CHAPTER 11 PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE Adolescence a Definition Adolescence is the developmental stage that spans the period from the end of childhood to the beginning of adulthood.

Additional Material Adolescence a Genesis The concept of adolescence did not exist until psychologist G. Stanley Hall first wrote about it in his book by that name in 1904. He portrayed this stage in life as one of storm and stress, the inevitable result of biological changes Anna Freud (1958), daughter of Sigmund Freud,

considered a stormy adolescence a necessary part of normal development. Hall and Freud were wrong. Additional Material 3 Adolescence a Genesis Compelling evidence now suggests that adolescence is not typically stormy and difficult

Adolescence poses a great risk to healthy development for about one-fourth of teenagers healthy development for at least one-half of them Additional Material 4

PHYSICAL MATURATION Physical Manifestations of Puberty Growth during Adolescence: The Rapid Pace of Physical and Sexual Maturation Adolescent growth spurt boys grow 4.1 inches a year and girls 3.5 inches a year. Weight increase Skeletal changes Muscle changes

Males lose subcutaneous fat Male pain perception changes Accelerated growth spurt Extremities first (head, hands, feet) arms and legs torso and shoulder growth Asynchronicity in growth Additional Material

Growth Pattern What is a secular trend? Earlier start of puberty is example of significant secular trend Pattern of change occurring over several generations Trends occur when physical characteristic changes over course of several generations Result of better nutrition over centuries Puberty in Girls

Begins earlier for girls than for boys Girls start puberty at around age 11 or 12 (7 to 16) and boys begin at around age 13 or 14 Wide variations among individuals Influences Nutrition Health Environmental stress Environmental factors bisphenol A (BPA), birth control hormones, etc.

Onset of Menarche Varies in different parts of world Begins later in poorer, developing countries Influenced by proportion of fat to muscle in body Related to environmental

stress Environmental Stuff Puberty in Boys External genatilia begin to grow at accelerated rate around age 12 and reach adult size about 3 or 4 years later Enlargement of prostate gland and seminal vesicles Spermarche around age 13 Unreliable measure of sexual maturity

Primary Sex Characteristics Further development of sex glands Testes in males Ovaries in females Secondary Sex Characteristics A Definition Secondary sex characteristics are those physical characteristics not directly involved in reproduction that distinguish the mature male

from the mature female. Additional Material 14 Secondary Sex Characteristics Growth of hair: Pubic

Facial Body Changes to external genitalia Body Image: Reaction to Physical Changes in Adolescence Some of the changes of adolescence do not show up in physical changes, but carry psychological weight Some changes are more public than others Some teenagers entering puberty are embarrassed by these changes

Girls are frequently unhappy about their changing bodies Sexual Maturation Puberty - Timing The timing of puberty can have important psychological consequences coming at a time when a sense of security is gained from being like other members of the peer group.

Additional Material 18 Consequences of Early and Late Maturation Early-Maturing Boys Early maturation bestows important physical & emotional advantages enhanced status in the peer group

taller and stronger than their classmates have an advantage in sports capture admiring glances from the girls are likely to have a positive body image feel confident, secure, independent, and happy

be more successful academically viewed more favorably by adults. perceived as being more attractive given more responsibility and freedom Additional Material 20 The Consequences of Early and Late

Maturation Early-Maturing Girls Social advantages and disadvantages of early and late maturation are less clear for girls. Early-maturing girls feel more self-conscious about their developing bodies and their size. Have to deal with the sexual advances of older boys before they are emotionally or psychologically mature Have earlier sexual experiences and more unwanted pregnancies than late-maturing girls

Are more likely to be exposed to alcohol and drug use Tend to perform less well academically than age mates By later adolescence, when peers have caught up, early maturers tend to be shorter and heavier than later maturers more likely to be unhappy with their physical appearance Additional Material 22

The Consequences of Early and Late Maturation Late-Maturing Boys Judged as less attractive by peers and adults

at a disadvantage socially and athletically. are self-conscious about their size are self-conscious about lack of manliness a deep voice a developing beard. are often teased by their peers treated like kids. Additional Material 24

The Consequences of Early and Late Maturation Late-Maturing Girls Often experience considerable stress when they fail to develop physically along with their peers. Compensation for the late-maturing girl: As an adult she is likely to be taller and slimmer than her early-maturing age mates.

Additional Material 26 Nutrition, Food, and Eating Disorders: Fueling the Growth of Adolescence Fueling the Growth of Adolescence For most adolescents, the major nutritional issue is ensuring the consumption of a sufficient balance of

appropriate foods Rapid physical growth of adolescence is fueled by an increase in food consumption Particularly during the growth spurt, adolescents eat substantial quantities of food, increasing their intake of calories rather dramatically During the teenage years, the average girl requires some 2,200 calories a day The average boy requires 2,800 Several key nutrients are essential, including, in particular, calcium and iron

Nutritional Problems in Adolescence Poor eating habits High consumption of junk food/sugar/fats Large portion sizes Lack of variety Related health concerns Obesity Osteoporosis Some adolescences have problems Diabetes Many just need additional calories

High quality food simply not handy. Heart disease Pubertal Changes and Eating Disorders Mostly due to inactivity! Ratio of body fat to muscle increases

Basal metabolism rate decreases Overall physical appearance changes

20% overweight; 5% obese; 15% seriously overweight Pubertal Changes and Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Definitions Anorexia=starvation to maintain low weight

Bulimia=binge and purge eating 1% anorexic and 3% bulimic Higher incidence among females Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction reported across socioeconomic lines Brain Development and Thought: Paving the Way for Cognitive Growth A No Brainer????? Brain changes

Size Maturity Growth spurts Different part of brain Different times Use It or Lose It Brain produces oversupply of gray matter during adolescence which is later pruned back at rate of one to two percent per year Myelination increases and continues to make

transmission of neural messages more efficient How is this related to adolescent impulse control? Prefrontal cortex provides for impulse control Adolescence prefrontal cortex is biologically immature = ability to inhibit impulses is not

fully developed Figure 11-5 Pruning Gray Matter This three-dimensional view of the brain shows areas of gray matter that are pruned from the brain between adolescence and adulthood. (Source: Sowell et al., 1999.) Yawning of the Age of Adolescence Sleep Deprivation Adolescents go to bed later and get up earlier Caused by societal demands

Adolescence biological clock shifts - Bed late arise late Sleep deprivation takes its toll Lower grades More depressed Greater difficulty controlling their moods Greater risk for auto accidents COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND SCHOOLING Cognitive Development Approaches

Piaget Information processing Adolescent egocentrism Piagetian Perspective Formal Operational Stage The Final Stage Fundamentally different than child thinking Incorporates new, more advanced, and more adaptive form of reasoning Utilized in variety of settings and situations

Piagetian Stages Related to Youth Development Formal operations 11+ years Development of abstract and hypothetical reasoning Development of propositional logic Cultural differences in use Many adults never achieve FOT But sometimes occurs in mid-life

Developmental of Formal Operations Emergent Early adolescence Variable usage depends on conditions surrounding assessment Established Late adolescence Consolidated and integrated into general approach to reasoning Consequences of Adolescents Use of Formal

Operations Ability to reason abstractly, embodied in their use of formal operations, leads to a change in their everyday behavior Questioning parents and authority figures Exhibiting greater idealism and impatience with imperfections Experiencing indecision Abstract Thinking Advantages With full operational thinking, adolescents can attack

problems by systematically testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions through deductive reasoning. When HS students develop FOT they can understand algebra decipher analogies and metaphors in English lit. Additional Material 44

Abstract Thinking Abilities With formal operations comes the ability to explore the world of ideas to look at religion and moral values in a new light to consider different philosophies and political ideas FOT enables adolescents to think hypothetically They can think of what might be. They begin to conceive of perfect solutions to the worlds problems. 3/30/03

Additional Material 45 FOT not Automatic FOT does not develop automatically may be absent in some primitive cultures rare to find HS or college students in the US who can solve Piagetian formal operations tasks w/o training.

3/30/03 Additional Material 46 FOT or Concrete Thinking? One longitudinal study of American adolescents and adults concluded that only 30% of those

studied attained formal operations Many people fail to show formal operational thinking Those who do attain it usually apply it only in those areas in which they are most proficient Some studies suggest that even very intelligent, well-educated adults think best when thinking concretely 3/30/03 Additional

Material 47 Information Processing Perspectives: Gradual Transformations in Abilities Changes in adolescents cognitive abilities are evidence of gradual transformations in the capacity to take in, use, and store information Number of progressive changes occur in the ways people organize their thinking about the world, develop strategies for

dealing with new situations, sort facts, and achieve advances in memory capacity and perceptual abilities Incorporates same techniques to understanding human reasoning that computer scientists employ in writing programs Changes in Information Processing Gains during adolescence help to explain developmental differences in abstract, multidimensional, and hypothetical thinking Store of knowledge increases as the amount of material to which they are exposed grows and their memory

capacity enlarges Fails to explain qualitative differences Egocentrism in Thinking: Adolescents SelfAbsorption New abilities make adolescents particularly introspective and self-conscious These hallmarks of may produce a high degree of egocentrism Adolescent egocentrism is a state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed as focused on oneself Imaginary audience

Personal fables Everyones lookin at me! Personal Fable: An exaggerated sense of personal uniqueness and indestructibility, which may be the basis for adolescent risk taking. Additional Material

51 Adolescent Egocentrism: the Personal Fable Adolescents cannot fathom that anyone has ever felt as deeply as they feel or loved as they love. 3/30/03 Additional Material

52 Adolescent Egocentrism: Disputing Elkinds Views Quadrel and others (1993) dispute Elkinds explanation for adolescent risk taking. They found both high-risk adolescents (from group homes or juvenile centers) and middle-class, low-risk adolescents actually perceived themselves as

more likely to experience certain negative eventsinjury in an auto accident, alcohol dependency, mugging, and so forththan did adults. 3/30/03 Additional Material 53

Adolescent Egocentrism: Disputing Elkinds Views Adolescents are willing to engage in high-risk behaviors in spite of the risks involved perhaps because of peer pressure Perhaps because the pleasure outweighs the risk. According to Bjorklund & Green, risk taking may even have some positive consequences.

may enable adolescents to experiment with new ideas and new tasks and generally behave more independently. Many of these experiences will be adaptive for adult life and for making the transition to adulthood 3/30/03 Additional Material

54 Adolescent Egocentrism: The whole enchilada At Center Stage, Unique, and Indestructible David Elkind (1967, 1974) claims that the early teenage years are marked by adolescent egocentrism, which takes two forms the imaginary audience the personal fable.

Do you remember, as a teenager, picturing how your friends would react to the way you looked when you made your grand entrance at a big party? Additional 3/30/03 Additional Material 55

Adolescent Egocentrism: Imaginary Audience An imaginary audience of admirers (or critics) that adolescents conjure up exists only in their imagination; but in the young persons mind, he/ she is always on stage (Buis & Thompson, 1989, p. 774) Additional

Material 56 Thinking about Thinking Metacognition improves during adolescence Thinks about own thoughts self-consciousness Monitors own learning processes more efficiently Paces own studying

School Performance True or False? Grades awarded to high school students have shifted upward in the last decade. Grade inflation occurred in colleges too. Students Around the World Figure 11-6 U.S. 15-Year-Old Performance

Compared with Other Countries When compared to the academic performance of students across the world, U.S. students perform at belowaverage levels. (Source: Based on National Governors Association, 2008.) But, somehow, U.S. workers have highest levels of productivity, innovation, creativity, Inventions, scientific advances and on and on.

Adolescent Media Usage Kaiser Family Foundation survey Young people spend an average of 6.5 hours a day with media Around a quarter of the time they are using more than one form of medium simultaneously, they are actually being exposed to the equivalent of 8.5 hours per day Some teenagers send nearly 30,000 texts a month See Figure 11-7 for additional information on teenagers, cell phones, and texting

Dropping Out of School Adolescents leave school for variety of reasons Males are more likely to drop out of school than females Hispanics and African American students are more likely to leave high school before graduating than others Not all minority groups show higher dropout rates: Asians drop out at a lower rate than Caucasians Poverty plays large role in higher dropout rate Local culture is probably driving factor THREATS TO ADOLESCENTS WELL-BEING

Adolescent Drug Use One in 15 high school seniors smokes marijuana on a daily or near-daily basis Marijuana usage has increased over the last few years Daily marijuana use is at a 30-year high for high school seniors How Common is Illegal Drug Use during Adolescence? Figure 11-8

Downward Trend According to an annual survey, the proportion of students reporting marijuana use over the past 12 months has decreased since 1999. (Source: Johnston et al., 2011.)

Why Do Adolescents Use Drugs? Pleasurable experience Escape Peer pressure Enhanced academic performance

Book fails to mention self medication Why do adolescents start to drink? Genetics Way of proving themselves Release of inhibitions and tension and reduction of stress False consensus effect Local culture Upper Midwest

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Among Adolescents Vast majority of infection Caused by female contact with adult males.

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