BLMs at the LHC C.Octavio Domnguez, Humberto Maury

BLMs at the LHC C.Octavio Domnguez, Humberto Maury

BLMs at the LHC C.Octavio Domnguez, Humberto Maury Cuna Thanks to Eduardo Nebot (BI) 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting Contents 1) What are BLMs? What are they used for? 2) Types of BLMs 3) During the MD 4) Data saving and other useful tips for analysis 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting 2

Contents 1) What are BLMs? What are they used for? 2) Types of BLMs 3) During the MD 4) Data saving and other useful tips for analysis 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting 3 BLMs - Intro - Lost particles cause activation of accelerator components (nuclear reactions) - Surrounding material can be destroyed by the radiation and/or heating (quenches!) - Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs) are devices (mainly particle counters, detecting secondary reaction products) used for beam losses detection.

- The measurement principle is based on the energy deposition detection of secondary shower particles, which energy flux is linear with the initiating protons. - They are mounted outside the vacuum pipe all along the machine, with special importance at crucial locations (QFs at 450 GeV and final tripplets at 7 TeV). - They create an interlock system - They have to achieve high sensitivity (usable signal from small losses) and large dynamic range (detection of irregular losses; several orders of magnitude in the same place!!). 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting 4 Contents 1) What are BLMs? What are they used for? 2) Types of BLMs 3) During the MD

4) Data saving and other useful tips for analysis 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting 5 BLMs - Types -There are many kinds of BLMs: Plastic scintillantors Liquid scintillantor Aluminium coated Electron multiplier PIN diode BF3 proportional tube Ionization chamber Optical fiber Secondary Electron (Emission) Monitor (SEM) 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting

6 BLMs - Types -There are many kinds of BLMs: Plastic scintillantors Liquid scintillantor Aluminium coated Electron multiplier PIN diode BF3 proportional tube Ionization chamber Optical fiber Secondary Electron (Emission) Monitor (SEM) 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting

7 BLMs - Types Plastic scintillators: - They detect charged particles due to their electronic stopping as well as g-rays. - Neutron scattering A fast proton travels through the scintillator material, leading to light emission by its electronic stopping. - The light is guided to a photomultiplier, converted to electrons and amplified. - Digitizing the analog voltage using a relatively small gain - 2 modes - Particle counting mode (higher sensitivity and larger dynamic range) - They use to be placed close to collimators and other crucial areas (injection, extraction) thanks to their large dynamic range and high sensitivity. - They can be modulated in nearly any kind of shape and size - Disadvantage: low radiation hardness 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting

8 BLMs - Types Plastic scintillators Plastic scintillator at DESY Photomultiplier 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting 9 BLMs - Types (Short) Ionization Chambers:

- Thats the most used BLM device in the LHC (>4000) They have to be cheap. -They measure the amount of secondary charges created in a gas volume (ionization). - The measurement principle is based on the energy deposition detection of secondary shower particles using ionisation chambers located outside of the magnet cryostats. 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting 10 BLMs - Types (Short) Ionization Chambers: - They are placed more or less equally spaced along the machine with additional units in critical parts (collimators, high aperture, high b, ) - Calibration is relatively independent of the applied voltage - Calibration is determined by geometry - Little maintenance required. Leakage in N2 filled chambers not critical - Dont use electronegative gases (O2, CO2, H2O, ). Use better Ar, N2 or Air.

-Ion-chambers can be build from radiation hard materials (ceramic, glass metal), with no aging - They do not response as fast as scintillators (ions need time to reach the cathode!) 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting 11 Contents 1) What are BLMs? What are they used for? 2) Types of BLMs 3) During the MD 4) Data saving and other useful tips for analysis 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting

12 BLMs During the MD - The data are saved automatically in Timber No need of special interactive software - Acquisition: 1.3 s might be the most appropriate for e- cloud, but ask collimation people - Typical screen: If this screen becomes orange Security thresholds WARNING!!! Logbook

You can click on a concrete monitor to see its signal 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting 13 Contents 1) What are BLMs? What are they used for? 2) Types of BLMs 3) During the MD 4) Data saving and other useful tips for analysis 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting 14 BLMs Data analysis

-The data are saved automatically in Timber - Looking for our monitors: Wild character in Timber If you search for BLM% 100887 variables!!!!! But we are only interested in the BLM%LOSS_RS% 47988 !!!! (still too much) I was recommended to use only one Running Sum (RS)*, e.g. RS09 3999 * A RS is the integration time interval, since the quench levels depend not only on the radiation but also on the time in which the radiation is deposited. There are 12 RS: RS Time (s) RS Time (s) RS Time (s) 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting

1 4.e-5 5 256.e-5 9 1.31072 2 8.e-5 6

1.024e-2 10 5.24288 3 32.e-5 7 8.192e-2 11

20.97152 4 6.4e-4 8 0.65536 12 83.88608 15 BLMs Data analysis - Looking for our monitors (cont.):

We can also discard all BLMES, which are SEM and are not so important for us For a first analysis we mainly have to focus on the BLM%TCP%LOSS_RS09, which are the BLMs situated at the primary collimators only 20 variables! If we see losses at the TCPs that can indicate losses in other places of the machine After that we can check the secondary collimators: BLM%TCS%LOSS_RS09 (169) - Its useful to represent the BLM data together with the BCT (or FBCT) data: 2nd March 2011 - ICE meeting 16

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