Ali Jamal Battle A.S. Hashim, MD http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bassorah http://www.ezsoftech.com/islamic/jamal.asp
Ali Jamal Battle A.S. Hashim, MD http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bassorah http://www.ezsoftech.com/islamic/jamal.asp And: http://www.qurannetwork.com/abuturab/camel.html Sources of Reference Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Ibn Qutaybah, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Madelung, Encyclopaedia of the Holy Prophet and Companions Tabatabaei, Lapidus, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward
Gibbon Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid Dakake Nahj Al-Balagha, Sermon 3 Holt, P.M.; Lambton, Ann K.S.; Lewis, Bernard. Cambridge History of Islam. Watt, William Montgomery. Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford University Press. In this Slide Show The Gathering Storm Umm Salama Warns Aisha The Howab Mayhem in Basra The Appeal of al-Hasan in Kufa Ali Sends for Negotiations Ali Face to Face with Talha and Zubair
Ali Reminds Zubair The Sudden shock Urging the Rebels to Fight Disabling the Camel Digging a Trench for Burial Mourning the Loss Alis Generosity to the Fallen Ali the Khalifa When Uthman was killed, Medina was at the mercy of the rebels. The Muhajireen and the Ansaar realized that none except Ali could: save the city of Medina from being plundered, the people from being massacred, and the government from breaking down,
They, therefore, appealed to Ali to take charge of the government. Ali told the Muhajireen and the Ansaar that: he would accept their offer if they gave him a pledge to obey his orders both in peace and in war. They gave him their pledge to obey him, and he accepted their offer. Rebellion Rears its Head But only a few days had passed when rebellion reared its head in Mecca against the Khalifa authority. Ali went into the Mosque, and called upon the Muhajireen and the Ansaar: to rise in defense of the central government. Their only response was silence. Ali reminded them of the pledge they had given to him to obey
him and they still did not respond. All his appeals and reminders seemed to fall on deaf ears. It was only after many weeks of appeals and a great effort that Ali could enlist the support of seven hundred volunteers in Medina. This was all that Medina would do for him. He left Medina with these volunteers never to return. Soon after Uthman Uthman has been killed recently: Feeling of agonizing guilt in the land of Islam especially in Medina The rebellious from Egypt and Iraq have a heavy feeling Ali, though refusing twice, finally agrees for his nomination Ali is given allegiance by most Sahaaba and others in Medina Ali insists on firing the Benu Umayya Governors who were
appointed by Uthman, due to their corruption. Yala, of Benu Umayya and now the ex-governor of Yemen, carries off to Mecca the treasury of Yemen after he was fired by Ali. Yala gives to A'isha the treasury (sixty thousand Dinars, along with six hundred camels); and one camel called Askar , large and well-bred, valued at 200 gold pieces. All of them Held a Meeting A'isha was returning to Medina from Mecca after Haj, but turned back when she heard the news of Uthman's assassination, and the accession of Ali to the Khilaafah. Aisha's two brothers-in-law: Talha and Zubair ibn alAwwam,
who were considered to be two significant Sahaaba, also arrived in Mecca. Uthman's governor in Mecca was ibn Umayr alHadhrami. Marwan ibn al-Hakam and others of Benu Umayya, (Uthman's clan), were staying as al-Hadhramis guests. All of them held a meeting. The Circumstances A'isha, was in Mecca for the pilgrimage when the third Khalifa, Uthman, was killed. She had expected and wished for either Talha or Zubair to succeed him Both Talha & Zubair were brothers-in-law of Aisha. Her youngest sister was the wife of Talha, who was also a cousin of her father.
Her oldest sister was a wife of Zubair, whose son Abdullah was adopted by Aisha. A'isha was 46 year old, and do you remember how she called for killing Uthman only a few months back, now that Uthman was killed, she turned against Ali? The Gathering Storm A'isha got Talha's and Zubair's support: Even though both of them had already given their oath of allegiance to Ali when he was nominated. Twelve years earlier both Talha and Zubair had been nominated for the Khilaafah by Omar before his death, but then, instead, Uthman was chosen for the Khilaafah. Uthman had appointed his family members as Governors over many regions of the fledgling land of Islam. These Governors were fired by Ali. Thus they were aggrieved. Benu Umayya did not give allegiance to Ali.
A'isha and the aggrieved Benu Umayya to whom Uthman had belonged, supported each other against Ali. The Gathering Storm The ex-governors of Uthman, and many of Benu Umayya had by now joined Aisha. Yala, the ex-governor of Yemen, had carried off to Mecca a large sum of treasure when he was displaced by Ali. He gave over to A'isha sixty thousand Dinars, along with six hundred camels; One camel was very large and well-bred, valued at 200 gold pieces. It was named Askar and was especially presented for A'isha's personal transportation. A large number of Arabs were also paid to enlist in the
army, whose fathers and brothers had been killed by Ali in defending Islam. And many a discontented Arab flocked under the Standard too. In Completing her Preparations Completing her preparations for the confrontation: A'isha unsuccessfully tried to convince one of the previous wives of Muhammad, Umm Salama, to side with her. Umm Salama instead tried, and almost succeeded in convincing A'isha to abandon her plan; but Zubair's son (Abdullah Ibn al-Zubair) persuaded her to proceed. A'isha had also tried to persuade another of Muhammad's previous wives, Hafsa Bint Omar to follow her; but Hafsa's brother Ibn Omar stopped her from doing so. A'isha mounted on a litter on the camel Askar , and marched from Mecca at the head of 1,000 men.
On her right was Talha, and on her left Zubair. Umm Salama Warns Aisha Umm Salama (also wife of the Prophet) reminded Aisha: of the time when the Prophet had addressed all his wives saying that the dogs of How'ab would bark at one of them, who would be part of a rebellious mob. She then warned A'isha not to be fooled by the words of Talha and Zubair who would only entangle her in wrong deeds. This advice had a sobering effect on A'isha, who almost gave up her plan. However, her adopted son, Abdullah bin Zubair, convinced her to go ahead.
The Rebellious Forces The Rebellious consisted of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Aisha, Talha, and Zubair Benu Umayya Quraish people from Mecca, whose loved ones were killed by Ali in the battles of Islam Other people from Quraish Mercenaries who were paid: Total so far 1,000 Bedouins on the way enrolled for the pay: Total so
far 3,000 People from Basra, many of whom were employees of Zubair: Total reached: 30,000 Who was to Lead the Prayers! A month after the death of Uthman, and during the march of the Meccan troops, queries began to arise if either Talha or Zubair would appoint himself as Khalifa, in the event of a victory. Thus, the position of the Imamah of prayers, (correlated to the Islamic Khilaafah), was disputed among the troops. But A'isha, seeking to cease the strife, gave Shura statement: that neither Talha nor Zubair should lead the prayer, but Abdullah son of Zubair should lead the prayers instead. And so it was later given out that the choice of the future Khalifa,
(in case of victory of the Meccan troops) should be left to the men of Medina. The Howab On the way to Basra, the rebel army received news that Imam Ali had come out of Medina in their pursuit. They decided to leave the main road and proceed to Basra through a different route. When they passed through the valley of How'ab the dogs of the village barked loudly. A'isha was startled, as if she remembered a very important thing. Worriedly she asked, "What do you call this place?" People got surprised, wondering why, but some of them came back to say, "This place is called Al-How'ab". A'isha, to the surprise of all, became very upset and demanded
to go back to Medina immediately, to call it off, to quit! She recalled what the Prophet had said 26 years ago. The Prophet had Said:
" I wonder who of you will be the instigator of the Jamal affair at whom the dogs of How'ab will bark and she will be the one who has deviated from the straight path As to you, O Humaira (A'isha) I have warned you in that regard." (Ibn Atheer, Al-Kaamil, Vol. 3, Page 120. Also Book of Al-Imamah and Al-Siyasah) (Humaira was A'isha's endearing name.) The Howab Aisha then got off her camel, refusing to go any
further. Talha and Zubair tried to convince her that the place was not How'ab But Abdullah Ibn Zubair managed to bring 50 false witnesses to testify to this lie, but in vain. Finally, they somehow convinced her that it was not AlHowab, lying through their teeth. It is said they raised a cry that Ali was approaching, Thus Aisha quickly remounted and the march was resumed. The Howab
: : : : : : : : : The Rumors of Defection When rumors of the defection of Talha and Zubair along with others first reached Medina,
Ali refused to move against the malcontents so long as no overt act of rebellion threatened the unity of the Islamic nation. But shortly after, news arrived of the design on Basra. At first, Ali thought that the insurgents had not made Kufa, with its greater Bedouin population, their object. Ibn Abbas, however, pointed out that Basra was really the more dangerous, because fewer of the leading chiefs were there, able to curb the people and repress rebellion. The Disturbances in Mecca Meanwhile, Ali had received information about Aishas plans from Umm Salama (the wife of the prophet), and news of the disturbances in Mecca and Basra also came through.
Ali made immediate plans to march towards Basra but could only raise 900 men with difficulty. The people were reluctant to fight Aisha, (considered to be the Mother of the Faithful, the widow of the Prophet). Also, the cry for avenging the blood of Uthman was too loud, confusing the people. Ali on the Way Ali admitted this; and quite concerned: He gave orders that his forces which were destined for Syria to march instead to Nejd, hoping thereby to intercept the insurgents on their way to Basra. A column of 900 men was got together, at the head of
which Ali marched hastily in pursuit of the insurgents; but on striking the Mecca road he found that they had already passed. Not being equipped for further advance, he halted there. Messengers were sent to Kufa, Egypt, and elsewhere, demanding reinforcements; and for these Ali the Khalifa waited before he went forward. The Rebels Reach Basra The rebel forces reached Basra, and encamped close by. Messages were exchanged, and Uthman ibn Huneif , the governor of Basra: aware that the cry of vengeance for Uthman was in reality a design against his Khalifa, Ali ibn Abi Talib, ibn Huneif called an assembly to try the temper of the people.
Finding from the uproar that the strangers had a strong party in the city, ibn Huneif put on his armor, and, followed by the larger portion of the citizens, went forth to meet the enemy, who, on their side, was joined from the town by all the malcontents. A parley ensued. Talha, Zubair, and A'isha all three declaimed against the murderers of Uthman, demanding their arrest and justice. Al-Basra Distance about 1000 miles 18 overnight stops Distance between overnight stops varies from 35 to 55 miles The route is across the desert Trip is arduous to say the least
Within the Perspective of Kufa Ali sent al-Hasan and Ammar ibn Yasir to Kufa to bring reinforcements for him. Kufa mustered 12,000 warriors, and it were these warriors who fought in the battle of the Camel, and defeated the "triumvirate" of Aisha, Talha and Zubair. Mecca, Medina and Basra had left Ali in no illusions about what they would do in an emergency. But the citizens of Kufa had sent reinforcements to him at a most critical moment in Alis career. He could clearly see that if there was war with Mu'awiya, he had only the army of Kufa to depend upon. It was, therefore, the logic of events that influenced Ali's decision to make Kufa the capital of the empire. The Protestation of Others
The other side were equally loud in their protestations against A'isha and her attack upon their city. They said it was a shame and a slight on the legacy and memory of Muhammad: for her to forego the sanctity of the Hijab, and the proprieties of Umm al-Mu'minin ("Mother of the Faithful"). Ali had been elected and saluted as Khalifa; and now Talha and Zubair were violating the allegiance which they had been among the very first to swear it. The End Result of Protestation Both Talha and Zubair protested that the oath had been forced upon them. On this point the controversy turned; and from words they fell to
blows. Night interposed, but fighting was resumed the following day; and with so serious a loss to Basra that a truce was called and agreement come to, on the understanding that the facts should be ascertained from Medina. If force had really been put upon Zubair and Talha to take the oath, then Uthman ibn Huneif, the governor, would retire and leave the city in their hands. Mayhem in Basra The insurgents called on Uthman ibn Huneif to evacuate the City according to agreement, Uthman ibn Huneif produced the letter of Ali, the Khalifa and refused to evacuate. The letter emphasized that no force was ever used.
But the insurgents had already obtained a footing within the city. Arming themselves, they repaired to the Mosque for evening service, and, the night being dark and stormy, were not perceived until they had overpowered the bodyguard, The rebels entered the adjoining Palace, and made a prisoner of the governor Uthman ibn Huneif. They killed many guards and took the tools of war. To insult the Governor, they removed the hair of his eye brows, moustache, and beard. Ali on the Way Finding that the insurgent troops, with A'isha, Zubair, and Talha had already passed, Ali halted for a while on the road to Basra, waiting for reinforcement, though he was joined on his march by certain loyal tribes.
To Kufa, Ali addressed a special summons, inhabited as it was by many veterans on whose loyalty he might reasonably depend; and he added force to the call by promising that Kufa should be his seat of government. "See," Ali wrote, "have I not chosen your city over all other cities for my own? Unto you do I look for succor, if haply peace and unity should again prevail as it behooves, among brethren in the faith." In Kufa But the summons was at the first unheeded. The City was made up of many factions; and from some of these factions the cry of A'isha, (demanding revenge for Uthman's blood), had already found response.
Abu Musa, Kufas Governor, was unequal to the emergency. Loyal to the memory of Uthman, Abu Musa sought to allay the ferment by a neutral course, and he urged the citizens to join neither party, but instead remain at home. A second deputation meeting with no better success, Ali bethought him of sending his elder son Hasan, in Company with Ammar ibn Yasir, the former Governor of Kufa, to urge his cause. Al-Hasan in Kufa Al-Hasan, son of Ali, was at the top of the pulpit, in the Grand Masjid of Kufa and Ammar was seated below him. All had gathered
before him. And Ammar, the former Governor of Kufa was heard saying: "A'isha has moved to Busra. By Allah! She is the wife of your Prophet in this world and in the Hereafter. But Allah has put you to test whether you obey him (Ali) or her (A'isha). Thus al-Hasan raised 9,000 men, then other units arrived as well, all joining Ali at his camp at Dhi Qaar. The Appeal of al-Hasan The appeal of al-Hasan, grandson of Muhammad, had the desired effect. A tumult arose, and Abu Musa, unable to maintain his weak neutrality, was deposed. The Arab tribes rallied around the loyalists. Soon thousands of men, partly by land, partly by river, set out to join Ali, the Khalifa,
who, advancing slowly, awaited their arrival. Thus reinforced, Ali was able to take the field effectively, and march on the rebellious city. Battle of Jamal A'isha, Talha, and Zubair lead an uprising Ali meets the rebels near Basra Ali negotiates with them to prevent fighting Ali reminds Zubair of a Hadith, Zubair quits the rebels Ali sends the Quran to be the judge Person with the Quran is killed by A'isha fighters Fighting breaks out, the renouncers lose, battle almost over A'isha is suddenly present on a camel urging to fight Ali Fierce fighting erupts again, numerous casualties The camel is disabled, the battle abruptly comes to an end A'isha sent home in full respect
The Prophet had Said to Ali: Ali had always remembered what the Prophet had told him about 25 years ago, and how his prediction was so accurate: The Prophet had said: O' Ali, you will be obliged to fight against: The renouncers: The malicious and The deviants . (Al-Haakim, Mustadrak, vol. 3, page 139) Face to Face Basra itself was not wholly hostile, and scores of the citizens came out to join the camp of Ali.
The insurgent army, nearly equaling that of Ali, now marched forth with Talha and Zubair at their head, and A'isha herself seated in a well-fenced litter of the camel called Askar . Askar was the camel given to her by the governor of Yemen who was dismissed by Ali. But Ali's thoughts were for peace if possible. The cry of Talha and Zubair was for vengeance against the murderers of Uthman; and against these, Ali as yet did not deny that justice should be dealt. But he was obliged to temporize.. Ali Sends for Negotiations Ali had in his army great numbers of the very men who had risen against Uthman; and he felt that to inflict punishment on them (as his
adversaries required), would for the present be impossible. Holding these views, he halted, still some little way from Basra, and sent forward Al-QaQa' (who with other leaders of renown had joined him from Kufa) He sent Al-QaQa to expostulate with Talha and Zubair. Negotiations Al-QaQa addressed them saying: "Ye have already slain 60 men of Basra for the blood of Uthman; and lo! to avenge their blood, 6000 more have started up. Where is this internecine war to stop? It is peace and harmony that Islam needs now. Give that, and again the majesty of law shall be set up, and the guilty brought to justice."
As he spoke, Zubair, Talha and A'isha returned word that if these really were the sentiments of Ali, they were ready to submit. After several days spent in such negotiations, Ali, glad at the prospect of a bloodless compromise, advanced. Ali Face to Face with Talha and Zubair The army of A'isha remained encamped on the outskirts of the city. Ali's force, advancing unopposed, halted within sight; and negotiations for peace went on, evidently substantial and sincere. Ali himself approached on horseback and Talha with Zubair rode forth to confer with him. "Wherefore have ye risen against me" said Ali; "did ye not swear homage to me?" "Yea" replied Talha "but coerced into
it; and now we demand justice against the murderers of Uthman." Ali replied that he no less than they held the murderers of Uthman to be guilty; he even cursed them in no measured terms, but added that for their punishment they must bide their time. Ali Reminds Zubair Ali met Zubair and reminded him of the Prophet when 30 years earlier he said: You will fight against Ali and to him you are atrocious. : : : : : : : : .
Zubair suddenly recalled this. He abandoned his camp despite the attempts of his son to do otherwise. Zubair had left some distance, and was killed by Amr ibn Jarmouz while he was praying. The Sudden shock Towards morning, a sudden shock changed the scene. The besiegers of Uthman, during the night, carried their design into execution. Led by them, squadrons of Bedouin lances bore down, while yet dark, upon the Basra tents. In a moment all was confusion. Each camp believed that it had been attacked by the
other; and the dawn found both armies drawn up, as the conspirators desired, in mortal combat against each other. In Vain Ali Endeavors to Hold Back In vain Ali endeavored to hold back his men. The sense of treachery embittered the conflict. It was a strange engagement,the first in which Muslims had crossed swords with Muslims. It resembled a battle of the old Arab times, only that for tribal rivalry were now substituted other issues. Clans were broken up, and it became in some measure a contest between the two rival cities; "The Benu Rabi'a of Kufa fought against the Benu Rabi'a of Basra, the Benu Modhar of the one against the Benu Modhar of the other, and so on, with the various tribes, and even with families,
one part arrayed against the other. The fierceness and obstinacy of the battle can be only thus accounted for. Al-Zubair The attitude of the leaders was in marked contrast with the bitter struggle of the ranks. Zubair, half-hearted since his interview with Ali, left the battlefield, and was killed in an adjoining valley. A man named Amr ibn Jarmouz had followed Zubair and murdered him while he performed Salat. When they brought to Ali the sword of Zubair, Ali cursed the man who took his life; Ali called to mind the feats displayed by Zubair that wielded it in the early battles of Islam: exclaimed:"Many a time hath this sword driven care
and sorrow from the Prophet's brow." Urging the Rebels to Fight Marwan ibn al-Hakam shot his own general Talha: who became disabled, and carried into Basra, where he died. Bereft of their leaders, the insurgent troops retreated to Basra. They were falling back upon the city, when they saw Aisha. A'isha on her part, was urging the insurgents to fight. She cried out over and over again, "Slay the killers of Uthman." The words ran through the retreating ranks, that "the Mother of the Faithful was in danger," and they stayed their flight to help her. As a result: Long the conflict raged around the camel. One after another of the warriors rushed to seize her standard; one after another they were cut down. Of
Quraish, 70 perished by the bridle. Disabling the Camel Ali, perceiving that Aishas camel was the rallying-point of the insurgents, he immediately: sent one of his captains to disable the camel right away, by cutting its legs; So done: the camel fell with a loud cry, the litter in which Aisha was seated was rescued, and suddenly: the fighting ceased and the insurgents retired into the city. The litter, was taken down, and, by desire of Ali, It was placed in a retired spot, where A'isha's brother Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr pitched a tent for her.
Digging a Trench for Burial Later a great trench was dug, and into it the dead were lowered, friends and foes alike. Ali, encamped for three days without the city, himself performed the funeral service. It was a new experience to bury the dead slain in battle not against the infidels, but believer fighting against believer, brother against brother. Instead of cursing the memory of his enemies, Ali spoke hopefully of the future state of such as had entered the field, on whatever side. When they brought him the sword of Zubair he cursed the man who took his life; and calling to mind the feats displayed by the man that wielded it in the early battles of Islam, exclaimed:"Many a time hath this sword driven care and sorrow from the Prophet's brow."
Mourning the Loss The Muslims might well mourn the memory both of Talha and Zubair, remembering how they defended at the peril of their own lives; Their fall, and that of many of the Companions, was a loss to the Ummah itself, because it left the Quraish seriously weak in the struggle. yet to be fought out between them and those Arab tribes responsible for all the misunderstanding and Uthman's murder. Ali declared a general amnesty for all the rebels In this battle Ali restrained his men from taking any war booty and all property found on the battle ground was gathered in the mosque of Basra, from where the owners could claim their possessions Alis Generosity to the Fallen The bearing of Ali was generous towards his fallen foe.
Having entered the city, he divided the contents of the treasury amongst the troops which had fought on his side, promising them a still larger reward "when the Lord should have delivered Syria (Mu'awiya) into his hands. But otherwise he treated friends and foes alike, and buried in oblivion animosities of the past. Marwan and the adherents of the house of Benu Umayya were set free. They fled to their homes, or else went to join Mu'awiya against Ali. A'isha Taken Back in Respect Aisha was taken back to Medina in full respect, since she was the Prophet's wife, the mother of the faithful.
Many guardians were sent with her, about 30 of whom were special. The guardians were under the leadership of her own brother, Muhammad son of Abu Bakr. Aishas brother, Muhammad son of Abu Bakr was on Ali's side and had fought against her! A'isha Discovers then After a few weeks of hard travel A'isha arrived in Medina, tired and emotionally drained. She discovered then that the about 30 guards who were close in her service, who looked like men, were actually women dressed in men's clothes! It was out of respect for her, being the Prophet's wife, that Ali had ordered such special arrangement!
How clever, even at such circumstances! A'isha had complained to her friends that Ali put that many guards (men) close to her. Hearing that, the guards disclosed their identitythat they actually were females but dressed like males. Seeing that, A'isha fell in Sujood thanking Allah for Ali's favor to her. The Only Class Dissatisfied The only class dissatisfied was that of the slaves and rabble, who murmured at having no share in the treasure, nor any chance of plunder since with the just and fair Ali at the helm, plunder was ruled out. These, gathering into marauding bands, occasioned much disquietude to the Khalifa,
and hastened his departure from the city, with the view of checking the mischief they were bent on. In Sermon 22, Ali: about the Renouncers
About those who renounced their pledge to him: Beware! Satan has started to instigate his parties and has collected his forces So that inequity may reach the extreme and the wrong may come back to its position. By Allah they have not put a correct blame on me, nor have they done justice between me and themselves.
Artist Rendering: Battle of Jamal Artist Rendering: Battle of Jamal In Conclusion Ali: and the Battle of Jamal Umm Salama Warns Aisha The Howab Mayhem in Basra Ali Sends for Negotiations Ali Face to Face with Talha and Zubair Ali Reminds Zubair The Sudden shock Urging the Rebels to Fight Disabling the Camel Digging a Trench for Burial Alis Generosity to the Fallen
Finally Let us Read Surah al-Asr Together Be in Allahs Care Thank you and may God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim
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