Sponges - Mrs. Smith's World of Science - Home

Sponges - Mrs. Smith's World of Science - Home

PHYLUM PORIFERA QUESTIONS Sponges are animals so what domain are they in? What kingdom?

WHAT DOES PORIFERA MEAN? Porifera literally means pore bearing They were named this because they have pores (tiny openings) all over their bodies

SPONGES Sponges are sessile (live their entire adult life attached to a single spot.

SPONGE BODY PLAN Sponges are asymmetrical (without symmetry) QUESTIONS What does Porifera mean?

What type of symmetry do sponges have? Do sponges move in their adult life? PORE CELLS This is where the

water comes through these cells are why sponges are in the phylum Porifera

CHOANOCYTES/COLLAR CELLS CHOANOCYTES/COLLAR CELLS These are specialized cells that have flagella to

move a steady current of water through the sponge GELATINOUS LAYER/MESOHYL Middle layer where archaeocytes and spicules

are located AMOEBOID CELLS/ARCHAEOCYTES Specialized cells that move around within the walls of the sponge

SPICULE Part of the sponges simple skeleton

Made of either calcium carbonate or silica Hard sponges have them

SOFT SPONGES Soft sponges have spongin which is made of flexible protein fibers. ie bath sponges

SPONGOCOEL The hollow body of the sponge

OSCULUM Large opening water goes out it PHYLUM PORIFERA

PHYLUM PORIFERA Sponges come in all shapes and sizes The larger the sponge the more water the sponge can move through its body

SPONGE REPRODUCTION TYPES OF SPONGE REPRODUCTION Sexual What does this mean?

Asexual What does this mean? SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

In most sponge spp (species) a single sponge forms both eggs and sperm. They make the egg

and sperm at different times Why would it be a good thing to make them at different

times? SEXUAL REPRODUCTION The eggs are fertilized inside the sponge which is known as internal fertilization

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Sperm from another sponge are taken through the pores of a sponge and the archaeocytes carry the sperm to an egg.

What is the other name for an archaeocyte? After fertilization the zygote develops into a larva. Larva are motile and are carried by currents

before they settle on the sea floor QUESTIONS What type of fertilization do sponges do?

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Sponges can reproduce asexually 1 of 2 ways By budding or by producing gemmules Asexual reproduction always makes a clone or an identical copy of the parent

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Gemmules groups of archaeocytes surrounded by a tough layer of spicules. When conditions are favorable the gemmule

grows into a new sponge ECOLOGICAL ROLES - COMPETITION Need somewhere to attach

Compete with coral and bryozoans Some crabs decorate themselves with sponges

ECOLOGICAL ROLES PREDATOR/PREY The spicules make it hard to eat but some fishes and sea turtles can eat them

ECOLOGICAL ROLES - SYMBIOSIS

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