Objectives To identify the origins of floral design.

Objectives To identify the origins of floral design.

Objectives To identify the origins of floral design. To analyze the history of floral design. To discover the developments of floral design. To evaluate the significance of floral design. 2

Table of Contents Significance of Floral Design Oriental Influence on Floral Design Classical Influence on Floral Design European Influence on Floral Design American Influence on Floral Design Floral Design Industry 3 Table of Contents

4 Floral Designs Are created using fresh, dried or artificial flowers Have been used throughout history for numerous reasons Are often used for religious and cultural purposes 5 Floral Designs

Table of Contents Have been used as symbols of: friendship sympathy love celebration Are commonly displayed at special occasions

6 Table of Contents 7 Oriental Influence Chinese Japanese 8

Chinese Table of Contents Were the first to use water and containers to create floral arrangements Used religious, simplistic ideas in arrangements Placed floral arrangements on altars and around the house Also used floral materials for

personal adornment 9 Japanese Applied the six canons, or principles, Hsieh Ho including: created by rhythm organic form trueness to nature

color placement of the object in the field style Have two different styles Rikkwa Ikebana 10 Rikkwa Means standing flowers Are more commonly made by Buddhist priests at altars

Are characterized by being very large, upright and symmetrical 11 Rikkwa Commonly incorporates a tree in the center of the container to provide a foundation for the design referred to as the shin - vertical line of the arrangement Portrays natural landscape

12 Ikebana Is based on the Buddhist principles of dominance proportion balance rhythm Places an emphasis on lines, not color Has three lines which represent heaven, man and earth

13 Ikebanas Lines Are also commonly known as Shins Primary line represents heaven also known as Shin is at least one to one and a half times the height of the container 14

Ikebanas Lines Secondary line represents mankind also known as Soe is one-half to two-thirds times the height of the Shin 15 Ikebanas Lines Tertiary line represents earth also known as Tai

is one-fourth to one-third times the height of the Shin a more horizontal position 16 Ikebana Uses filler flowers called Nejime to tie the three elements together Has three patterns Shin Cyo

So 17 Shin Is the most common and formal pattern Received its name from the first element in Ikebana Uses flowers and plants in upright containers so they grow naturally 18

Cyo Are less formal designs Use curved, graceful lines of stems in upright containers Are smaller than Shin designs 19 So Table of Contents

Are the least formal designs Contain broad, sweeping lines created by forcing the stems to bend Are horizontal, low designs placed in low containers 20 Table of Contents 21

Classical Influence Egyptians Greeks Romans Byzantines 22 Egyptians From 2800 B.C. to 28 B.C. Used flowers for decorations, garlands, wreaths and temple offerings

Utilized simplistic design principles applied a particular pattern several times example: a typical design consisted of a single flower with a single bud or leaf on either side repeated as a unit 23 Egyptians Classical Influence

Made use of flowers such as: Lotus Acacia Roses Water lilies Violets Madonna lilies Narcissus Jasmine Poppies 24

Greeks From 600 to 150 B.C. Used flowers for adornment Continued the use of wreaths and garlands Created the Horn of Plenty or Cornucopia 25 Greeks

Classical Influence Are known for creating triangular and symmetrical arrangements consisted of one or a limited amount of colors Commonly used the following flowers and plants for their arrangements: Roses Hyacinths Lilies Iris

Narcissus Violets Grape leaves Herbs Seed pods 26 Romans Classical Influence

From 28 B.C. to 325 A.D. Continued to use the same customs of the Greek period designs of garlands, wreaths and crowns were more elaborate than those of the Greek Used less graceful designs compared to the Greeks in baskets and cornucopias Began the use of flowers for fragrant purposes 27

Byzantines Classical Influence From 320 to 600 A.D. Brought together Greek and Roman Period influences Began to incorporate fruit within garlands Placed arrangements in baskets, goblets or low containers example: commonly designed trees

using foliage and flowers with symmetrical principles in mind 28 Table of Contents 29 European Influence Renaissance

Baroque Victorian 30 Renaissance From 1400 to 1600 Created large, symmetrical arrangements with bright colors more naturalistic look Used flowers for more than religious purposes

Introduced the Christmas wreath Definition: Naturalistic- appears natural and not artificial or arranged 31 Renaissance European Influence Used flowers and foliage such as:

Olive Ivy Laurel Dianthus Daisies Lily of the valley Lilies Violets Roses Primroses Iris Anemone

32 Baroque From 1600 to 1775 Also referred to as Flemish Created symmetrical designs, then shifted to asymmetrical designs Definition: Asymmetricalsides or halves which are not the same but, still balanced 33

Baroque Marked the beginning of the Hogarth curve, or S-curve created by English painter, William Hogarth Utilized large containers with elaborate arrangements made with several different types of flowers 34 Baroque

European Influence Utilized the following flowers in their designs: Iris Marigold Lily Peony Canna Narcissus Hollyhock

Roses 35 Victorian From 1820 to 1901 Used foliage and grasses to contrast textures Placed flowers in very low containers 36 Victorian

European Influence Used flowers such as: Tulips Lilies Anemones Dahlias Fuchsias Asters Bleeding hearts

Roses Common garden flowers 37 Table of Contents 38 American Influence Early American

Colonial Williamsburg American Federal Modern 39 Early American American Influence From 1620 to 1720 Created arrangements for personal

adornment and decorations around the home Used any flower available and placed all arrangements into household containers 40 Colonial Williamsburg American Influence From 1740 to 1780 Placed grasses, flowers and foliage into

fan-shaped arrangements Began to mix different floral bouquets together 41 Colonial Williamsburg American Influence Used flowers such as: Anemones

Hollyhocks Phlox Sunflowers Violets Bachelor button Marigolds Strawflowers Daisies Dianthus Snapdragons 42

American Federal American Influence From 1780 to 1820 Began to focus on the charm of an individual flower Strayed away from large amounts of mixed floral bouquets Used fewer flowers in containers

43 Modern American Influence Began current practices around 1910 Also known as the Contemporary Florists Combined line elements from the Japanese

and mass designs from the Europeans Marked the beginning of a container made specifically to hold flowers and small bouquets 44 Table of Contents 45

Industry Now has certification programs which: provides further knowledge and skills to floral designers allows for a florist to be more marketable as a candidate for a job in nurseries or floral shops 46 Entry Level Has an average salary from $16,000$35,000 for a floral designer

Pays nursery and greenhouse workers an average of $8.75 an hour for part-time employees and $11.38 an hour for full-time employees 47 Intermediate Level Careers typically involve college degrees Opportunities could include positions in sales, marketing and production Include an average salary of $35,000, $54,000 and $46,000, respectively

48 Expert Level Career opportunities usually require college degrees Careers could include positions such as general manager and financial manager Include an average salary of $62,000 and $50,000 respectively 49

Assessment Assessment 50 Assessment 1. Floral designs have been used for several reasons throughout history. Which of the following purposes was floral design NOT used for? A. Sympathy B. Religious C. Sadness

D. Celebration 2. Hsieh Ho merged six cannons into Japanese floral design. Which of the following was NOT introduced? A. Balance B. Color C. Trueness to nature D. Style 51 Assessment 3. Andrea is creating a floral arrangement using only poppies and repeating the flowers throughout the design. Which of the

following cultures influenced her design style? A. Greek B. Roman C. Baroque D. Egyptian 4. Which of the following is the name for a centerpiece known as the horn of plenty and filled with fruits and flowers? A. Cornucopia B. Seed pods C. Narcissus D. Wreath 52

Assessment 5. Shirley and her mom were decorating their home for Christmas and discussing which cultures developed different styles of floral design. After hanging it on the door, Shirley explained to her mother the Christmas wreath was developed by which of the following cultures? A. Renaissance B. Greek C. Roman D. Baroque 6. During which of the following eras did William Hogarth introduce the Hogarth Curve into floral design?

A. Byzantine B. Roman C. Early American D. Baroque 53 Assessment 7. Which of the following is NOT based on Buddhist principles in an Ikebana design? A. Dominance B. Proportion

C. Configuration D. Balance 8. During class, Mrs. Olsen asked her students to create a triangular shaped design using red throughout the arrangement. From which of the following cultures does this technique draw from? A. Roman B. Japanese C. Greek D. Baroque 54 Assessment

9. Floral arrangements mainly focused on the individual allure of a flower instead of larger bouquets during which of the following years? A. 1620 to 1720 B. 1740 to 1780 C. 1780 to 1820 D. 1910 to the present 10. Which of the following describes the modern time period combined elements from two cultures from the past? A. Chinese and Japanese B. Japanese and European C. European and Chinese

D. Greek and Roman 55 Resources The History of Floral Design. Rutgers University. Retrieved from http://aesop.rutgers.edu History of Floral Design. Flower Expert. Retrieved from http://www.theflowerexpert.com 56 Acknowledgements

Production Coordinator Technical Writer Mai Lee Holmes Jessica Odom Production Manager Graphic Designer Maggie Bigham

Daniel Johnson Project Coordinator Executive Producers Olivia Mitchell Gordon W. Davis, Ph.D. Jeff Lansdell MMXIV

CEV Multimedia, Ltd. 57

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