The Cell Review Empty slide to keep flashcards

The Cell Review Empty slide to keep flashcards

The Cell Review Empty slide to keep flashcards in order What is a Prokaryote? Prokaryote ? Prokaryotes DO NOT have:

Nucleus Prokaryotes DO have: Cell Membrane Membrane Bound Organelles Cell Wall (not like plants cell wall)

Cytoplasm Remember: Bacteria are Prokaryotes Cilia DNA (genetic material) Ribosomes Flagella / Cilia

Cytoplasm Flagella Cell Membrane What is a Eukaryote? Eukaryote ?

Eukaryotes Plants Protista Animals Fungi Eukaryotes DO have:

Nucleus Membrane Bound Organelles (Mitochondria, E.R., Golgi, etc.) What must ALL CELLS have? (Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes) Things

What must ALL CELLS have?(Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes) DNA 4 Things: Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Ribosomes What 3 things do PLANT CELLS

have that an animal cells do not have? What 3 things do PLANT CELLS have that an animal cells do not have? Cell Wall Chloroplasts

Large Vacuole Name the 3 parts of the Modern Cell Theory 3 parts of the Modern Cell Theory Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all living things

All cells contain specialized structures (organelles) to perform functions necessary for life All organisms are made of one or more cells and come from other cells by reproduction Who invented the microscope and saw the first living (alive) cells in pond water and called

them wee beasties? (Hint: Wee sounds like beginning of his last name) Who invented the microscope and saw the first living cells in pond water and called them wee beasties?

Leeuwenhoek Lee sounds like Wee Who saw cork and named the chambers Cells? Hint: His name rhymes with cork

Who saw cork and named the chambers Cells? Hint: His name rhymes with cork Hooke What did Schwann say?

What did Schleiden say? What did Schwann say? What did Schleiden say?

Schwann claimed that all animals are made of cells. Schleiden claimed that all plants are made of cells. Think: Schwann sounds like

swan Think: Schlidin down the vine Who claimed that all cells must come from existing cells by reproduction? Hint: His name sounds

like cow Cows come from cows Cells come from cells Who claimed that all cells must come from existing cells by reproduction? Virchow

Vircow Hint: His name sounds like cow Cows come from cows Cells come from cells Who did this red meat (hint) experiment and believed in biogenesis?

No Growth No Growth Who did this red meat experiment and believed in biogenesis? Redi For Biogenesis

No Growth No Growth Who did this experiment and believed in abiogenesis? Heated (not boiled) Broth

Hint: He needed more information on how to do a good experiment!!! Who did this experiment and believed in abiogenesis? Needham Abiogenesis (He needed more information on how to do a good experiment)

Heated (not boiled) Broth Who did this experiment and believed in biogenesis? S-shaped flask Who did this experiment and believed in biogenesis?

Pasteur - Biogenesis S-shaped flask What determines the shape of a cell? Nerve Cells

Blood Cells Muscle Cells What determines the shape of a cell? The cells FUNCTION Nerve Cells

Blood Cells Muscle Cells What are the four levels of cell organization starting from the smallest to largest?

What are the four levels of cell organization starting from the cell? make up make up make up

____ _______ is when cells perform a specific function for an organism. Cell Specialization is when cells perform a specific function for an organism.

Examples: Red blood cells blood cells White Nerve cells What is the semi-permeable membrane,

phospholipid bilayer that regulates what goes in and out of a cell? What is the semi-permeable membrane, phospholipid bilayer that regulates what goes in and out of a cell? Cell Membrane

What is the hard covering of the plant cell that provides support and protection for the plant cell? What is the hard covering of the plant cell that provides support and protection for the plant cell?

Cell Wall What 3 things pass through the cell membrane easily? What 3 things pass through the cell membrane or cell wall easily?

Carbon Dioxide By Diffusion Oxygen By Diffusion H2O By Osmosis

What is located in the cell membrane to selectively allow larger things into and out of the cell? ? What is located in the cell membrane to selectively allow larger things into and out of the cell?

Protein in Protein Channels What is the jelly-like liquid between the cell membrane and the nucleus? ???????

What is the jelly-like liquid between the cell membrane and the nucleus? Cytoplasm What is the control center (brain) of the cell?

What is the control center (brain) of the cell? NUCLEUS What is the organelle that is inside the nucleus and makes ribosomes? What is the organelle that is inside

the nucleus and makes ribosomes? Nucleolus What covers the outside of the nucleus and what are the holes called to allow ribosomes and RNA out? What covers the outside of the nucleus

and what are the holes called to allow ribosomes and RNA out? Nuclear Membrane (Nuclear Envelope) and Nuclear Pores What is the genetic material Blueprints

that is inside the nucleus? What is the genetic material Blueprints that is inside the nucleus? CHROMOSOMES

What organelle is the powerhouse of the cell and found in all Eukaryotes (Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protista) Hint: Think Mighty Mouse that has lots of power

What organelle is the powerhouse of the cell and found in all Eukaryotes (Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protista) Mitochondria Hint: Think Mighty Mouse that has lots of

power What makes proteins for the cell? Hint: If you eat Ribs you are getting protein from the meat. ??????

What makes proteins for the cell? Remembering Hint: If you eat Ribs you are getting protein from the meat. RIBOSOMES What organelle is used for

photosynthesis in the plant cell? What is used for photosynthesis in the plant cell? Chloroplasts What grouping are chloroplasts, leukoplasts,

and chromoplasts part of? What grouping are chloroplasts, leukoplasts, and chromoplasts part of? Plastids What is the large sac in a plant

cell (holds water) and small sac in an animal (used for storage) called? What is the large sac in a plant cell (holds water) and small sac in an animal (used for storage) called?

VACUOLE What digests food and gets rid of unwanted waste in a cell? ????????? What digests food and gets rid of unwanted waste in a cell?

______________is a folded membrane and transports materials throughout the cell. ___E.R.________is a folded membrane and transports materials throughout the cell. Transportation of

Proteins Transportation of Lipids & Carbs ____________ is used in packaging proteins and other materials and transport out of cell? Hint: Think of packaging and sending a gold necklace to

your friend in another state. Look like stack of pancakes ____________ is used in packaging proteins and other materials and transport out of cell? Golgi Bodies or Golgi Apparatus Hint: Think of packaging and sending a gold necklace to your

friend in another state. Look like stack of pancakes What are the microtubules covering the cell, hair like, used for movement? What are the

microtubules that are whip-like and used for movement? What are the microtubules that are whip-like and used for movement?

What are the microtubules covering the cell like hair used for movement? PROKARYOTES!!! Cilia Flagella

The movement of molecules (CO , O) from HIGH LOW concentration and does NOT need a cell membrane but can cross one is called ________?________ The movement of molecules (CO , O) from HIGH LOW concentration and does NOT need a cell membrane but can cross one is

called __DIFFUSION__ Movement of water across the cell membrane from HIGH LOW is called ___?_____. Movement of water across the cell membrane from HIGH LOW is called Osmosis.

What is movement of HIGH LOW concentration that needs a cell membrane, a protein but no energy? What is movement of HIGH LOW concentration that needs a cell membrane, a protein but no energy?

What is movement of LOW HIGH concentration that needs a cell membrane, a protein and needs energy? What is movement of LOW HIGH concentration that needs a cell membrane, a protein and needs energy? ACTIVE TRANSPORT

________?__________ is when a large food particle is moved into the cell using a cell membrane and energy. ___ Endocytosis _____ is when a large food particle is moved into the cell using a cell membrane and energy. ENDO = ENTER

________?________ is when a large particle is moved out of the cell using a cell membrane and energy. ___ Exocytosis _____ is when a large particle is moved out of the cell using a cell membrane and energy. EXO = Exit

Endocytosis and Exocytosis (moving BIG particles in or out of the cell) is also called _____ ___________ Endocytosis and Exocytosis (moving big particles in or out of the cell) is also called __BULK TRANSPORT_.

Bulk Transport When the solute concentration inside and outside of the cell is equal. This is called____?______. Where does water go? What does the cell do? 10%

10%10 When the solute concentration inside and outside of the cell is equal. This is called an isotonic solution. Water goes in and out; cell stays the same. 10%

H2O 10% 10 When the solute concentration outside the cell is higher than inside the cell it is called______. Where does water go?

What does the cell do? 10% 10 20% When the solute concentration outside

the cell is higher than inside the cell it is called Hypertonic Solution. Water goes out of cell; cell shrinks. H2O 10% 10

20% When the solute concentration inside the cell is higher than outside the cell it is called a ____________. Where does water go? What does the cell do? 20%

10 10% When the solute concentration inside the cell is higher than outside the cell it is called a Hypotonic solution. Water goes into the cell. The cell swells.

20% H2O 10 10%

What happens to the cell in this situation? Where does water move in this situation? 93% H2O 75% H2O

What happens to the cell in this situation? Cell Shrinks Where does water move in this situation? Water moves out Hypertonic Solution Water goes out

93% H2O 7% Solute 75% H2O 25% Solute You need to understand what

happens when given water concentrations instead of solute concentrations. Name the 2 reasons cells cannot be the size of a basketball and explain.

Blood Cells Name the 2 reasons cells cannot be the size of a basketball and explain. 1. Geometry: Volume increases faster than surface area which makes it hard for membrane to keep up

with needs of the cell 2. Practical aspects: Nucleus cant handle that big of a job. Be able to identify which organelles belong to Plant, Animal, or Prokaryotic Cells ! ORGANELLE

PLANT ANIMAL Prokaryote Cell Wall Yes

No Yes Cell Membrane Yes

Yes Yes Nucleus Yes Yes

No Nuclear Membrane Yes Yes

No Cytoplasm Yes Yes

Yes Endoplasmic Reticulum Yes Yes

No Ribosome Yes Yes Yes

Mitochondria Yes Yes No

Lysosome No Yes No Chloroplast

Yes No No Vacuole

Yes (Large) Yes- (Small) No Golgi apparatus Yes

Yes No Cilia No

No Yes Be able to identify the organelles in plant and animal cells from various pictures in our notes and test review!!!! Plant Cell

Animal Cell Understand the diffusion lab that we conducted in class. What did the bag represent? What moved into bag and how do you know? What was the control in this experiment? Why did you need a control? Wa ter

Iodine diffuses into bag because iodine is smaller than bag pores and stains starch black Starch too big to diffuse through bag pores so it stays in bag. You know this by the iodine/water in the cup

not turning black. Nuclear Pore Rough ER Ribosome Nuclear Pore Nucleus Golgi Bodies

Chloroplast Lysosome Smooth ER Mitochondria Cytoplasm Cell

Membrane Rough ER Nucleus Golgi Bodies Chloroplast

Mitochondria Cell Wall Vacuole Cell Membrane

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