SOLUTIONS

SOLUTIONS

PH SOLUTION UNIT 4 ACIDS AND ALKALIS These are two important solutions Not only used in the laboratory but

also in our daily life . WHICH ONE IS ACIDIC? ACIDS Comes from the Latin word acidus, which means sour. Grapes (Tartaric Acid),

Apples (Malic Acid), Oranges, lemons (Citri c Acid), Tomatoes (Sali cylic Acid) Soft drinks (carbonic acid), car batteries (su lfuric acid) ACID PROPERTIES Sour taste

Less than 7 pH Corrosive nature: burn skin or react with many material s Reacts with reactive metals ALKALIS The chemical

opposite to acids. Often used in many household cleaners (b leach, glass cleaners, oven cleaners, deterg ents). Ammonia solution, sodium hydroxide sol ution, potassium hydr oxide solution

ALKALI PROPERTIES Bitter taste Greater than 7 pH Soapy feel Corrosive Nature: reacts with ammon ium salts to release ammonia when he ated

ORGANIC ACIDS INORGANIC ACIDS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORGANIC & INORGANIC ACIDS Organic acids contain carbon, and inorganic acids dont contain carbon. Generally organic acids are weaker acids than inorganic

acids. Most of the organic acids are insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents. But inorganic acids are generally well soluble in water and non soluble in organic solvents. Organic acids have a biological origin, whereas inorganic acids havent. Inorganic acids are derived from inorganic c ompounds/mineral sources. Mineral acids are highly reactive with metals, and they have corrosive ability than the organic acids.

NEUTRALIZATION Neutralization is a process that occurs when acid reacts with alkali to form sa lt and water. NEUTRALIZATION IN DAILY LIFE Milk of Magnesia is

an alkaline serves as an antacid medicine for peopl e suffering stomac hache due to much acidity in the stomach PH INDICATORS pH scale

measures how acidic or alkaline a substance is. Rang es from 0 to 14. PH SCALE PHENOLPHTHALEIN INDICATOR turns colorless when the pH of a

substance is in the range of 1-8.3 or un til 9, and it turns pin k if the range of pH is between 10-14. CHAPTER 5 ANSWERS 1. Solution is the end result of dissolving a substance in another substance. Suspensions are mixture containing s uspended substance that are insoluble in the solvent.

2. Sugar + Water Sugar Solution 3. Dilute solution, concentrated solution, saturated solution 4. It is transparent and clear, the chemical and physical properties are the same throughout the solution. 5. Dissolve oil from plants, give flavor to the cooked dish, remove stains from our clothes 6. Solubility is the maximum amount of the solute in the grams that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature. 7. Nature of solvent, nature of solute, and temperature

8. solute solvent Fragrant oil Alcohol Ink

Alcohol/acetone Paint Turpentine Nail polish Ethyl acetate/acetone

iodine Alcohol 9. The rate of dissolving is defined as how fast a solute dissolves in a fixed volume of solvent. 10. A. The rate of dissolving increase as the rate of stirring increase. B. The rate of dissolving is slow if larger particle is used. C. An increase in temperatur

e causes particle to dissolved faster. 11. Acid is a type of solution which is in excess of hydrogen ions. Alkali is a solution that is soluble in water. 12. Both acid and alkali are corrosive. 13. A. Acid tastes sour whereas alkali tastes bitter. B. Acid changes the blue litmus paper red whereas alkali changes the red litmus paper to blue. 14.

Acid detergent Alkali detergent Has pH less than 3 Has pH more than 11 Use to clean toilet

Use to clean bath tub and window pane 15. Neutralization is a process that occurs when acid reacts with alkali and forms salt and water. 16. Weak alkaline such as milk of magnesia can be used to relieve stomach pain which is caused by ov er-secretion of acid. 17. pH scale, universal indicator, phenolphthalein 18. Phenolpthalein turns colorless when the pH of a

substance is in the range of 1-8.3 or until 9, and it turns pink if the range of pH is between 10-14.

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