Chapter 3 Systems Documentation Techniques Copyright 2012 Pearson

Chapter 3 Systems Documentation Techniques Copyright  2012 Pearson

Chapter 3 Systems Documentation Techniques Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-1 Learning Objectives Prepare and use data flow diagrams to understand, evaluate, and document information systems. Prepare and use flowcharts to understand, evaluate, and document information systems. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

3-2 What Is Documentation? Set of documents and models Narratives, data flow models, flowcharts Describe who, what, why, when, and where of systems: Input, process, storage, output, and controls Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

3-3 Why Should You Learn Documentation? You need to be able to read documentation in all its forms: narratives, diagrams, models. You need to be able to evaluate the quality of systems, such as internal control based in part on documentation. SAS 94 requires independent auditors to understand all

internal control procedures. Documentation assists in auditor understanding and documentation of their understanding Sarbanes-Oxley states that management: Is responsible for internal control system Is responsible for assessing the effectiveness of the IC System

Both management and external auditors need to document and test IC System Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-4 Data Flow Diagrams Graphically describes the flow of data within a system Four basic elements Entity Data Flow Process

Data Store Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-5 Entity Represents a source of data or input into the system or Represents a destination of data or output from the system Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-6

Data Flows Movement of data among: Entities (sources or destinations) Processes Data stores Label should describe the information moving

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-7 Process Represents the transformation of data Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-8 Data Store Represents data at rest Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

3-9 Data Flow Diagram Levels Context Highest level (most general) Purpose: show inputs and outputs into system Characteristics: one process symbol only, no data stores

Level-0 Purpose: show all major activity steps of a system Characteristics: processes are labeled 1.0, 2.0, and so on Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-10 DFD Creation Guidelines

Understand the system Identify transformational processes Ignore certain aspects of the system

Group transformational processes Determine system boundaries Identify all data stores Develop a context DFD

Identify all sources and destinations Identify data flows Label all DFD elements Subdivide DFD

Group data flows Number each process Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-11 Flowcharts Use symbols to logically depict transaction processing and the flow of data through a system. Using a pictorial representation is easier to understand and explain versus a detailed narrative.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-12 Flowchart Symbol Categories Input/Output Processing Storage Miscellaneous Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-13 Flow Chart Symbol Categories

(contd) Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Types of Flowcharts Document Illustrates the flow of documents through an organization Useful for analyzing internal control procedures System

Logical representation of system inputs, processes, and outputs Useful in systems analysis and design Program Represent the logical sequence of program logic Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-15

Document Flowchart Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-16 Document Flowchart (contd) Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-17 System Flowchart Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

3-18 Program Flowchart Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3-19

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