Good Practice in Learning Teaching and Assessment Workshop
Good Practice in Learning Teaching and Assessment Workshop Designing and Planning Learning Activities Content What is learning? Underpinning knowledge and
theory for learning design Different learning methods Memory & the transfer of learning Pre-designing materials and being creative! Learning Before you can design effective learning you need to be clear
about you mean by learning .. Definitions of learning A relatively permanent change in behaviour resulting from experience (Kimble, 1961) A relatively permanent change in an organisms behaviour due to experience (Myers, 1995)
Learning is the process by which a person acquires new knowledge, skills and capabilities (Reynolds et al., 2002) Research into what adults think learning is .. 1. Quantitative increase in knowledge 2. Memorising storing information that can
be reproduced 3. Acquiring facts, skills and methods 4. Making sense of abstract meaning and understanding relationships in subjects 5. Interpreting and understanding reality (Saljo, 1979) .. other meanings .. is it?
An increase in factual knowledge? Being able to memorise & reproduce Applying and using knowledge Understanding abstract concepts Performing well in assessments? Learning to do something (e.g. presentations) Solving problems? Developing creativity?
Developing an analytical approach? Change within oneself as a consequence of understanding the world differently? Something else? (Fry et al., 2009) Psychology subject domains relating to learning Behaviourist Psychology Social Learning Theory
Cognitive Psychology Experiential Learning (Stewart , 1999) Underpinning knowledge & theory .. to enable the effective design of learning
Threshold Concepts Is there a hierarchy in concepts in what you are teaching . i.e. the student must completely understand A to be able to understand B For example (in accountancy) must a student have an understanding of arithmetic BEFORE they can learn how to produce a companys annual report and
accounts .? The relevance of threshold concepts in Student approaches to learning Surface Deep Strategic / achieving (Fry et al., 2009) VARK Learning Styles
If you were a ski or tennis instructor how would you Apply a different form of learning to best meet each of the Honey and Mumford Learning styles? Another individual styles model Myers Briggs (based on Jungian Theory) EXTROVERT (E) or INTROVERT (I)
drawing energy from outside or within INTUITIVE (N) or SENSING (S) drawing energy from holistic big picture thinking intuition or from the five other senses) FEELING (F) or THINKING (T) basing decisions on personal information or on logic/rules PERCEIVING or JUDGING (preferring ongoing development / spontaneity or organization & goal completion) So you can be an ENTJ or an ISFP or an ESTP etc
2005) (Swart et al., What are your Learning Objectives seeking for students learn change in? (Cannon and Newble, 2000) Knowledge Attitude
Skills Well written learning objectives govern all the design that follows . Race, (2007: 23- 26) has a list of 24 tips on designing learning objectives The process of learning design
Decide whether it is Knowledge and/or Skills and/or Attitude that is to be learned Write the Learning Objectives (differentiate between Knowledge, Skills & Attitude) Decide on the mix of methods which will best deliver the most effective change / learning in Knowledge / Skill and / or Attitude Decide on a mix of methods so that students of all learning styles have the chance to be reached and the Kolb Learning Cycle can be applied
Check the timing of the activities in your session (s), to see that it all fits and flows The process of learning design Consideration must also be given as to how you are going to check / assess whether what you intended to be learned has been learned and when will you do
The process of learning design Two slides above the process was presented in a linear fashion however it is an ongoing improvement cycle: Systematic approach to course / module planning Fry et al (2009)
Consider the aspect of student motivation when you are designing learning See table 3.3 in Fry et al (2009: 35-36) How could you use this underpinning knowledge in making the design of
Learning and Teaching effective? Write notes on this for 10 minutes Different learning methods Sample of Methods
Log books, diaries, PDPs Sample of Methods Using technology BB, pod casts, videos, online learning tools, computer assisted learning Learning from feedback Group work Role plays
Games & competitions Brainstorming Problem solving Sample of Methods Work experience Simulations Experiential learning Outdoor learning Carrying out experiments
Discovery learning Vicarious learning Coaching / Mentoring Action learning Consider practical aspects Facilities available rooms, texts, online resources, technology required, materials (take or get
students to bring) Timing and sequencing (mix more passive sections with more active sessions) Timing of assessment & feedback Activity Activity compare the learning design in each exercise on the next 5 slides
For use following Stress Management Lecture Pairs exercise Aims of this exercise: To aid students to consider what issues causes them most stress To get students to reflect on what they have learned which might help them manage the stress situation better Exercise: Ask students to spend 2 minutes making a note of the 2
issues that currently cause them most stress. Spilt them into pairs and ask them to take a turn each at describing an issue and discussing possible solutions for those reflecting on what they learned from the book / lecture materials. For use following lecture on Conflict Management Group exercise Aims of this exercise: To get students to consolidate their learning on types of ways of dealing with conflict.
Exercise: Split students into groups of 5. Ask them to nominate one person to give the feedback. Ask them to complete the following table (taken from the points on P. 389 of 7th edn Whetton & Cameron) by: Giving a definition for each type of approach to dealing with conflict. Giving 1 advantage of that approach Giving 1 disadvantage of that approach Deciding on which approach might be a more usual best approach Requires:
5 printed copies of the attached This can be printed on acetate and acetate pens taken along if you want them to give their feedback in a more presentation from the front format. Brainstorming In groups of 10 and appoint one person as The police person who must make the others follow the rules of brainstorming ie monitor the group (when they are doing the brainstorming) to make sure that the group does not break these rules: Each person should take a turn go round the group in clockwise direction making sure each person has to contribute something when it gets to them
The ideas should be short No one is allowed to evaluate it (say oh thats good / bad / the same as has already been said) You can build on an idea from before When a person gets stuck wait until that person comes up with something before moving on Wild ideas are allowed The topic to be brainstormed is: How to deal with a difficult boss
Reflecting on group presentations Aims of this exercise: To give Tutors an exercise where they can mix the students up, to get them to meet and work with other students To give students an opportunity to get used to being a spokesperson in informal group work To aid students to be reflective about how they can improve presentation skills To encourage students to use a constructive feedback technique (ie to feedback what is done well and what could have been done better To encourage students to reflect on the learning from the lecture / tutorial
Exercise: After presentation Invite students to go into your groups (possibly their own presentation groups A/B/C/D or if you want to encourage them to work with others split them into groups of e.g. 5 students) Ask them to elect a spokesperson to give feedback (make sure that everyone takes this role over the 10 tutorials: 2 things that the group presenting did well 1 thing that they could improve on The 3 main lessons learned from the case presentation / the chapter / the lecture
Ask each group to give the feedback For use following Power and Influence Lecture Aims of this exercise: To get students to stop and reflect on how people can be more powerful than their position suggests. To get them to plan how they could benefit from applying similar behaviour. Exercise: Ask the students to think of someone who they respect as being more influential their position, some one who punches above their weight.
(i.e. more influential than their position in natural hierarchies in the family / work place / friends group hierarchies which can be based on position, financial wealth etc) The person can be a friend, work colleague, someone in their family, someone famous etc. Then ask them to write for 5 minutes on what it is that person does that makes them so influential. Then ask them to spend 3 minutes making notes of 3 things they could do differently to benefit from observing the behaviour of this person who they respect. Learning, memory &
the transfer of learning (Primary source for memory: Baddeley et al., 2009) Learning Conditioning & Reinforcement Classical (Pavlov) Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Positive /negative reinforcement
Lesson consciously consider what reinforcement messages you are giving and how often (also relevant for managing the learning environment) Other useful concepts from the domain of psychology Learned helplessness Cognitive mapping
Insight Vicarious learning Discovery learning Behaviour modelling Source lecture handouts Dr Ian Bushnell was Strathclyde University now School of Psychology, Glasgow University Memory - two sides of the coin is it what you have .... ? Remembered (retention)
or what you have Forgotten (retrieval) Types of memory Knowledge Feelings Behaviour Skills (presentation /
interpersonal / language / creativity) Motor skills (driving / cycling / skating) Student Learning and Memory IN OUT
Effective Memory IN Getting things into the (long term) memory effectively
OUT Time in between Getting things back out effectively i.e. Retrieval The memory process getting
things in and out Memory Sensory memory: Echoic / Iconic Short term, working memory: Verbal / Spacial Long term: Explicit Episodic / Semantic
Implicit Conditioning / Skills Attention Awareness Test: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSQJP40PcG I From short term into long term memory
Rehearsal Coding Decisions Retrieval strategies (Ebbinghaus, 1885, in Baddeley et al.2009) If you double the number of frequencies you rehearse /
learn / practice there is a complete positive correlation with what you remember AND Distributed practice is more effective Encoding - organising what goes in to memory can make it easier to retrieve Encoding - if some mentions
Spectrophotometer do you relate it to ... Atomic absorption Mass spectometry Infra-red spectometry No? But a Chemistry student might .. What does this tell us about (encoding) putting things IN to the memory? Depth of processing Craik and Tulving, 1975
in Badderley et al., 2009) A list of names of friends I have had: Sally Steve Anne Tiami Karen
Can you remember What was the first time you had a piece of clothing in the colour red? A list of names of friends I have had: What was the fourth
name on the list? Which list of my friends is the correct one? Sally Steve Anne Thomasina Karen
Sally Steve Anne Tiami Karen Different levels of remembering? Is the level of RETENTION / RETRIEVAL required to enable: Recognition .... and / or
Recall .... and / or Repetition (in full) Theories related to forgetting Interference Theory Delay Theory Primary and Recency Effect
The Kolb learning cycle has another use - consolidation (to get things from the STM into the LTM) Cues Can help us access memories How could you use this
information about the different levels of memory in Learning and Teaching design? Tips and techniques to improve memory http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4 /memory/improve/
Transfer of Learning Perkins and Salomon (1992) Occurs when learning in one context enhances (positive transfer) or undermines (negative transfer) a related performance in another context. Includes near transfer (to closely related contexts and
performances) and far transfer (to rather different contexts and performances). Transfer is crucial to education, which generally aspires to impact on contexts quite different from the context of learning. What about TRANSFER?
IN OUT TRANSFER Transfer of Learning Perkins and Salomon (1992) Findings from various sources suggest that transfer
happens by way of two rather different mechanisms: Reflexive or low road transfer involves the triggering of well-practiced routines by stimulus conditions similar to those in the learning context. Mindful or high road transfer involves deliberate effortful abstraction and a search for connections. Conventional educational practices often fail to establish the conditions either for reflexive or mindful
transfer. Pre-design activities and be creative! Pre-design of activities Activity
Be creative http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-b2xUb0Vof Q Conclusions To design effective learning, we need to be clear about what we mean by learning on each different occasion
There is a range of underpinning theory which can help us to understand how to more effectively design learning There are different forms of learning, it is considered more effective to use a mixture Theories on memory are useful when thinking about the input and the output of the learning process Consideration of how the learning is to transferred is essential
References Armstrong, M. (2006) A Handbook of Human Resource Management
Practice. Kogan Page, London. Baddeley, A., Eysenck, M., Anderson, M. (2009). Memory. Psychology Press, Hove. Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., Marshall, S., (2009). Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, (3rdEdn). Routledge, London.
Cannon, R., Newble, D. (2000) A Handbook for Teachers in Universities and Colleges (4th edn). Kogan Page, London. Kimble, G. A. (1961). Cited in Catania A. Charles. (1998) Learning (4th edn). Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Myers (1995) cited in Stewart, J. (1999) Employee Development Practice. Prentice Hall, Harlow. Perkins, D., Salomon, G. (1992) Contribution to the International Encyclopedia of Education (2nd edn). Pergamon Press, Oxford Race, P (2007) The Lecturers Toolkit (3rd edn). Routledge, Abingdon. Reynolds et al. (2002) cited in Armstrong, M. (2006) A Handbook of
Human Resource Management Practice. Kogan Page, London. Saljo (1979) cited in Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to Teach in Higher Education (2nd edn). Routledge Farmer, London. Stewart, J. (1999) Employee Development Practice. Prentice Hall, Harlow. Swart, J., Mann, C., Brown, S., Price, A. (2005) Human Resource Development. Elsevier, Oxford. Extremely useful list under Teaching for learning section
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