Stem Cells, Cancer, and Human Health

Stem Cells, Cancer, and Human Health

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The Microscope Is a Window into the Life of a Cell The light microscope was the first instrument that enabled scientists to view the cell Electron microscopes use streams of electrons focused with magnets to magnify specimens

more than 100,000 times A scanning electron microscope creates a three-dimensional view of specimen Cells The cell is the smallest and simplest unit of life

A cell is composed of an aqueous interior enclosed in a lipid-based plasma membrane Prokaryotes smaller, few/no organelles NO NUCLEUS Eukaryotes bigger, more organelles

Prokaryotes Most prokaryotes have a tough cell wall outside the plasma membrane Prokaryotes: bacteria and archea

Some bacteria have a slippery, protective layer called a capsule Eukaryotic Cells Are much bigger than prokaryotes have many organelles

Eukaryotes: Plants, animals, algae and other protists, Fungi Endosymbiosis Endo(inside) + Sym(same)+Bio(life) The idea that eukaryotic organelles were originally free-living

prokaryotes predation => symbiosis => organelles Endosymbiosis: the evidence The mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) and chloroplasts reproduce on their own

Mitochondria and chloroplasts have own DNA DNA sequences more like bacteria than like the DNA in their cells nucleus Wrap DNA around different histone proteins

Also bacteria-like The Plasma Membrane Every cell has a plasma membrane that separates the cell from its surrounding environment

Phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins Phospholipids Opposite behavior on ends Head loves water (hydrophilic) Tail hates water (hydrophobic)

The Plasma Membrane Controls the movement of molecules in & out: Brings necessary molecules in Passes waste out

Communicates with other cells Interacts with environment Anchors the cell in place Proteins of Plasma Membrane

Proteins in the phospholipid bilayer Transport, receptor, adhesion The fluid mosaic model: proteins drift inside the phospholipid bilayer

Eukaryotic Cells: The parts A cell is composed of an cytoplasm interior enclosed in a lipid-based plasma membrane Cytoplasm contains a thick fluid called cytosol, consisting of ions and biomolecules mixed in water An organelle is a cytoplasmic structure that performs

a unique function in the cell The nucleus contains the DNA enveloped in double membranes The mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) provides the energy that fuels all cellular functions Ribosomes are important protein-manufacturing

organelles Eukaryote Nucleus: Where the DNA is DNA has instructions to make all the stuff for a cell to live, growing, or reproducing Stored as chromosomes

nuclear envelope - a double layer of membrane (outside of nucleus) The Nucleus Houses Genetic Material Nuclear pores are channels through the nuclear envelope

DNA info stays in the nucleus. RNA copies of that info The nuclear envelope contains nuclear pores RNA info will be read by ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum: makes stuff

endoplasmic reticulum (ER) a network of connected sacs and tubes made out of membranes smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down toxins for other cellular compartments and help break down toxic organic compounds in the cell

rough ER covered in ribosomes. Makes proteins dotted with ribosomes that produce proteins for Transport Vesicles: Move stuff A transport vesicle is a small sac of membrane used to move lipids, proteins, and

carbohydrates between cellular compartments The transport vesicle fuses with the membrane of the target destination in order to deliver its contents

Golgi Apparatus: Sorts/Ships stuff The Golgi apparatus directs proteins and lipids produced by the ER to their final destination (in or out of cell) addresses packages by adding specific chemical groups

Vesicles move the lipids and proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus Lysosomes: they break stuff apart Lysosomes use enzymes to break down macromolecules (big stuff) and release the

parts into the cytoplasm The interior of lysosomes is acidic (pH ~5) Vacuoles: breaking or storage Plant organelles called vacuoles act much like lysosomes to break down macromolecules

Vacuoles can also store ions, water-soluble molecules, and bad tasting compounds ((dont eat me) Vacuoles filled with water to help make the nonwoody parts of plant cells rigid

Mitochondria: the Power plant Uses food molecules to make ATP (energy) Plants also havecalled the chloroplast, which uses sunlight to make energy-storing molecules The mitochondrion is bound by double

membranes that form an intermembrane space Mitochondria Power the Cell The folds of the inner membrane form the cristae, which help to increase the surface

area for chemical reactions Mitochondria use chemical reactions to turn food molecules into ATP, which can be used to fuel the chemical reactions of the cell The process of turning food molecules into energy is called cellular respiration

Chloroplast: solar energy Chloroplast uses light to make ATP. (short lived energy source) Uses ATP from light with CO2 to make sugars Called photosynthesis; releases O2!!!

Sugars = longer term energy storage Sugars used by mitochondria of plant And everything else on earth!!! Cytoskeleton: bones of cell

Protein cylinders and filaments Microtubules (big) Intermediate filaments (medium) Microfilaments (small) Used to: help organelles move, strengthen

membrane, move entire Cilia and Flagella (microtubules used for swimming) Many protists and animals have cells covered in hairlike cilia

Microtubules inside cilia Motor proteins use ATP to bend cilia Cilia can be moved back and forth like oars Flagella: another way to swim flagellum (plural: flagella) has microtubules

inside (like cilia, but longer) Looks like a long tail. Is used to swim Used by bacteria, archaeans, and protists, and the sperm cells (plants and animals) Concept & Review

Questions Concept Quiz A. B. C.

D. Where is the secreted protein insulin synthesized? In the Golgi apparatus On the rough ER

On ribosomes in the cytoplasm In the nucleus Concept Quiz Two main types of cells are ______ and _______.

A. Prokaryotic; eukaryotic B. Bacterial; animal C. Nerves; muscles D. Plant; animal Concept Quiz

The boundary structure that physically defines a cell is the . A.Cell wall B.Selective permeability C.Plasma membrane

D.Protein coat Not Happy with your grade? Not understanding the material? Remember that the TLCC has

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