DERMAL NITRATE TEST ( PARAFFIN TEST ) METHOD: Molten paraffin wax is brushed on the suspects hand After hardening it is peeled off. The inner surface of the wax cast is then treated with diphenylamine or diphenylbenzidine reagent. Blue colour develops wherever the

powder residue is present. DERMAL NITRATE TEST ( PARAFFIN TEST ) DRAWBACKS: FALSE NEGATIVE RESULT Washed hand Delay in doing the test. Weapon is well constructed. FALSE POSITIVE RESULT

Hand contaminated with nitrogenous compounds Tobacco, leguminous plants, soil, cosmetics, fertilizers etc. Other tests OTHER TESTS (To find out whether a suspect discharged a firearm recently, or not) are: The Harrison & Gilroy test TLC, HPLC, GC.

Atomic absorption spectroscopy. Neutron activation analysis. BALLISTICS - SPECIAL ASPECTS

Balling of shots Bullet embolism Billiard ball effect Ricochet bullet Various types of bullets

Tandem bullet Tandem cartridge Souvenir bullet Frangible bullet Yawing bullet Tumbling bullet

Dum dum bullet Explosive bullet Incendiary bullet Plastic bullet Single entry, multiple exits

Entrance wound present, bullet not found Unexplained bullets in body Atypical wound of entrance Multiple entry/exits (single shot) Kennedy Phenomenon Medico-legal evaluation of firearm injury made difficult by surgical suturing or alteration. Rayalaseema Phenomenon

Medico-legal evaluation of a firearm injury made difficult by deliberate mutilation. Eg. Cutting or stabbing through it. Autopsy procedures

Crime scene Clothing Firearm injuries Precautions Cause of death Chemical analysis SUICIDE More common

in males Usually single wound Injury in one of the sitestemple, centre of forehead, roof of mouth, left side chest. HOMICIDE Can involve

either sex Usually multiple. Can be anywhere (inaccessible areas & non-vital areas).

SUICIDE Usually contact wound. Weapon near the body Scene victims home Suicide note may be present

HOMICIDE Close or distant shot Weapon absent Anywhere Absent THANK YOU

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