LRO Mission Overview Craig Tooley - GSFC/431 September
LRO Mission Overview Craig Tooley - GSFC/431 September 7, 2005 1 2008 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) First Step in the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Robotic Lunar Exploration Program LRO Objectives Characterization of the lunar radiation environment, biological impacts, and potential mitigation. Key aspects of this objective include determining the global radiation environment, investigating the capabilities of potential shielding materials, and validating deep space radiation prototype hardware and software. Develop a high resolution global, three dimensional geodetic grid of the Moon and provide the topography necessary for selecting future landing sites. Assess in detail the resources and environments of the Moons polar regions. High spatial resolution assessment of the Moons surface addressing elemental composition, mineralogy, and Regolith characteristics 2 Investigation Background LRO provides major scientific and exploration benefit by 2009 LRO selected instruments complement other foreign efforts Six instruments competitively selected (next-generation payload) Comparison to foreign systems demonstrate uniqueness and value LRO will also accommodate a HQ directed Technology Demonstration payload, the Mini-RF (SAR) instrument. LRO will enhance our knowledge of the Moon and increase the safety of future human missions. Apollo provided only a small glimpse of Moon; much to be explored LRO address both science and exploration objectives LRO brings many benefits (e.g., future landing sites, polar resources, safety, science) 3D maps of terrain and hazards, as well as of localized resources (ice) will tell us where to land (and at what precision). Exploration of new sites where resources may be available requires new and timely knowledge of those sites at scales never before possible. Current state of knowledge does not allow us to reduce the risk and cost of humans landing and working on the Moon. Equatorial environment (terrain, thermal, lighting) is different from polar region. Apollo Program flight system capability limited to equatorial region (capability) 3 Benefit Example: Identifying Landing Sites & Resources Temperature mapping (find cold traps) Resource imaging Polar Topography/shadow mapping 4 LRO Mission Overview Flight Plan Direct using 3-Stage ELV
Launch in late 2008 on a Delta II rocket into a direct insertion trajectory to the moon. On-board propulsion system used to capture at the moon, insert into and maintain 50 km altitude circular polar reconnaissance orbit. 1 year mission Orbiter is a 3-axis stabilized, nadir pointed spacecraft designed to operate continuously during the primary mission. Moon at encounter Cis-lunar transfer 5.1978 day transfer Launch C3 2.07 km2/s2 Sun direction Lunar Orbit Cis-Lunar Transfer 1-day 100 and 50km mission orbits Earth Nominal Cis-lunar Trajectory Solar Rotating Coordinates Insertion and Circularization Impulsive Vs (m/s) 1 344.24 2 113.06 3 383.91 4 11.45 5 12.18 6-hour orbit 12-hour orbit 5 LRO Mission Overview Orbiter INSTRUMENT MODULE LRO Instruments Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Measurement Investigation LOLA will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes and search for polar ices in shadowed regions. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) LROC will acquire targeted images of the lunar surface capable of resolving small-scale features that could be landing site hazards, as well as wide-angle images at multiple wavelengths of the lunar poles to document changing illumination conditions and potential resources. Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) LEND will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice and provide measurements of the space radiation environment which can be useful for future human exploration. Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment Diviner will map the temperature of the entire lunar surface at 300 meter horizontal scales to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits.
Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) LAMP will observe the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ices and frosts in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only by starlight. Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) CRaTER will investigate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on tissue-equivalent plastics as a constraint on models of biological response to background space radiation. CRaTER LROC LOLA AVIONICS MODULE LAMP PROPULSION MODULE SOLAR ARRAY Mini-RF LRO Preliminary Design INSTRUMENT MODULE AVIONICS MODULE HGA LAMP PROPULSION MODULE LEND Preliminary LRO Characteristics Diviner Mass SOLAR ARRAY Power Measurement Data Volume 1317 kg Dry: 603 kg Fuel: 714 kg 745 W 575 Gb/day 6 Competitively Selected LRO Instruments Provide Broad Benefits INSTRUMENT CRaTER (BU+MIT) Measurement Exploration Benefit Science Benefit Tissue equivalent response to radiation Safe, lighter weight space vehicles that protect humans
Radiation conditions that influence life beyond Earth 300m scale maps of Temperature, surface ice, rocks Determines conditions for systems operability and water-ice location Maps of frosts in permanently shadowed areas, etc. Locate potential waterice (as frosts) on the surface Hydrogen content in and neutron radiation maps from upper 1m of Moon at 5km scales, Rad > 10 MeV Locate potential waterice in lunar soil and enhanced crew safety ~50m scale polar topography at < 1m vertical, roughness Safe landing site selection, and enhanced surface navigation (3D) Geological evolution of the solar system by geodetic topography 1000s of 50cm/pixel images (125km2), and entire Moon at 100m in UV, Visible Safe landing sites through hazard identification; some resource identification Resource evaluation, impact flux and crustal evolution Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation Diviner (UCLA) LAMP (SWRI) Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project LEND (Russia) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector LOLA (GSFC) Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter LROC (NWU+MSSS) Lunar Recon Orbiter Camera Improved understanding of volatiles in the solar system - source, history, migration and deposition 7 LRO Spacecraft Systems Block Diagram 8
LRO C&DH Architecture Block Diagram (New-8/29/05) Instruments L E N D SUBSYSTEMS (ACS, PSE, PRO/DEP) C R A T E R L O L A LROC SpaceWire FPGA 32 Mbps 1553B 5 Heater out Unsw.+28V 8 to 32Mbps (Max.) Hi-Rate Tlm 125Mbps (Max.) S-Xpndr HGA Ka-Xmtr 38.4Kbps Serial IF (UART) 1Mbps Low-Rate Tlm 2Mbps Max & Command 4Kbps #Changed ATA IF I/O L A M P SpaceWire FPGA GD-DDA GD-DDA Sw. +28V (Heater) UnSw. +28V (SBC) MiniRF NAC1 NAC2 WAC D i v i n e r 2 Mbps Max. (HK Downlink) 2 Mbps Max. (LAMP Tlm)
Gain Antenna, Solar Deployable Systems High Gain Antenna, SolarArray Array 22Data Buses Low Rate 1553, High Rate Spacewire Data Buses Low Rate 1553, High Rate Spacewire 22Comm CommLinks LinksSSBand, Band,Ka KaBand Band Monopropellant System Hydrazine, Monopropellant System Hydrazine,Single SingleTank Tankdesign design LRO LROCapability CapabilityHighlights Highlights Mass: 1480 kg Mass: 1480 kg Power: 823 Power: 823WWorbit orbitaverage [email protected]@35V 35V Battery: Lithium Ion Chemistry Battery: Lithium Ion Chemistry 8080Amp-Hour Amp-HourCapacity Capacity Data Storage Capacity: 400 Gb Data Storage Capacity: 400 Gb Data Rate: 100 Data Rate: 100Mbps MbpsDown DownKa KaBand Band 2.186 Mbps Up/Down 2.186 Mbps Up/Down SSBand Band Timing relative to UTC: 3ms Timing relative to UTC: 3ms Delta V Capability: 1326 Delta V Capability: 1326m/sec m/sec Pointing Accuracy: 60 Asec
Pointing Accuracy: 60 Asecrelative relativetotoGCI GCI Pointing Knowledge: 30 Asec relative to GCI Pointing Knowledge: 30 Asec relative to GCI 10 Ground System Architecture Overview 11 LRO Mission Phases Overview No 1 Phase Pre-Launch/ Launch Readiness 2 Launch & Lunar Transfer 3 Sub-Phases Space Segment Readiness Ground Segment Readiness Launch and Ascent Separation and De-spin Deployment and Sun Acq. Lunar Cruise Lunar Orbit Insertion Spacecraft Commissioning Integrated Instrument Commissioning Measurements (Routine Ops) Station-keeping Momentum Management Instrument Calibrations Lunar Eclipse Yaw Maneuver Safe Mode Orbiter Commissioning 4 Routine Operations 5 6 Description Includes instrument I&T, spacecraft/orbiter I&T, space/ground segment testing as well as operations preparation and ground readiness testing leading up to launch. Includes all activities & operations from launch countdown sequence to Lunar Orbit
Insertion (LOI). LOI includes all maneuvers necessary to obtain the temporary parking orbit for Orbiter activation and commissioning. During the cruise phase, initial spacecraft checkout will be performed to support activities for mid course correction (MCC) and LOI. Configure and checkout the spacecraft subsystems and ground systems prior to instrument turn-on. Instrument integrated activation will be developed to complete instruments turn-on and commissioning. Instrument commissioning includes any calibration activities needed in the temporary orbit. One year of nominal science collection in the 50 (+/- 20) km orbit. Extended Mission Operations After 1-year of science observations, orbiter will be boosted into a higher orbit to reduce maintenance requirements. Potential purpose for extended mission operations may be to perform relay comm. operations. Alternatively additional measurement operations may be performed for a shorter period in a continued low orbit. End-of-Mission Disposal Includes planning and execution of end-of-life operations. LRO will impact lunar surface. 12 LRO Project Organization LRO Project Manager C. Tooley Project Scientist G. Chin 600 Deputy Project Manager TBD System Assurance Manager R. Kolecki 300 Deputy Project Manager/ Resources P. Campanella Safety Manager D. Bogart Manufacturing Engineer N. Virmani Materials Engineer P. Joy RM Coordinator A. Rad Financial Manager B. Sluder 500 400 Mission Business Mgr. J. Smith Orbiter Systems Engineer M. Pryzby Avionics Systems Engineer P. Luers Project Support Manager K. Opperhauser GN&C Systems Engineer E. Holmes General Business D. Yoder/ P. Gregory Scheduling A. Eaker Operations System Engineer M. Beckman/ D. Folta SW/HW SystemsEngineer C. Wilderman Mission Success Engineer K. Deily
CM/DM D. Yoder Contamination Control C. Lorenston MIS A. Hess/ J. Brill 500 400 Mission System Engineer M. Houghton 400 Orbiter I & T Lead J. Baker Launch Vehicle Manager T. Jones 400 Payload Systems Manager A. Bartels 500 ACS Hardware J. Simpson J. Baker L. Hartz Flight Dynamics M. Beckman/ D. Folta Power T. Spitzer 400 Payload Systems Engineers Communications J. Soloff ACS Analyst J. Garrett Ground Network & Operations R. Saylor 400 C&DH Q. Nguyen Software M. Blau Contracting Offi cer J. Janus 200 M. Reden CRaTER D. Spence LROC M. Robinson Diviner D. Paige Mini - RF LEND I. Mitrofanov
LOLA D. Smith LAMP S. Stern Boston University Northwestern Univ. UCLA NAWC ISR, Moscow GSFC SWRI Thermal C. Baker Propulsion C. Zakrzwski Electrical R. Kinder Mechanical G. Rosanova 08/31/2005 13 LRO Mission Schedule LRO Mission Schedule Mission PDR target: November 14 Ver. 0.9 2004 CY Q2 Q3 2005 Q4 Q1 Q2 AO Release Q3 IPDR LRO Mission Milestones IBR AO Sel. MRD SRR 2006 Q4 Q1 PDR Q2 ICDR Q3 2007 Q4 CDR Q1 Q2
Q3 7/31/05 2008 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q4 FOR/ORR MOR Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Launch IPSR Conf. Review 2009 Q3 PSR PER MRR LRR Mission Feasibility Definition Payload Proposal Development Instr. PDR's 9/6-9/29 Payload Preliminary Design System Definition S/C &GDS/OPS Preliminary Design Payload Design (Final) (1M Float) Spacecraft Design (Final) Network Decision GDS/OPS Definition/ Design Payload Fab/Assy/Test (7 Instruments) Payload complete (Final Delivery to I&T) (LAMP/LOLA/LROC/Diviner/CraTer/LEND/Mini-RF) S/C Fab/Assy/Bus Test S/C complete (Final delivery to I&T) GND Net Test Ready GDS/OPS Development Implemention & Test S/C BUS Integration and Test (1M Float) Payload Envir. Testing (1M Float) Launch Site Operations Ship to KSC
(1M Float) Launch Mission Operations 14 LRO Project Overall Status Project almost fully staffed Project infrastructure in-place 45 civil servants & 23 support contractor at present (FTEs & WYEs) Project level augmentations in-work as Program/Project resources are phased out. Project organization and staffing being adjusted in reaction to RLEP transfer to ARC Project Plan drafted for November 2004 Program review Currently being revised to reflect RLEP move to ARC & to comply with NPR 7120.5 rev. C Mission SRR successfully conducted August 16-17 Major system trades nearly complete C&DH Architecture Propulsion System Ground Network Data Recorder Technology High Accuracy Tracking Methodology Level 2 & Level 3 Requirements established and moving thru review/approval cycles SRR successfully completed Overall integrated mission development schedule developed and in review Baselined after PDR in preparation for Confirmation 15 LRO Element Development Status Instruments high heritage proposed designs converging to preliminary designs Design efforts primarily focused in two areas Design modifications to adapt to LRO command/data interfaces Design modifications driven by lunar thermal environment Interfaces with spacecraft well defined ICDs in review/release cycle Allocations released and agreed upon LRO Payload Science Working Group formed and functioning Consists of PIs lead by LRO Project Scientist Integral part of LRO mission operations planning
Spacecraft bus AO design concept evolving to preliminary design Low lunar polar orbit is significantly different than Mars missions where most instrument heritage is from. All subsystems on track for mission PDR this Fall Propulsion subsystem moved in-house at GSFC leverages HST-DM surplus hardware Spacecraft Computer specified and under development on ESES contract SQ-RAID (hard disk) technology selected for data recorder. Acquisition now in-work. Subsystem technical Peer Review being conducted Sept. - November Approximately $15M in direct procurements planned during Sept.-Dec. Ground Systems architecture and acquisition approach defined Mission Operations Center Preliminary design established based on GSFC heritage systems Location established, initial facility agreements in-place Ground Network Requirements and architecture established Primary 18m antenna procurement contract in place GSFC Ground Networks providing end-to-end system Development tasks on NENS contract established SRR Planned for November 16 LRO Requirements Mission SRR held 9/16-17/2005 judged very successful Review covered development and flow down of level 2 and 3 requirements from the NASA ESMD Level 1 requirements Instruments presented flow down of Level 1 measurement and data product requirements to their level 2 and 3 performance and functional requirements Project presented flow down of level 2 and 3 mission, spacecraft, and ground system requirements ~ 50 RFAs/Comments, none specific to instruments. Level 1 requirements being refined by ESMD with Project and assistance. Ongoing work includes establishment of Mission Success Criteria SRR demonstrated that instrument requirements are established, understood, and realizable. 17 LRO Requirements Development Roadmap LRO Level 1 Requirements ESMD-RQMT-0010 Project Requirements Measurement Requirements & Instrument Specific Expected Data Products Level 2 Requirement Synthesis LRO Mission Requirements Document 431-RQMT-000004 Mini-RF Allocations Electrical Spec Mechanical Spec Thermal Spec LROC LOLA LAMP LEND CRaTER Diviner Level 2 Performance & SOC Requirements Operations Contamination Radiation Mission Assurance Launch Vehicle Spacecraft, Instrument & Ground
Level 3 Requirements Documents & ICDs Instrument Proposals & LRO AO/PIP + Instrument Questionnaires + Instrument-Project TIMs + Instrument Accommodation Review + Mission Trade Studies + Collaborative Drafting of ICDs Instrument interface requirements & constraints on spacecraft Spacecraft and Ground Requirements Preliminary Engineering 18 LRO Mission Requirements Hierarchy CM Key ESMD LEVEL 1 Document ESMD-RLEP-0010 Released LRO Level 1 Requirements Document In CCB for Release Document DRAFT Launch Vehicle LRO Mission LEVEL 2 431-RQMT-000004 Mission Requirements Document (MRD) Mission Requirements Documents JPL-D-32399 JPL-D-32375 431-RQMT-000174 431-SPEC-000112 431-SPEC-000113 431-PLAN-000100 431-PLAN-000110 431-SPEC-000012 431-SPEC-000008 431-SPEC-000091 LRO Mission Assurance Reqt LRO Tech Resoures Alloc LRO Pointing & Alignment Alloc LRO Integration and Test Plan LRO Contamination Control Plan Mechanical Systems Spec
LRO Electrical Systems Spec Thermal Systems Spec 431-RQMT-000045 431-PLAN-000101 431-RQMT-000092 431-HDBK-000093 431-SPEC-000103 LRO Radiation Reqt LRO Observatory Verification Plan Thermal Modeling Reqt Document Component MICD Guidelines HDBK LRO SpaceWire Spec MISSION ASSURANCE RESOURCE ALLOCATIONS 11239-IRD-01 32-01205 01 LOLA-RQMT-00002 LEND IRD 01 MSSS-LROC-001 DRLE Functional Requirements Doc LAMP IRD CRaTER IRD LOLA Science & Functional RD LEND IRD LROC IRD JPL-D-32477 JPL-D-32400 11239-DMP-01 LOLA-PLAN-00005 LEND DMP 01 MSSS-LROC-010 DRLE Data Management Plan DRLE Data Product Specification LAMP Data Management Plan LAMP Instrument Requirements LOLA Data Management Plan LOLA Instrument Requirements LEND Data Management Plan
LEND Instrument Requirements LROC Data Management Plan Instrument Requirements DRLE Instrument Performance RD DRLE Instrument Requirements CRaTER Data Management Plan CRaTER Instrument Requirements SYSTEMS Document To Be Written 8/12/2005 MDC 00H0016 Delta II Payload Planners Guide 431-REF-000172 GENERAL SPECS LV Questionnaire 431-RQMT-000157 Mini RF Requirements and Goals Document Tech Demo Requirements 431-OPS-000042 431-PLAN-000182 LRO Mission Concept of Operations LRO Data Management Plan AFSPCMAN 91-710 Range Safety User Requirements GROUND/OPERATION LRO Orbiter LEVEL 3 Ground System 431-RQMT-000048 Detailed Mission Reqt (DMR) for LRO Ground System 431-ICD-000049 LRO Ground System ICD Spacecraft Bus 431-PLAN-000131 LRO Spacecraft Payload Assurance Implementation Plan Mission Assurance 431-RQMT-000168 C&DH System Requirements 431-ICD-000141 C&DH EICD 431-RQMT-000137
431-SPEC-000162 LRO Communication Systems Requirements LRO GNC ACS Spec 431-ICD-000146 431-PROP-000017 431-ICD-000142 LRO PROP Subsystem SOW & SPEC Power Subsystem Electronics EICD Comm System EICD ACS 431-RQMT-000183 431-ICD-TBD LRO Mechanical Systems Reqts C & DH MICD/TICD 451-RFICD-LRO/LN Mechanical C&DH RF ICD Between LRO and the Lunar Network Propulsion to Spacecraft EICD 431-RQMT-000205 431-RQMT-000139 Communication Thermal Level III Requirements LRO Flight Software Rqmt 431-ICD-TBD Thermal FSW 431-ICD-000147 Propulsion to Spacecraft MICD Propulsion 431-RQMT-000140 431-SPEC-000184 Electrical Systems Reqt Doc Flight Dynamics Specification Electrical Flight Dynamics Instruments
431-SPEC-000013 431-ICD-000152 431-ICD-000094 431-ICD-000096 431-ICD-000099 431-ICD-000097 431-ICD-000095 431-ICD-000098 LRO Electrical Power Subsystem Spec Mini RF Electrical ICD CRaTER Electrical ICD LAMP Electrical ICD LROC Electrical ICD LEND Electrical ICD DLRE Electrical ICD LOLA to Spacecraft Electrical ICD 431-ICD-000160 431-ICD-000104 431-ICD-000106 431-ICD-000109 431-ICD-000107 431-ICD-000105 431-ICD-000108 Mini RF Data ICD CRaTER Data ICD LAMP Data ICD LROC Data ICD LEND Data ICD DLRE Data ICD LOLA Data ICD 431-ICD-000118 431-ICD-000115 431-ICD-000114 431-ICD-000119 431-ICD-000116 431-ICD-000117 431-ICD-000159 431-ICD-000150 Mini RF TICD Solay Array EICD 431-ICD-000158
LRO LCC estimate is in process. Instruments Initial Guiding Boundary Conditions 2008 launch Delta II class LV Accommodate Investigations sought by ORDT/AO $400M cost target put forth in FAD Discovery Class In Progress 6.8 Diviner 11.9 LAMP 5.5 LEND 5.1 LOLA 19.7 LROC 17.3 Launch Vehicle 90 Ground Network/MOC & Mission Ops. 39 I&T 11 Reserve 56 Total 407 POP 05 Conceptual Cost Estimates Parametric estimate based on historical data for recent mission with similarities Application of simple CERs by Project Refined Grassroots Estimates Done at subsystem level - Subsystem estimates prelim. design based - Instruments per proposals, C/D/E contracts CRaTER Initial Grassroots Estimates Done at subsystem level - Subsystem estimates experience based - Instruments per AO POP 06 LCC estimate for Confirmation Process Results from reconciliation of Grassroots & RAO estimates. Reviewed by GSFC PMC GSFC RAO Cost Modeling Mission input data defined/delivered by Project In Progress 22
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