DERMAL NITRATE TEST ( PARAFFIN TEST ) METHOD: Molten paraffin wax is brushed on the suspects hand After hardening it is peeled off. The inner surface of the wax cast is then treated with diphenylamine or diphenylbenzidine reagent. Blue colour develops wherever the
powder residue is present. DERMAL NITRATE TEST ( PARAFFIN TEST ) DRAWBACKS: FALSE NEGATIVE RESULT Washed hand Delay in doing the test. Weapon is well constructed. FALSE POSITIVE RESULT
Hand contaminated with nitrogenous compounds Tobacco, leguminous plants, soil, cosmetics, fertilizers etc. Other tests OTHER TESTS (To find out whether a suspect discharged a firearm recently, or not) are: The Harrison & Gilroy test TLC, HPLC, GC.
Atomic absorption spectroscopy. Neutron activation analysis. BALLISTICS - SPECIAL ASPECTS
Balling of shots Bullet embolism Billiard ball effect Ricochet bullet Various types of bullets
Tandem bullet Tandem cartridge Souvenir bullet Frangible bullet Yawing bullet Tumbling bullet
Dum dum bullet Explosive bullet Incendiary bullet Plastic bullet Single entry, multiple exits
Entrance wound present, bullet not found Unexplained bullets in body Atypical wound of entrance Multiple entry/exits (single shot) Kennedy Phenomenon Medico-legal evaluation of firearm injury made difficult by surgical suturing or alteration. Rayalaseema Phenomenon
Medico-legal evaluation of a firearm injury made difficult by deliberate mutilation. Eg. Cutting or stabbing through it. Autopsy procedures
Crime scene Clothing Firearm injuries Precautions Cause of death Chemical analysis SUICIDE More common
in males Usually single wound Injury in one of the sitestemple, centre of forehead, roof of mouth, left side chest. HOMICIDE Can involve
either sex Usually multiple. Can be anywhere (inaccessible areas & non-vital areas).
SUICIDE Usually contact wound. Weapon near the body Scene victims home Suicide note may be present
HOMICIDE Close or distant shot Weapon absent Anywhere Absent THANK YOU
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