EARLY EXPLORERS OF TEXAS VOCABULARY Conquistador Mission Fund

EARLY EXPLORERS OF TEXAS VOCABULARY Conquistador Mission Fund

EARLY EXPLORERS OF TEXAS VOCABULARY Conquistador Mission Fund Area

STUDENTS WILL KNOW Why the Spanish and French explored Texas How Spanish and French settlers interacted with Native Americans Which areas of Texas were settled by Europeans When settlements were founded TEKS 1A, 1C, 2B, 2C. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER SECT 1

Determine reasons for the first Europeans coming to the Americas? Identify how the first Europeans came to Texas? Summarize lvarez de Pineda achieved in 1519? THE AGE OF EXPLORATION

In the 1400s, Europeans looked for new trade routes to India and East Asia. They wanted to avoid the old land routes across the Middle East because the Ottomans who controlled the area demanded high fees from traders. Christopher Columbus suggested sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean to reach Asia.

COLUMBUS REACHES THE AMERICAS Columbus left Spain with three small ships in August 1492. Spends 33 days at sea. Sighted land on October 12, 1492. Columbus came ashore on a small

island in the Caribbean Sea and claimed it for Spain. Columbus was Italian Spain funded his expedition. Spanish explorers repeated his feat of crossing the Atlantic.

In each place Spanish explorers landed, they claimed the land and all its resources for Spain. THE BEGINNINGS OF COLONIZATION In the 1500s Spaniards explored much of the American mainland. Spain claimed many islands in the Caribbean most of South America all

of Central America and Mexico and parts of what is now the United States. Although millions of people occupied these lands, the Spanish used their superior weapons to establish an empire. Soldier-explorers, called conquistadores, helped to conquer and

settle these vast lands for Spain and to gain wealth and glory for themselves. FORMING AND MAPPING NEW SPAIN

In February 1519 Spanish conquistador Hernn Corts landed in what is now Mexico. Corts and his small army conquered the powerful Aztec Empire there. They tore down the Aztec capital, Tenochtitln, and plundered the citys treasure. On the ruins, they built a new city and named it Mexico, after the word that the Aztec called themselves. Mexico City became the capital of New Spain, the Spanish empire in the Americas.

More Spaniards followed them to build towns, lay roads, open mines, and start farms and ranches. Among those who followed were Catholic priests and nuns.

Spain was a Roman Catholic nation, and its rulers wanted to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism. Priests and nuns established missions, or religious settlements. Often the mission was the first Spanish settlement in an area.

In 1519, Alonso lvarez de Pineda became the first European to explore the Texas coast. lvarez de Pineda studied and mapped the coastline from what is today Florida all the way to Mexico. He reported his findings to the governor of Jamaica, and he returned to Mexico to begin a settlement. lvarez de Pineda died there in 1520 during a Native American uprising.

CABEZA DE VACA MEETS THE KARANKAWA In 1527 lvar Nez Cabeza de Vaca joined a large expedition led by the conquistador Pnfilo de Narvez .

Narvezs group became the first Europeans to enter what is now Texas. Narvez hoped to conquer the area between Florida and Mexico, but his efforts failed. Then a storm drove his group aground on an island near present-day Galveston. Cabeza de Vaca named the island Malhado, Spanish for the isle of misfortune.

The castaways were met by the Karankawa, who lived on the coast. The Karankawa helped the Spanish by building fires and bringing them fish and roots to eat. Still, most of Narvezs force soon died from disease and exposure. Disease took a heavy toll on the Karankawa, too.

Cabeza de Vaca, with help from the Karankawa, was among the surrviors. He settled on a small island and established himself as a trader. For some years, he survived by trading goods from his island base with people living on the mainland.

In 1535 Cabeza de Vaca and some companions journeyed south and west toward Mexico. In early 1536, they reached the Spanish settlement at Culiacn ,Mexico. Cabeza de Vacas stories about his adventures amazed the Spanish. He described herds of huge cattle with small horns, that we know of as bison. Cabeza de Vaca also passed on tales he had heard about cities with magnificent houses

and lands rich with copper, emeralds, and turquoise. Although he had found no gold, he suggested that an expedition be sent north to search for it and other treasures. Inspired by the idea that they might find

wealth and glory, other conquistadores eagerly volunteered to explore what is now Texas. Cabeza de Vacas journey through Texas began the era called the Age of Contact. It lasted until 1690, when Spain made its first settlements in the area. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER SECT 1

Determine reasons for the first Europeans coming to the Americas? Identify how the first Europeans came to Texas? Summarize what lvarez de Pineda achieved in 1519? Lesson 2 THE QUEST FOR GOLD AND GLORY VOCABULARY

Viceroy Province Occupy Terminate STUDENTS WILL KNOW Why the Spanish and French explored Texas

How Spanish and French settlers interacted with Native Americans Which areas of Texas were settled by Europeans When settlements were founded TEKS 2B, 2C. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER - LESSON 2

What drove the Spanish to send Coronado to explore parts of what is now the United States? Drawing Conclusions: Why did Coronado find his expedition disappointing? Summarizing: What impact did Spanish entry into Texas have on Native Americans?

Explain How the city of El Paso get its CORONADO EXPLORES THE PLAINS Spains Viceroy in New Spain was Antonio de Mendoza. Mendoza listened to Cabeza de Vacas

reports of riches north of Mexico with interest. It was not the first time he had heard tales about mysterious, wealthy lands to the north. Popular legends told of seven fabulous cities containing vast treasures. One of those cities was reportedly called Cbola. CORONADO SETS OUT IN SEARCH OF GOLD

Mendoza organized an expedition to investigate these stories and chose Francisco Vsquez de Coronado to lead it. Coronado was a young noble who had been named governor of one of the provinces of New Spain. He led more than 300 soldiers and several hundred Native Americans on a journey of some

1,250 miles. Coronado brought sheep and cattle to supply food on the long journey. In July 1540 after five months of travel, Coronado reached a Zuni settlement that he thought must be Cbola.

The Zuni were a Puebloan people who lived in what is now western New Mexico and eastern Arizona. Instead of a golden city, the expedition found buildings made of mud and stone. Angry fighters were ready to defend their village. In the fighting, Coronado was wounded. A FAILED MISSION

Convinced that he would find treasure, Coronado sent out small parties to explore in different directions. One group saw the Grand Canyon. None found gold. The group led by Coronado went east and met a Pawnee whom they called the Turk. He told of a place on the Great Plains called Quivira, said to be filled with treasure. In the spring of 1541, Coronado headed east to find it.

The Turk guided Coronados party to the Great Plains of present-day Texas and Oklahoma, an area that the Wichita people occupied. Coronados men saw the magnificent Palo Duro Canyon, but they kept marching east.

They finally reached what they believed should be Quivira, near present-day Wichita, Kansas. Instead of a grand city of treasures, Coronado found a simple Native American settlement built of sticks and animal skins. Angry, he had the Turk put to death. Coronado claimed the entire Wichita country for Spain before he began the long return journey. His expedition reached Mexico in 1542. Coronado sent a report to the Spanish king stating that Texass soil would be good for farming. He also reported that, unfortunately, there was no gold to be found in the region.

OTHER SPANISH EXPLORATIONS Two other Spanish expeditions reached what is now Texas in the 1500s. One, led by Luis de Moscoso, arrived by accident. The other, led by Juan de Oate, was part of a major Spanish push to colonize lands north of Mexico. Moscoso Reaches East Texas

Moscoso was part of an expedition led by Hernando de Soto that landed on the Florida Gulf Coast in 1539. From there, de Soto explored much of what is now the southeastern United States. After two years, de Sotos group became the first Europeans to reach the Mississippi River. After de Soto died in 1542, Moscoso took command. He led the group down the Mississippi River. They

then struck west in the hope of returning to New Spain overland. Their exact route is not known. However, some modern historians suggest that the expedition traveled as far as Nacogdoches, then further along the Old San Antonio Road and to the Guadalupe River. At that point, worries about low food supplies led them to terminate further exploration. Eventually they returned to the Mississippi River, built boats, and sailed back to Mexico. MOSCOSO SPANIARDS SETTLE ON THE RIO GRANDE

In 1581 the first Spanish explorers reached the area where the citie of El Paso in Texas is today. Because the Rio Grande flows through two mountain ranges there, creating a pass through, the Spanish named it El

Paso del Norte, or the Northern Pass. In 1598, Juan de Oate led a huge expedition to found settlements on the upper Rio Grande. With 600 people, 83 wagons, and 7,000 animals, the party formed a train four miles long. After a difficult and long desert crossing, the expedition reached El Paso del Norte, where Oate celebrated their successful journey and claimed the entire Rio Grande Valley for Spain.

Oate then marched his party up the Rio Grande into what is now New Mexico. There the Spanish founded settlements, including the city of Santa Fe in 1609. Over the years, several expeditions set out from New Mexico and explored the area around present-day San Angelo, Texas. The Spanish who entered what is now Texas left an

impact on the area. They unknowingly carried diseases against which Native Americans had no defenses. These diseases began to spread rapidly among Native Americans and killed many. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER - LESSON 2

What drove the Spanish to send Coronado to explore parts of what is now the United States? Drawing Conclusions: Why did Coronado find his expedition disappointing? Summarizing: What impact did Spanish entry into Texas have on Native Americans? Explain How the city of El Paso get its

Lesson 3 A CHALLENGE FROM FRANCE VOCABULARY Navigate Privateer

Stockade Sufficient Survive STUDENTS WILL KNOW Why the Spanish and French explored Texas How Spanish and French settlers interacted with Native Americans Which areas of Texas were settled by Europeans When settlements were founded TEKS 2B,

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER- LESSON 3 How did the French establish a settlement in Texas? Sequencing : List, in order, the main events leading to the establishment of

a French settlement in what became Texas. Finding the Main Idea :Why did the French establish Fort St. Louis? LA SALLE LEADS THE FRENCH INTO TEXAS In the early 1600s, England, France, and the Netherlands established

colonies in North America. By the late 1600s, France was challenging Spains claim to the region that includes present-day Texas. LA SALLE EXPLORES THE MISSISSIPPI

The first French explorer to enter the area of presentday Texas was Ren-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle. In 1682 he led an expedition from Lake Michigan down the Illinois and Missouri Rivers to navigate the entire length of the Mississippi River. La Salles group followed the Mississippi down to the Gulf of Mexico, making La Salles party the first Europeans to reach the rivers delta. La Salle claimed the entire valley of the Mississippi River for France. In honor of the French king, Louis XIV, he named the land Louisiana. THE FRENCH FOUND FORT ST. LOUIS

When La Salle returned to France, he proposed to found a French colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River. The French king agreed. On August 1, 1684, La Salle led four ships carrying about 280 colonists in search of Louisiana.

The colonizing effort did not go smoothly, however. La Salle quarreled with the ship captains. When the ships reached Haiti, in the Caribbean, a Spanish privateer captured one of the French vessels, stealing with it muchneeded supplies.

Privateers are government-sponsored pirate ships that prey on the ships of other countries. Worst of all for La Salle, he was not a very skilled navigator. He missed the mouth of the Mississippi by 400 miles

After failing to find the entrance to the Mississippi, in early 1685 La Salle decided that the expedition must go ashore. He chose a spot on the coast of Matagorda Bay, not far from modern Corpus Christi. During the landing, one of the ships wrecked. Once again, needed supplies were lost. Now La Salle had only two ships. La Salle and the colonists built a settlement on the banks of Garcitas Creek. Their outpost became known as Fort St. Louis. It was a stockade, or crude fort of logs.

The French settlers also built huts and a chapel, or small church. Overhead they flew the flag of France, with its golden lilies on a field of white. France had now staked a claim on present-day Texas to rival Spains. FRENCH TROUBLES

One of La Salles ships, Le Joly, was a warship that was supposed to return to France. Many passengers had lost faith in La Salle and decided to leave for home aboard Le Joly. That left the group with only one ship, La Belle. CONFLICTS WITH KARANKAWA

From his base at Fort St. Louis, La Salle led several explorations over the next two years in search of the Mississippi River. None of them was able to find the river. While La Salle was away, the settlers at Fort St. Louis faced very serious challenges. Many of their efforts to grow crops failed, so they lacked sufficient food.

Some died from disease. Sometimes settlers who went to hunt or to gather wood or water were killed by the Karankawa who lived in the area. Another disaster hit in February 1686, when La Belle came loose from its mooring, or tie-up, in a violent storm. It ran aground and was wrecked on the

Matagorda Peninsula. FORT ST. LOUIS FAILS With no ships, few supplies, and fewer than 40 of his followers remaining at Fort St. Louis, La Salle decided his only choice was to walk to the nearest French outposta journey of perhaps 1,200 miles to the Great Lakes.

If he could complete the trip, he could arrange to resupply Fort St. Louis. La Salle brought along 17 colonists he thought could make the journey. He left behind about 20 others, including women and children, whom he thought could not survive the trip.

In East Texas, members of the expedition refused to continue the trip. They led a mutiny, or a rebellion against a commander, and murdered LaSalle on March 19, 1687. Six of the group decided to try to continue to the French settlement of Quebec, in Canada. Another small group remained behind in East Texas. The remaining residents of Fort St. Louis managed to survive without La Salle or new supplies.

Then, sometime around Christmas of 1688, the Karankawa staged a surprise attack. Historians know this from an eyewitness account written by Jean-Baptiste Talon. Five children were captured and adopted by the

Karankawa, but most of the colonists were killed. Talon recorded that among those captured were his younger siblingstwo brothers and a sister. For many years afterward, there were rumors that some of the colonists who had been spared in the Fort St. Louis massacre were still living among the Native Americans. SPAIN AND FRANCE FEUD

Despite the failure of Fort St. Louis to survive as a permanent settlement, La Salles efforts had important effects. For France, his explorations led to establishing trade with Native Americans of the Mississippi River valley. The French never did really settle in Texas, but French trading activity in the area continued into the early 1800s.

The most direct result of French exploration for Texas was that Spanish interest shifted focus from western Texas to eastern Texas. The Spanish did not want the French taking over what they believed was part of New Spain. After many years of disinterest, Spain now resumed exploring the Gulf Coast and settling in the Texas area of New Spain. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER - LESSON

3 How did the French establish a settlement in Texas? Sequencing : List, in order, the main events leading to the establishment of a French settlement in what became Texas.

Finding the Main Idea :Why did the French establish Fort St. Louis?

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