Creative Commons Licensing You are free: to Shareto

Creative Commons Licensing You are free: to Shareto

Creative Commons Licensing You are free: to Shareto copy, distribute, and transmit the work to Remixto adapt the work Under the following conditions: AttributionYou must attribute the work in the following manner: This work is based on an original work of the Core Knowledge Foundation made available through licensing under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This does not in any way imply that the Core Knowledge Foundation endorses this work. NoncommercialYou may not use this work for commercial purposes. Share AlikeIf you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the

resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. With the understanding that: For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do this is with a link to this web page: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 1 Core Knowledge Licensed Professionals Core Knowledge Licensed Professionals are educators who can assist you with your

Core Knowledge implementation. These educators have experience in planning and implementation of the Core Knowledge Sequence and can assist you with on-site professional development and support. To learn more, please visit: http://www.coreknowledge.org/licensed-professionals. For support with the Core Knowledge Language Arts program, contact Amplify Education: http://www.amplify.com/curriculum/core-knowledge-language-arts, 800-823-1969. 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 2 Welcome to Assessment

and Planning to Meet Childrens Needs What words do you associate with assessment? While we wait for everyone to arrive, take a moment to add your thoughts to the flip chart. 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 4 Associations with Assessment Misuse of Assessment in Early

Childhood Settings o Readiness Tests Used to Deny Access to Programs o Artificial Assessments Criticisms of Assessment in Early Childhood Settings o Limited Attention Span of Young Children o Too Time-ConsumingA Waste of Time 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 5

Housekeeping 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 6 Assessment and Planning

Agenda Introduction and Self-Assessment Assessment and Developmentally Appropriate Practice Classroom Purposes of Assessment Characteristics of Effective Assessment Methods of Assessment o Direct Observation o Portfolio Collection o Working with Activity Probes

Scaffolding Summary 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 7 Training Goals Identify different purposes of assessment. Identify characteristics of effective assessment for instructional planning purposes.

Describe the assessment instruction cycle. Demonstrate the use of effective direct observation skills in completing anecdotal records. 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 8 Training Goals Describe and develop the following types of assessment tools for selected objectives from the Preschool Sequence: focus questions,

checklists, webs, participation charts, activity probes, and portfolio collection. 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 9 Warm-up Activity 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 10

Activity Debrief 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 11 Assessment Is Instruction. Only when assessment is an integral part of a content-rich preschool education can we truly ensure that children are reaching their highest potential. Assessment will help you to identify the

feedback and scaffolding children need to reach their goals! 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 12 Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Assessing Childrens Learning and Development NAEYC Position Statement

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 13 Definition Assessment is the process of gathering information about children from several forms of evidence, then organizing and interpreting that information. Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

14 Assessment of young childrens progress and achievements is: ongoing strategic purposeful The results of assessment are used to: inform planning and implementation of experiences; communicate with the childs family; and evaluate and improve teachers and the programs effectiveness

Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 15 Assessment focuses on the childrens progress toward goals that are developmentally and educationally significant. Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

16 The program has a system in place that: collects, makes sense of, and uses the assessment information. The assessment system is integrated with curriculum planningteachers continually engage in assessment for the purpose of improving teaching and learning. Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

17 The methods of assessment are appropriate to the developmental status and experiences of young children: they recognize individual variation in learners and allow children to demonstrate their competence in different ways. Therefore, teachers assessments of young children rely heavily on: Observations of children Descriptive data Collection of childrens work samples Childrens performance on authentic

activities Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 18 In addition to assessment by teachers, input from families, as well as childrens selfevaluations, are part of the programs overall assessment strategy. Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

19 Assessments are tailored to a specific purpose and are used only for the purpose for which they have been demonstrated to produce reliable, valid information. Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 20

Decisions that have major impact on children, such as enrollment or placement, are never made on the basis of results from a single developmental assessment or screening instrument/device, but are based on multiple sources of relevant information, particularly on observations by teachers and parents. Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

21 When a screening or other assessment identifies children who may have special learning or developmental needs, appropriate follow-up, referral, or other intervention is used. Diagnosis or labeling is never the result of a brief screening or one-time assessment. Families should be involved as important sources of information.

Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 22 Assessment looks not only at what children can and cannot do independently but also at what they can do with assistance from other children or adults. Therefore, teachers assess children as they participate in groups and in other situations that provide scaffolding.

Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 23 Developmentally Appropriate Uses of Assessment Classroom-Based Assessment To Promote Individual Learning and Development Screening For Identification of Children for Health and Special

Services Diagnostic Evaluation To provide in-depth appraisal of a child by a specialist to identify specific needs Program and Curriculum Evaluation To evaluate the quality of the classroom and the overall program Developmentally Appropriate Practice 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

24 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 25 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 26 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 27

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 28 Purpose 1: Initial Assessment Do children have the necessary skills and knowledge? Do children already know some of the material to be taught? Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Inform the planning and implementation of

experiences. Classroom Purposes of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 29 Purpose 2: Progress Monitoring Are children moving toward the goal? If children are not making progress, what kinds of changes are needed? Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Inform the planning and implementation of

experiences. Evaluate and improve teachers and the programs effectiveness. 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 30 Purpose 3: Summative Evaluation Have the children mastered the goal? Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Inform the planning and implementation of experiences.

Evaluate and improve teachers and the programs effectiveness. Communicate with the childs family. 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 31 How Effective Are You at Recalling What You Observe? Describe a penny so that someone unfamiliar with its appearance could pick it out of a group of coins.

Characteristics of Effective Assessmen 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 32 Characteristics of Effective Assessmen 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 33 Characteristics of Effective Assessment

Effective Assessment is: Accurate Objective Characteristics of Effective Assessmen 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 34 Instant Replay: How Effective Are You as an Observer?

Choose a partner, and study your partner carefully. Write a detailed description of your partner based on your observations. Characteristics of Effective Assessmen 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 35 Characteristics of Effective Assessment

Effective Assessment is: Specific Explicit Characteristics of Effective Assessmen 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 36 Characteristics of Effective Assessment Effective Assessment is: Systematic

Repeated Characteristics of Effective Assessmen 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 37 Characteristics of Effective Assessment Effective Assessment is used to: Inform the planning and implementation of experiences Evaluate and improve teachers and the programs

effectiveness Communicate with the childs family Characteristics of Effective Assessmen 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 38 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ Assessment Is Instruction . .. Its only when assessment is an integral part

of a content-rich preschool education that we can truly ensure children are reaching their highest potential. Linda Bevilacqua, President of Core Knowledge Foundation Characteristics of Effective Assessmen 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 40 Cycle of Learning Plan/Modify

Teach Assess Characteristics of Effective Assessmen 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 41 Methods of Assessment Direct Observation Anecdotal Records

Teachers observations Descriptive Data Focus Questions Checklists Webs Participation Charts Portfolio Collection Activity Probes

Work Samples Authentic Activities Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 42 Direct Observation Developmentally Appropriate Practice Teachers Observations of Children and Descriptive Data

Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 43 Direct Observation: Focus Questions Focus questions direct the observers attention to events that are likely to take place in the day-to-day classroom routine, which are evidence of whether or not a child has mastered a particular goal from the Preschool Sequence.

Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 44 Direct Observation: Focus Questions Goal: Follow the rules for simple childhood games, such as board games and circle games. Focus Questions:

Does the child wait patiently for his or her turn while other players take their turns? (Or is the child fidgety and irritable, repeatedly asking when it will be his or her turn?) Once the rules have been explained by the teacher, does the child seem to remember what to do during his or her turn and what the goal of the game is? (Or does the child need to be reminded frequently by the teacher?)

Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 45 Direct Observation: Focus Questions Goal: Follow the rules for simple childhood games, such as board games and circle games. Focus Questions:

Is the child able to independently move his or her marker along the game board, matching colors and/or counting the number of spaces to be moved according to a single die? Does the child accept with relative good will that another child is the winner of a given game? (Or does he/she have a temper tantrum, insisting that its not fair, etc.?) Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

46 Direct Observation: Focus Questions Goal: Situate oneself within space of defined boundaries, modifying body configuration and size to fit space. Focus Questions: Does the child change his or her body configuration or size to fit the limitations of a

given space? In moving about the classroom or outdoors, does he or she do so without incident, or does he or she often fall, bump into other objects or people, knock things over, etc.? Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

47 Direct Observation: Focus Questions Goal: Situate oneself within space of defined boundaries, modifying body configuration and size to fit space. Focus Questions: If another child enters a circle or line activity, does he or she make space for the new child or does he or she seem oblivious to the addition?

During different group activities, does he or she remain in his or her own personal space (e.g., place on the floor at circle time, chair at the snack table, etc.), or is he or she frequently out of bounds, infringing on the space of others? Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 48 Activity

Develop examples of focus questions for objectives from the Preschool Sequence. Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 49 Direct Observation: Other Strategies Checklists Webs

Participation Charts Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 50 Letter Identification Checklist Name_______________ Date________ Sound Lowercase Uppercase

Notes A F K P W Z B Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

51 I-MR4.5a Count groups of objects with up to 4 objects in a group. Occasion Name Date 1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8

Comment NY: Counts up to 4 objects correctly 0-2 of 8 occasions P: Counts of to 4 objects correctly 3-6 out of 8 occasions R: Counts up to 4 objects correctly 7-8 times of 8 Methods of Assessment occasions 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 52 Participation Chart for Centers

Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 53 Participation Chart for Centers Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 54 Story Retelling Web Picture

Character(s) Time Place Story Events Beginning Middle End Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 55 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

56 Nonfiction Retelling Web Picture Document over time the changes that are taking place in the childrens understanding. Creating web on chart paper with entire class, enables teacher to: o Show children how to organize their thoughts; and o Link what children are learning in an organized, logical way. Methods of Assessment

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 57 Portfolios Developmentally Appropriate Practice Collections of Childrens Work Samples Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 58

What Goes in a Portfolio? Samples of childs work: Art work Anecdotal notes Journal entries Samples of writing Dictations KWL or LEA samples Science journal entries A log of books read to the child Audio recordingse.g., nursery rhyme recitations, sample conversations Photographs demonstrating skills and competencies

Outcomes from other forms of assessment (e.g., checklists, activity probes) Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 59 A Portfolios Most Important Content Documentation of each of these items:

Childs name Date CK skill code Teachers comments Childs comments Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

60 Organization Is the Key to Effective Portfolio Collection Systematic collection process Structured way to organize and keep materials for each child o three-ring notebook o Accordion file o Multi-section file folders o Pizza boxes o Electronic files

o Hanging Folders Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 61 Assessment Portfolios Keep a variety of work products, checklists, recordings, webs, anecdotal observation notes, etc., that demonstrate progress on specific skills from the sequence. Methods of Assessment

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 62 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ Activity Probes Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Authentic Activities Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

64 Activity Probes An activity probe provides a structured, systematic chance to evaluate whether or not a child has learned a specific skill or knowledge from the Preschool Sequence. Rather than simply waiting to see if a child demonstrates a skill or knowledge in the course of day-to-day classroom routine, the teacher develops and presents a particular activity or task designed to require the child

to perform the skill or demonstrate the knowledge. Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 65 Activity Probes At the preschool level, the activity probe should be the same kind of activity that the child has participated in for instructional purposes, using concrete, manipulative objects. An activity probe is NOT a paper

and pencil test. Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 66 Goal: Identify and name the parts of the body. Materials: None Opportunity: Outdoor play, individual or small group Task: Teacher says: Im going to point to a part of your body. Tell me the name of the body part I am pointing to. Point to:

ohead oankle oknee oface oneck oeyebrow waist arm elbow eyelash shoulder cheek

mouth teeth chest hair finger nose chin Not Yet: Names 017 body parts Progressing: Names 1829 body parts

Ready: Names 3035 body parts Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 67 Sample Activity Probe #2

Goal: Maintain balance when changing position, but not moving through space. Materials: None Opportunity: Individual Task: Demonstrate the following positions, asking the child to imitate each one:

Stand upright, extend both arms forward, hold for three seconds Stand upright, squat (bending knees), and stand up straight Stand upright on tiptoes, hold for two seconds Stand on one foot, hold for two seconds Squat/sit on heels, lean forward to kneeling position, hands on hips, hold for three seconds Not Yet: able to maintain balance in 01 pose. Progressing: able to maintain balance in 23 of 5 poses.

Ready: able to maintain balance in 4 of 5 poses. Methods of Assessment 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 68 Activity Probes Activity: Writing Activity Probes Methods of Assessment

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 69 Mediated Assessment After determining independent level of assessment (NY, P, R), modify assessment using scaffolding techniques. Go beyond identifying what the child has or has not learned to look at his or her potential to learn. Identify important instructional techniques. Methods of Assessment

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 70 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 72 Zone of Proximal

Development http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/vygotsky_zpd/index.htm What a child cannot do, even with help Z P D What a child can do

independently Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Assessment looks not only at what children can and cannot do but also at what they can do with assistance from other children or adults 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 73 Puzzle Activity Scaffolding

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 74 Follow Directions Carefully PART A Each group should assign a person 1 and a person 2. Remove the contents from your activity bag. Place any bags labeled Part B out of the way. Build a 3-sided screen with the file folders and paper clips. Person 1 should be situated so that person 2 cannot see

person 1s work behind the screen. Person 1 is to read the directions aloud before beginning. The directions are on the card in the bag labeled Person 1, Part A. Person 1 should proceed as directed. Remaining group members should observe and take notes. Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 75

Follow Directions Carefully PART B The SAME people should be person 1 and person 2 in part B of the activity. Find the directions in the bag labeled Person 1, Part B. Person 1 is to read the directions aloud before beginning.

Person 1 should proceed as directed. Remaining group members should observe and take notes. Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

76 Scaffoldin g Provide support to allow child to be successful Present a challenging task In ZPD

Increase difficulty of task so that it is in the ZPD Provide support to allow child to be successful Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 77

The Scaffolding Continuum High Demand Low Demand Scaffolding High Support Low

Support Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 78 Scaffolding Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 79

Scaffolding Strategies Materials Concrete Abstract Fewer Choices More Choices Different Choices Similar Choices Many Cues & Models Fewer Cues & Models Ordered Random/Unordered Responses Receptive Expressive Many Cues & Models Fewer Cues & Models

Feedback Provided At each Step At the End Specific General Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 80 The Equalizer Adapted from Tomlinson, 1999 Concrete Fewer Choices Different Choices

Many Cues & Models Ordered Abstract More Choices Similar Choices Fewer Cues & Models Random Receptive

Expressive At Each Step At the End More Specific Less Specific Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

81 Changing the Materials To Meet Learners Needs Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 82 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

83 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 84 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 85 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 86

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 87 Changing the Response To Meet Learners Needs Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 88

Type of Response Receptive.Expressive Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 89 Scaffolded Responses Low Demand High

Support Point to Yes/No Choice High Demand Low Support Open Question

Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 90 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 91 II-OL9.18bShow understanding of spatial words above-below: Is the bear above or below the tub?

Clap your hands when the bear is above the tub? We have been talking about locations like above, below, next to, inside, and under. Where is the bear in relation to the tub? Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 92 Cues or Models Many Cues.....No Cues

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 93 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 94 I-OL2.1a Carry on a dialogue or conversation with an adult, initiating comments or responding to

partners comments. This is Mr. Morris. Can you say, Good morning Mr. Morris? He is going to tell us about his job. Would anyone like to ask Mr. Morris what his job is? This is Mr. Morris. He is visiting today and will tell us about his job. Does anyone have any questions for Mr. Morris? Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

95 Many Verbal Cues Few Verbal Cues Many Verbal Cues Dotty, this shape has three sides. Is it a triangle or a square? Few Verbal Cues Juan, can you tell me what shape this is?

Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 96 Changing the Feedback To Meet Learners Needs Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 97

Quality Feedback Definition: Teachers feedback maintains the childs engagement and focus on expanding learning and understanding (Pianta et al., 2005) Feedback about the Process Feedback Loops Specific Feedback Providing Hints/Scaffolding Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

98 Immediacy and Frequency of Feedback Each Step..End of Activity Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 99 Feedback At Every Step

Constructing from a picture: Hmmm. The next block in the picture is orange. You chose a yellow block. Look again. Which block comes next? At the End Constructing from a picture: Thats right! You

created a tower just like the picture. Red block, orange block, blue block. Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 100 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 101

II-MR2.3 Continue a complex, two-color pattern of objects. You are making the same pattern as the card. Good job! There was a green, then a yellow, and you have put another green one in. Good job! What do you think comes next? Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

102 Specificity of Feedback More Specific...................Less Specific Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 103 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 104

II-AS2.2b Draw a dimensional picture of a person. I like your picture. You have a nice family. What a wonderful family. You drew your brothers and your baby sister. Look how small the baby is! Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 105

Putting It All Together Scaffolding a Double Entry Table Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 106 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 107 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

108 Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 109 Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 110

Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 111 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 112 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 113

Scaffolding Shape Identification Fewer Choices More Choices Different Choices Similar Choices Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 114

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 115 Mediated Assessment Scaffolding is used to determine where a childs zone of proximal development is. Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 116

Mediated Assessment II-SR3.1b Retell a story that has been read aloud, including characters, setting, events, and ending. Teacher models use of flannel board props, telling the first part of the story. Teacher models paging through book, stopping at each illustration to retell story. Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 117

Mediated Assessment II-SR3.2b: Sequence illustrations of 35 story events. Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 118 Mediated Assessment II-MR4.5b: Count groups of objects, up to 6.

Scaffolding 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 119 Putting Assessment to Work in Your Classroom 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 120 Which Skills Should be

Assessed? Ongoing assessment should be used to guide instruction, so all skills should be assessed in one form or another. Ideally, childrens progress on all critical skills should be recorded as data. Feasibly, twenty or thirty critical skills seem to be most manageable. Putting Assessment to Work 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 121

Implementing Assessment Select which skills to assess and record them. Select best method of assessment for each skill: o Direct observation with checklist or log sheet o Portfolio o Activity Probe Plan when to assess each skill (time of year). Plan when to assess each skill (part of daily routine).

Putting Assessment to Work 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 122 Assessing Across the Daily Routine Putting Assessment to Work 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

123 Skills: I-EL5.2 Recognize the written form of ones first name. II-MR4.3b Demonstrate one-to-one correspondence with concrete objects, up to 6 objects. Strategies: Direct Observation Assessment table while other

children arrive 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 124 Carousel Activity Each flip chart is labeled with a different portion of the daily routine. As you visit each flip chart, write one specific skill that can be assessed and the method of assessment. Use the list of critical skills on pages 2528.

You may need to write a sentence or two (no more) to describe the activity that could be used for assessment. Putting Assessment to Work 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 125 Assessment Methods Direct Observation o o

o o o anecdotal records focus questions checklists webs participation charts Portfolio Collection o work products o recordings

o photographs Activity Probes Putting Assessment to Work 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 126 Putting Assessment to Work

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 127 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 128 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 129 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

130 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 131 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 132 Putting Assessment to Work

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 133 Assessing Children with Language and Cultural Differences Clearly identify and state: o the purpose(s) of the assessment; and o the conditions under which the assessment is made.

Clearly indicate any language or cultural differences that should be taken into consideration in interpreting assessment results. Conduct the assessments in the childs native language (or native language and English). Putting Assessment to Work 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

134 Suggested Readings Beaty, J. Observing Development of the Young Child. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998. Bodrova, E. Scaffolding Emergent Writing in the Zone of Proximal Development. (www.mcrel.org/PDF/EarlyChildhoodEducation/406RR_Sc affoldingEmergent Writing.pdf). Core Knowledge Preschool Assessment Tool. Charlottesville, VA: Core Knowledge Foundation, 2004. Helm, J.; Benecke, S.; Steinheimer, K. Windows on

Learning: Documenting Young Childrens Work. New York: Teachers College Press, 1998. Hirsch, E. D. & Wiggins, A. K. Core Knowledge Preschool Sequence and Teacher Handbook. Charlottesville, VA: Core Knowledge Foundation, 2009. 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 135 Losardo, A. and Notari-Syverson, A. Alternative Approaches to Assessing Young Children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes, 2001.

McAfee, O., Leong, D., and Bodrova, E. Basics of Assessment: A Primer for Early Childhood Educators. Washington, DC: NAEYC, 2004. McAfee, O., and Leong, D. Assessing and Guiding Young Childrens Development and Learning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2002. Notari-Stevenson, A., OConnor, R., and Vadsay, P. Ladders to Literacy: A Preschool Activity Book. Paul H. Brookes, 1998. 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 136

Assessment and Planning Self-Assessment Answer Key 1. Assessment is another word for evaluation or testing. 2. Identify three possible purposes of assessment at the preschool level: Learning about an individual child and monitoring his or her progress Evaluating the effectiveness of the overall program or curriculum Identifying children with special needs 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

137 Assessment and Planning Self-Assessment Answer Key 3. What kinds of questions do the following types of assessment try to answer? Initial Assessment o Does the child have the necessary prerequisite skills and knowledge? Does he or she already know some of the material to

be taught? Progress Monitoring o Is the child learning the skill or concept and moving toward the goal? Summative Evaluation o Has the child learned the skill or concept? 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 138 Assessment and Planning

Self-Assessment Answer Key 4. Draw a picture of thePlan/Modify Learning Cycle that shows the relationship between assessment and teaching. Teach Assess

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 139 Assessment and Planning Self-Assessment Answer Key 5. Assessment informs instruction. 6.

Identify at least three characteristics of effective assessment: Relates directly to instruction Is specific and explicit Is accurate and objective Is systematic, frequent, and repeated Informs instruction 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 140 Assessment and Planning

Self-Assessment Answer Key 7. Identify three different approaches that may be used in collecting and recording information through direct observation: Using anecdotal or running records

Focus questions Checklists Webs Participation charts 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 141 Assessment and Planning Self-Assessment Answer Key 8.

9. Identify four general types of materials that you might include in a childs portfolio: Art work Written work Dictated work

Audio recordings Photos Videos Journal writing Before including any item in a childs portfolio, always mark it with the date, childs name, teacher comments, child comments, what it demonstrates, etc. 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 142 Assessment and Planning Self-Assessment Answer Key

10. True or FALSE: Activity probes can be administered most effectively and efficiently at the preschool level by using a paper and pencil format with very small groups of children. 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 143 Assessment and Planning Self-Assessment Answer Key

Has two levels corresponding to Levels I & II of the Preschool Sequence goals. Should be updated three times per year for each child. Can be used to review and adjust instructional plans for each child relative to the Preschool Sequence. Can be used to organize and present information on each childs progress during

parent conferences 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 144 Additional Resources Losardo, A., and Notari-Syverson, A. Alternative Approaches to Assessing Young Children. Notari-Stevenson, A., OConnor, R. and Vadasy,P. Ladders to literacy: A Preschool Activity Book. Bodrova, E.

Scaffolding Emergent Writing in the Zone of Proximal Development. (http://www.mcrel.org/our_work/scaffolding.pdf) 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 145 Training Evaluation Form Please take a moment to complete the evaluation at the end of your packet. We carefully review your comments and appreciate your honest feedback.

2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 146 2015 Core Knowledge Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ 147

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