Chapter 9: Break-Even Point and CostVolume-Profit Analysis Cost

Chapter 9: Break-Even Point and CostVolume-Profit Analysis Cost

Chapter 9: Break-Even Point and CostVolume-Profit Analysis Cost Accounting: Foundations and Evolutions, 9e Kinney Raiborn 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objectives

What is the break-even point (BEP), and why is it important? How is the BEP determined and what methods are used to identify BEP? What is cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis, and how do companies use CVP information in decision making? How do BEP and CVP analyses differ for singleproduct and multiproduct firms? How are margin of safety and operating leverage concepts used in business? What are the underlying assumptions of CVP analysis? 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Relationship Applies

to of Manufacturers Revenue Costs Wholesalers Volume changes Retailers Taxes industries Service Profits 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Variable Costing and CVP

Variable costing Separates costs into fixed and variable components Shows fixed costs in lump-sum amounts, not on a per-unit basis Does not allow for deferral/release of fixed costs from/to inventory when production and sales volumes differ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Use CVP Analysis to

Calculate the Compute the BEP level of sales necessary to achieve a target Study profit interrelationships of Prices Set sales price Volumes Answer what-if questions to influence current Fixed and variable costs operations and predict future operations

Contribution margins Profits 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. CVP Assumptions Company is operating within the relevant range Revenue per unit remains constant Variable costs per unit remain constant

Total fixed costs remain constant Mixed costs are separated into variable and fixed elements 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Important Equations Break-even point Total Revenues = Total Costs Total Revenues Total Costs = Zero Profit Contribution Margin (CM) Sales Price per unit Variable Cost per unit = CM per unit Revenue Total Variable Costs = CM in total Contribution Margin Ratio (CM%) Sales Price Variable Cost Sales Price 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly

accessible website, in whole or in part. Graph Approach to Breakeven Break-even chart illustrates relationships among Revenue Volume Costs 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Traditional CVP Graph Total Costs

Total Costs Total $ Fixed Costs Total $ Variable Costs Activity Level Activity Level Total Revenues Total Revenues Total Costs Total $

Loss Total $ Activity Level Total Costs Profit Activity Level 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Profit-Volume Graph $ BEP Activity Level Fixed Costs Loss

Profit 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Break-Even FormulaUnits Total Fixed Costs Sales Price (per unit) Variable Cost (per unit) $100,000 $12 $4 Contribution Margin = 12,500 units If fixed costs are $100,000, unit sales price is $12, and unit variable cost is $4, the BEP is 12,500 units. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly

accessible website, in whole or in part. Break-Even FormulaDollars Total Fixed Costs Sales Price (per unit) Variable Cost (per unit) Sales Price (per unit) $100,000 $12 $4 $12 = $150,000 Contribution Margin Ratio If fixed costs are $100,000, unit sales price is $12, and unit variable cost is $4, the BEP is $150,000. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Income Statement Proof Sales Less Total variable costs Contribution Margin Less Total fixed costs Profit before taxes $ 150,000 (12,500 * 12) (50,000) (12,500 * 4) $ 100,000 (100,000) -0- If fixed costs are $100,000, unit sales price is $12, and unit variable cost is $4, the BEP is 12,500 units. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Using CVP Analysis

Setting a target profit Enter before-tax profit in numerator $100,000 + $30,000 12 4 12 = $195,000 If fixed costs are $100,000, unit sales price is $12, unit variable cost is $4, and the desired before-tax profit is $30,000, the required sales are $195,000. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Using CVP Analysis

Setting a target profit Convert after-tax profit to before-tax profit Before-tax profit = After-tax profit 1 tax rate $60,000 $48,000 = 1 20% At a 20% tax rate, an after-tax profit of $48,000 equals a before-tax profit of $60,000. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Using CVP Analysis

Setting a target profit Convert after-tax profit to before-tax profit Enter before-tax profit in numerator $100,000 + $60,000 $12 $4 $12 = $240,000 If fixed costs are $100,000, unit sales price is $12, unit variable cost is $4, and the desired after-tax profit is $48,000, the required sales are $240,000. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Income Statement Proof Sales

Less Total variable costs Contribution Margin Less Total fixed costs Profit before taxes Income taxes Profit after taxes $ 240,000 (20,000 * 12) (80,000) (20,000 * 4) $ 160,000 (100,000) $ 60,000 (12,000) (60,000 * 20%) $ 48,000 If fixed costs are $100,000, unit sales price is $12, unit variable cost is $4, and the desired after-tax profit is $48,000, the required sales are $240,000. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Using CVP Analysis Set profit per unit X = FC/(CMu - PuBT) Sales Volume Total Fixed Cost Contribution Margin Profit per Unit Before Tax 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Income Statement Approach Sales Less Total variable costs Contribution Margin Less Total fixed costs Profit before taxes Income taxes Profit after taxes B/E $ 150,000 (50,000) $ 100,000 (100,000) -0- Target Profit $ 240,000 (80,000) $ 160,000 (100,000)

60,000 (24,000) $ 36,000 Proof of CVP and/or graph solutions 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Incremental Analysis Focuses only on factors that change from one option to another Changes in revenues, costs, and/or volume BEP increases when

Fixed costs increase Sales price decreases Variable costs increase 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Multiproduct CVP Analysis Assumes a constant product sales mix Contribution margin is weighted on the quantities of each product included in the bag of products Contribution margin of the product making up the largest proportion of the bag has the

greatest impact on the average contribution margin of the product mix 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Multiproduct CVP Analysis Sales mix Contribution margin per unit FC = $8,000 3 2 $2 $1 Breakeven

$8,000 (fixed costs) 3($2) + 2($1) = 1,000 bags Bagthree units of first product for every two units second product. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Multiproduct CVP Analysis Sales mix 3 Breakeven bag x Breakeven units 1,000 2 x 1,000 2,000 3,000 To break even, sell 3,000 of first product

and 2,000 of second product. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Income Statement Proof Product 1 3,000 X 2 $6,000 Sales (units) CM per unit Total CM Less Total fixed costs Profit before taxes Product 2 2,000 X 1 $2,000

Total $8,000 (8,000) -0- 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Margin of Safety How far the company is operating from its BEP Budgeted (or actual) sales after the BEP

The amount that sales can drop before reaching the BEP Measure of the amount of cushion against losses Indication of risk The lower the margin of safety, the more carefully management must watch sales and control costs. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Margin of Safety Units Actual units break-even units Dollars Actual sales dollars break-even sales dollars

Percentage Margin of Safety in units or dollars Actual unit sales or dollar sales 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Operating Leverage Relationship of variable and fixed costs Effect on profits when volume changes Cost structure strongly influences the impact that a change in volume has on profits 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Operating Leverage High Operating Leverage Low variable costs High fixed costs High contribution margin High BEP Sales after break-even have greater impact on profits Low Operating Leverage High variable costs Low fixed costs Low contribution margin Low BEP Sales after break-even

have lesser impact on profits 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Degree of Operating Leverage Measures how a percentage change in sales will affect profits Degree of Operating Leverage Contribution Margin Profit Before Taxes 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Degree of Operating Leverage

and Margin of Safety When margin of safety is small, the degree of operating leverage is large Margin of Safety % = 1/Degree of Operating Leverage Degree of Operating Leverage = 1/Margin of Safety % 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Degree of Operating Leverage and Margin of Safety Actual sales 200,000 units Break-even sales 90,000 units Contribution margin $408,000 Profit before tax

$224,400 Margin of Safety % = Actual sales Break-even sales Actual sales =55%200,000 90,000 200,000 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Degree of Operating Leverage and Margin of Safety Actual sales 200,000 units Break-even sales 90,000 units Contribution margin $408,000 Profit before tax

$224,400 Degree of Operating = Contribution margin Leverage = Profit before taxes = $408,000 1.818 $224,400 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Degree of Operating Leverage and Margin of Safety Margin of Safety % = 1 Degree of Operating Leverage 55% = 1 1.818

Degree of Operating = 1 Leverage Margin of Safety% 1.818 = 1 .55 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Additional CVP Assumptions

Total contribution margin increases proportionally with increases in unit sales No change in inventory (production equals sales) No change in capacity Sales mix remains constant Anticipated price level changes included in formulas Labor productivity, production technology, and market conditions remain constant Are fixed costs fixed or long-term variable costs? 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Questions What is the break-even point and why is it so important? How do companies use CVP analysis?

What are the underlying assumptions of CVP analysis? 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Potential Ethical Issues Ignoring relevant range in setting assumptions about cost behavior Using absorption (fixed manufacturing) costs as part of variable costs for CVP analysis Using improper assumptions about cost and volume relationships to manipulate results

Assuming constant sales mix while ignoring demand for individual products Using CVP analysis to improperly support long-term cost management strategies Visually distorting break-even graphs Using irrelevant information in incremental analysis 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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