SS8H11 -

SS8H11 -

SS8H11 and SS8H12 -The Modern Civil Rights Movement -Developments in Georgia since 1970 William B. Hartsfield Brought the first airport to Atlanta in 1920s Served as Mayor of Atlanta for 6 years Led the city in

pushing for civil rights moderation Ivan Allen, Jr. Atlanta Mayor from 1962 1970 Continued integration efforts of Hartsfield Brought sports teams to ATL to increase the image of the city and to bring in money

Ellis Arnall 1st Governor to serve a 4- year term Ended the Poll Tax Lowered the voting age in GA to 18 1st state in US to do so Lost re-election to Lester Maddox

1946 Governors Race (Three Governors Controversy) In 1946, Ellis Arnall was the Governor when a new election took place.. Melvin Thompson was the Lt. Governor James Carmichael won the Popular Vote

Eugene Talmadge won the County Unit Vote, but he was sick and dyingSome knew this and wrote his son Hermans name on the ballot Herman Talmadge Claimed to be Gov. after his fathers death Eurith Rivers was the 3rd Democratic Candidate for Governor He lost Three Governors Controversy

Carmichael wins popular vote Talmadge wins the county unit vote Talmadge becomes governor but he dies and his son Herman claims to be the governor which the General Assembly supports Lt. Governor Melvin Thompson claims he should be the Governor since E. Talmadge died Carmichael claims he should be governor since he won the popular vote Herman locks himself in office declares himself governor!! Thompson eventually becomes governor after the Supreme Court makes decision that the General Assembly acted unconstitutionally; He is governor until the state can hold a special election

Herman Talmadge won the special election ending the Three Governor Controversy White Primaries and County Unit System White Primaries and County Unit System The county unit system allowed each county to have 1, single vote Whomever got the most votes in the county, got the countys

Unit Vote Only Democrats (white people) got to pick the candidate to run for office Most African Americans supported the Republican Party which was not allowed to have candidates in GA elections The popular vote did not determine White Primaries and County Unit System

Since there were more RURAL (Democratic) counties than there were URBAN (Republican) counties, the Rural Candidates won the election. Example: Urban Candidate Smart (R)

3,000,000 votes 3 counties Rural Candidate Jones (D) 1,000,000 votes 156 counties Jones wins How?

The County Unit System was ruled unconstitutional in 1962 This gave rise to a Two-Party system in Georgia, and allowed more minority participation in government. One person, one vote After the Supreme Court ruled the County Unit System to be unconstitutional, the state of

Georgia had to redraw the voting districts in order to guarantee that equal representation was present in the districts. The state could not draw district lines around counties or areas in order to create white majorities or to exclude African Americans The practice of redrawing voting districts is called REAPPORTIONMENT

Brown v. Board of Education 1950: 7 year old (African American) Linda Brown tried to enroll in a white school in Topeka, Kansas She was denied admission based on the decision of the Plessy v. Ferguson case Separate but Equal (segregation) legal The NAACP, her father, and the parents of 8 other students sued the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

1954: The Supreme Court determined that Separate-but-Equal doctrine was Unconstitutional and Plessy v. Ferguson decision was overturned Schools were ordered to desegregate with all deliberate speed No official time table/date was set so many Southern states ignored the order Herman Talmadge Governor of GA

Restructured highway department Created Georgia Forestry Commission Passed Minimum Foundation Program for Education act Extended school year to 9 months Elected to US senate

Served from 1956-81 1956 State Flag 1956 State Flag Georgia changed its flag to include the St. Andrews Cross Used by many Confederate forces Many citizens upset because it Symbolized

the old racist south Others want to keep Georgia history alive Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929 1968) Preacher & Activist Led the SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference Born and raised in Atlanta Attended Booker T. Washington High school 1944 entered Morehouse College at the age

of 15 1947 ordained at Ebenezer Baptist Church 1948 earned doctorate from Boston University Martin Luther King, Jr. continued Developed non-violent social change Influenced by Jesus & Gandhi 4 prong approach to gaining civil rights 1. non-violent action

2. legal remedies 3. ballots 4. economic boycott Martin Luther King, Jr. continued Methods: Business boycotts, Sit-ins, Marches & Speeches 1963: March on Washington for jobs & freedom 1964: Pushed passage of the Civil Rights Act & was awarded Nobel Peace Prize for actions 1965 led march in Selma, Alabama to support voting rights 1965: Pushed congress to pass the Voting Rights Act African Americans guaranteed the right to vote April 4, 1968, James Earl Ray shot and killed King at the

Lorraine Hotel in Memphis, Tennessee King was there to support black sanitation workers who were protesting for equal wages Assassination of Dr. King April 4, 1968 Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Pronounced snick Led by John Lewis John Lewis mugshot after

Mississippi Freedom Ride Students who fought for rights using non-violent methods Conducted Sit-ins and Freedom Rides People would sit down and refuse to move Black & White college students would ride busses (like Greyhound) and sit beside each other Lunch counter sit-in Woolworths

Freedom Rides John Lewis Born in Alabama to sharecropper parents Chairman of SNCC Led the march from Selma to Montgomery on Bloody Sunday in 1956 Keynote speaker at the March on Washington Active throughout the 50s-70s in Civil Rights

1981: Elected to Atlanta City Council 1986: Elected to the US House of Representatives, still serving today Sibley Commission 1960: Six years after the Brown decision stated that schools could no longer be segregated Banker John Sibley held public hearings to see how people in GA felt about integration 2 out of 3 Georgians would rather see schools closed than integrated Districts could choose when/if/how they wanted to integrate Private schools are created

Hamilton Holmes & Charlayne Hunter to UGA UGAs first black students Gov. Vandiver allowed it, but Holmes & Hunter had to have police escorts on campus Students and other citizens shouted slurs, threw items Charlayne Hunter becomes famous Newspaper & TV reporter Hamilton Holmes becomes Phi Beta Kappa

Becomes Orthopedic Surgeon Dies in 1995 Charlayne Hunter & Hamilton Holmes Albany Movement 6 years after Brown v. Board Albany still segregated freedom riders arrive to support Albany Movement created to desegregate and get African Americans to vote People arrested and jailed

March on Washington August 28, 1963 Political rally Theme jobs, justice and peace 80% African American 20% white King gives I have a dream speech March on Washington Aug. 1963 Civil Rights Act 1964 Desegregated all public facilities

Restaurants Theaters Hotels Public recreation areas Schools Libraries Civil Rights Act of 1964 signing Lester Maddox Lester Maddox Ran for Mayor of Atlanta in 50s & 60s

Lost to Hartsfield & Allen, Jr. Opened the Pickrick Cafeteria near GA Tech Refused to serve African American customers Closed caf rather than integrate Lester Maddox cont Ran for and was elected Governor in 1966

Last openly segregationist governor in GA history As governor, he appointed more African Americans to government positions than all other governors combined! (???) Earned support from white and black citizens for hosting little peoples days Twice a month, citizens could meet with the governor to discuss issues/problems & he would direct them as to how to get assistance

Lester Maddox cont He refused to fly the flags at half-mast after the death of MLK, Jr. He opposed the civil rights platform of the Democratic Party in 1968 In 1970, he became the Lt. Governor to Governor Jimmy Carter, with whom he often clashed He ran for governor again in 1974 but lost He ran for President in 1976 but lost Retired from politics and died of cancer at age of 87 Election of Maynard Jackson as Mayor of Atlanta 1st African American Mayor of southern city

Served as mayor two separate times 1973 1981 & 1990 - 1994 Morehouse Graduate Expanded the Airport & MARTA African American business thrived due to his efforts to provide contracts Along with Billy Payne and Andrew Young, Jackson worked on the committee to bring the 1996 Olympics to GA In 2003, there were discussions about Jackson running for the U.S. Senate, but his health would not allow that He died that same year, and the airport was re-named Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in honor of his influence and impact

Andrew Young and Georgia Civil Rights leader & Pastor Worked to register African Americans to vote and marched in several protest marches 1972: He became the 1st African American from

GA elected to the US Congress since RECONSTRUCTION! 1977: Appointed U.S. Ambassador to the UN by President Jimmy Carter Mayor of Atlanta after Jackson (1981 1988) Elected by 80% Worked with Billy Payne & Maynard Jackson to bring 1996 Olympics to GA Revamped Atlanta Zoo Andrew Young School of Policy Studies @GA State University

SS8H12: Developments in Georgia since 1970 SS8H12 Explain the importance of developments in Georgia since the late 20th century a. Explain how the continued development of Atlanta under mayors Maynard Jackson and Andrew Young impacted the state. b. Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state senator, governor, president, and past president. c. Evaluate the short-term and long-term impacts of hosting the 1996 Olympics on Georgias economic and population growth. d. Analyze Georgias role in the national and global economy of the 21st Century, with regard to tourism, Savannah port expansion, and the film industry

Jimmy Carter Only Georgian who has served as president of our country Born in Plains, Georgia in 1924 Graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis In 1962, Carter was elected to the Georgia senate and elected governor in 1970. His views on civil rights and progressive ideas did not align with many Georgians. Jimmy Carter continued Announced his candidacy in 1976 for the Democratic

presidential nomination He defeated President Gerald R. Ford in November 1976 and served one term in office. Jimmy Carter continued Many accomplishments: Reorganized the states executive branch Appointed the 1st woman as a state judge Worked to equalize funding for public schools across the state and expanded special education, vocational education, and pre-school education

Expanded state mental health services for Georgians. Jimmy Carters Accomplishments 1978 Camp David Middle East Peace Accords (between Israel & Egypt- the 1st peace treaty b/w Israel and an Arab neighboring state). Ratification of the Panama Canal treaties Establishment of diplomatic relations with China Jimmy Carters Difficulties High gas prices leading to shortages

Iran Hostage Crisis The US Embassy in Iran was taken over during the Iranian Revolution and workers were held hostage for 444 days A stagnant economy Carter lost re-election to Ronald Regan in 1980 Rise of the two-party system During the 1980s and 1990s, politics underwent a major shift in many

southern states They elected Democrats to statewide offices and tended to favor Republicans in national elections. It led to the establishment of a real twoparty system in the state Rise of the two-party system Atlanta Democrat Cynthia McKinney became the 1st African American woman from GA elected to Congress In 1994, Republicans gained a majority in the U.S. House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years, and Georgias Newt Gingrich was elected Speaker of the House. In 2002, Republicans ended 100 years of

Democratic rule by electing Sonny Purdue, the first Republican governor since Reconstruction . 1996 Olympic Games The games of the XXVI Olympiad were held in Atlanta in 1996. The Olympics brought four long-term benefits to the state. 1) millions of dollars were spent to create world-class competition facilities Roads were widened and improved, hotels and restaurants were built/expanded 2) The Olympics brought international recognition to Atlanta.

1996 Olympic Games 3) The Olympics brought volunteer programs , educational and training programs, and employment opportunities to thousands of Georgias citizens. 4) The economic impact of the Olympic Games brought billions of dollars into Georgias economy. 21st Century Economy Tourism

Tourism has become the fifth largest employer in the state with revenues in the neighborhood of $59 billion providing 439,000 jobs. In 2016, the tourism industry generated $3 billion in direct and indirect taxes. The tourism industry employed 10.2% of Georgias workforce in 2016. 21st Century Economy Savannah Harbor Expansion Project Savannahs port is the fourth-busiest container port in the U. S. and is the fastest growing port.

American businesses ship products from this critical port in their supply chains. The expansion will allow greater scheduling flexibility for the port. The Savannah Harbor Expansion Project will support jobs throughout the nation. Its economic impact on Georgias deepwater ports generates $67 billion in revenue. More than 350,000 jobs will be impacted and about $18.5 billion in personal income will impact the region. The impact of SHEP will help manufacturers on the national and global horizon. 21st Century Economy Film Industry Due to encouraging financial incentives, the diversity of locations for filming, and growing production resources and professional support, Georgia is the destination in the southeast for film production. The moderate climate allows for year-round production and the airport in Atlanta provides for quick transportation for members of the industry. With a $7 billion economic impact in 2016, Georgias film industry is likely to

continue to grow. Twenty-five thousand people in Georgia are directly involved in the industry and 30,000 people benefit through industries and businesses that are indirectly related. The Georgia Film Academy and colleges and universities, including the Savannah College of Arts and Design (SCAD), will help fill the projected 3,500 - 5,500 job opportunities by 2021. T yler Perry, producer and actor, is currently converting the former Fort McPherson location into one of the largest film studios in the United States.

With 800 film and television projects since 1972, Georgias film industry is likely to continue to grow.

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