
Romanticized West Cowboy myth vs reality the natural man The Frontier (closed 1890) Frederick Jackson Turners thesis Democratizing politically & socially Independence & individualism Pragmatism Safety valve farm life tough & dangerous
Bonanza farms irrigation Family farms still dominated $ needed to irrigate, use chems & machinery too much Long drives east Texas to Chicago for avg fam. land lost a lot herd on the way monopoly Chisholm Trail (Abilene, Kansas) railhead
More land going to ag rather than grazing Barbed wire (Glidden) Native Americans Threats to way of life Bureau of Indian Affairs generally incompetent War against buffalo (sport, fads, food & hides, rr devel) Almost wiped out 1875 Relocations pit tribe vs tribe Distrust Sand Creek Massacre (1864) Cheyenne Outright Hunting mining & settler conflicts Little Big Horn (1876) Sioux (Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse)-unity
Chief Joseph (1877) Nez Perce *Resistance by Ghost Dance-whites retreat, buffalo return Wounded Knee (1890) Sioux role of machine guns Assimilation Dawes Severalty Act(1887) Allowed white settlers to buy land so lost land & culture Had to prove degree of civilization to get citizenship Political Stalemate Electoral Stability High voter turnout
Cultural/regional party identification Do-little Government Role of the National Government Interpreted and accepted roles & responsibilities Party Patronage Stalwarts Roscoe Conkling, NY Halfbreeds James Blaine, ME Mugwumps wouldnt play the game sat the fence
Rutherford & Lemonade Lucy Hayes Removed last Recon. Troops from James Garfield Ohio Halfbreed Gave majority of patronage jobs to halfbreeds Chester Arthur
Stalwart Tried for distance from Stals. Pendleton Act Election of 1884 James Blaine Rum, Romanticism and Rebellion Grover Cleveland Reputation of reform & anti corruption Gets mugwump support Large NY Catholic turnout
Clevelands First Term Frugal & limited govt Civil service reform Vetoed many private pension bills (Civil War) Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 Dawes Act Anti-tariff Election of 1888 Key issue is tariff Grover Cleveland
Benjamin Harrison Electoral votes vs popular votes Billion-dollar Congress (Repubs have both houses) Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890) McKinley Tariff (1890) Civil War Pension increases Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 Return of the Democrats 1890 Congressional shift Growing agrarian discontent
The Grange Oliver Kelly First organized 1870s in the Midwest, the south, and Texas
Cooperative associations Social &educational components Succeeded in lobbying for Granger Laws. Rapidly declined by late 1870s
New Theories Social Darwinism Gospel of Wealth Horatio Alger myths OR Govt should shape econ/society or else Caesars Column Henry George Laurence Gronlund Edward Bellamy
Early Union Attempts Mostly failures seen as threat to liberty of contract Middle class viewed unions as troublemakers/radicals/ foreigners Molly Maguires seen as violent intimidators Great Railroad Strike (1877) -1st major natl labor conflict Rioted, destroyed equip. Militias called out Conflicts no longer local issues
Workers frustrated w/management & govts protections Knights of Labor Terrance Powderly Accepted almost everybody Broad themed philosophical goals Temporarily popular & then disbanded American Federation of Labor Samuel
Gompers Limited membership Skilled craftsmen Allowed women to reduce wage threat Wages & conditions primary concerns Protests & Strikes Haymarket Square (1886 Chicago)- public
meeting re:8hr day bomb thrown/police killed Symbol of social chaos, radicalism & anarchy Homestead Strike (1892 Pittsburgh) Wage cuts w/out collective bargaining Brought in Pinkertons & then militia to protect scabworkers Public opinion anti union Setback in steel industry union movement till 1930s Pullman Strike (1894 Chicago) Wages cut but no rent cuts in company town Eugene Debs leads call for walk off & boycott
Owners link pullmans to mail cars so fed. court issues injunction (supported by Cleveland) & Debs jailed Why organized labor didnt workyet Wages not keeping up w/COL Lost legislative challenges Strikes ineffective Unions represented small % of workers Women, unskilled, minorities, immigrants Ethnic/racial/language barriers
Shifting/transient workforce Belief in next generation moving to management Farmers Alliances Begun in the late 1880s (Texas first the Southern Alliance; then in the Midwestthe Northern Alliance).
Built upon the ashes of the Grange More political and less social than Grange Ran candidates for office.
Controlled 8 state legislatures & had 47 representatives in Congress during the 1890s. In 1889 both the Northern and Southern Alliances merged into onthe Farmers Alliance. Peoples Party - Populists James Weaver Small, low-tech farmers, sharecroppers & tenant
farmers raise less corn & more hell Mary Lease Did ok in pres. election but very well in st. & natl legislative contests Challenge to the brutal & chaotic way the economy was developing Omaha Platform
1. System of sub-treasuries. 2. Abolition of the National Bank. 3. Direct election of Senators. 4. Govt. ownership of RRs, telephone & telegraph companies. 5. Government-operated postal savings banks. 6. Restriction of undesirable immigration. 7. 8-hour work day for government employees. 8. Abolition of the Pinkerton detective agency. 9. Australian secret ballot.
10.Re-monitization of silver. 11.A single term for President & Vice President In Support of Govt Owned Companies Panic 1893 Conservative Cleveland reelected Stock market crash (b/c big corp bankruptcies) Bank failures Tightening of credit Fledgling comps. fail
Skyrocketing unemployment Mitigating factors Depressed crop prices Euro. depression = loss of mkts Less Euro gold in US Here Lies Prosperity A petition with boots Jacob Coxey & his Army of the Commonweal of Christ.
March on Washington hayseed socialists! Silver Question Historically bi-metal 1870s changed Mint ratio 16:1 Market ration 1873 Congress discontinues silver coinage Crime of 73 Free silver movement
Election 1896 Wm McKinley (Repub, Ohio) oppose silver coinage Mts & plains state delegates go over to Dems Wm Jennings Bryan (Dem, Nebraska) South & west delegates incorp. Populist ideas free silver Cross of Gold speech sways convention
Populists no other choice so fuse w/Dems You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold! Campaign of 1896 McKinley (w/Hanna direction & $) followed
tradition front porch campaign Bryan did opposite lot less $ & a lot more movement Bryan: The Farmers Friend (The Mint Ratio) 18,000 miles of campaign whistle stops.
The Seasoned Politician vs. The Young Newcomer Into Which Box Will the Voter of 96
Place His Ballot? 1896 Election Results Why Did Bryan Lose? Focus on silver undermined efforts to build bridges to urban voters Did not form alliances with other groups During end of campaign rising wheat
prices McKinleys campaign was well- organized and highly funded. Seen by many as a demagogue Campaign seen as undignified Presidential candidates stood for office rather than running for it Gold Triumphs Over Silver 1900 Gold
Standard Act confirmed the nations commitment to the gold standard. A victory for the forces of conservatism Significance of 1896
Election End of stalemate & stagnation of Gilded age Began era of Repub. dominance of presidency & Congress Repubs party of free soil, free labor & free men now business, industry & strong natl govt Urban dominance Beginnings of modern politics Demise of Populists
Why Did Populism Decline? The economy experienced rapid change. The era of small producers and farmers was fading away. Race divided the Populist Party,
especially in the South. The Populists were not able to break existing party loyalties. Most of their agenda was co-opted by the Democratic Party
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