AAE 451 Team 6 System Requirements Review Farah

AAE 451 Team 6 System Requirements Review Farah

AAE 451 Team 6 System Requirements Review Farah Abdullah Stephen Adams Noor Emir Anuar Paul Davis Zherui Guo Steve McCabe Zack Means Mizuki Wada Askar Yessirkepov 1 Mission Statement Implement advanced technologies to design a future large commercial airliner (200 passenger minimum) that simultaneously addresses all of the N+2 goals for noise, emissions and fuel burn as set forth by NASA. These NASA goals include: Reduce noise by 42 dB below stage 4 certification noise

measurements at takeoff, sideline, and approach Reduce landing and takeoff NOx by 75% below CAEP6 Reduce fuel burn by 50% relative to a large twin-aisle reference Reduce field length by 50% relative to a large twin-aisle reference Use market driven parameters to design a realistic and desirable aircraft. 2 Customers 3 Regional Market Similarities in market predictions 6

Regional Market After 3 major domestic markets, many major international routes with high demands Major Routes US-West Europe PRC-West Europe South America-West Europe Asia-West Europe Middle East-West Europe Asia PRC PRC-US Asia-US Middle East-US Airbus Market Outlook 7 Competitors 8

Competitors B787-8 Replace B767-200ER, B767-300ER and possibly B757-200 (on shorter routes) * indicating aircraft will need replacement 9 Competitors B787-8 will be have no competition for small twin aisle aircraft carrying 200-250 passengers Compete against B787-8, assuming the proliferation of point to point model as opposed to hub and spoke distribution Smaller, long range, efficient aircraft offers economical option to open up markets into low volume city pairs.

10 Concept of Operations 11 Representative city-pairs City Pairs Distance Min. Runway Length Beijing - Berlin Beijing Los Angeles Beijing Honolulu 3977 nmi 5437 nmi 4398 nmi

5200 ft 8925 ft 6952 ft Tokyo Honolulu 3318 nmi 6952 ft Tokyo San Francisco 4470 nmi 7500 ft Tokyo Paris 5256 nmi 11811 ft

New York London 2999 nmi 4984 ft New York - Munich 3830 nmi 8400 ft New York - Dubai 5946nmi 8400 ft 12 Design Mission Cruise

3 4 Loiter (25min .) 5 Clim b Divert to alternate 10 9 Loiter (25 min.) 1 1

2nd Climb 8 1 2 Taxi and take off Dubai Designed Range 6000n m Max design range : 6500nm Covers whether issues

Max capacity : 250 passengers Max cruise Mach : 0.85 Cruise Altitude : 35000ft Missed approach 6 7 Land and taxi New York 12 200n m Land and taxi

1 3 1-7 : Basic Mission 7-13: Reserve Segment Satisfy FAA requirement of min. 45 min additional cruise for night time flights 13 Alternate Mission Cruise 3 4 Loiter (25min .) 5

Clim b Divert to alternate 10 9 Loiter (25 min.) 1 1 2nd Climb 8 1 2

Taxi and take off Seattl e Designed Range 2400n m Mission Range: 2400nm Max capacity : 300 passengers Max cruise Mach : 0.85 Cruise Altitude : 30000ft Missed approach 6 7

Land and taxi Miami 12 100n m Land and taxi 1 3 1-7 : Basic Mission 7-13: Reserve Segment High Capacity Medium Haul Aircraft 14 System Design Requirements

15 Requirements Airline Passengers Authority/Public Airport Compatible Low Operations Cost Low Maintenance Cost Reliability Low Fuel Burn Operational Life Range Safe Aircraft Affordable Ticket Price

Comfort Cargo Space Fast Travel Time NASA Requirements Nox Emissions Noise Level Safety and Airworthiness CFR 16 House Of Quality 17 Requirements Important Attributes Airport Compatibility Reliability Safety

NASA Competition ERA N+2 Requirements 18 Compliance Matrix Current Target Threshold 266 dB cum. 230 dB cum. 246 dB (-20 dB) LTO NOx Emissions 26 kg/LTO

6.5 kg/LTO (75%) 13 kg/LTO (50%) Boeing 757-200 Fuel Burn 2800 kg/hr cruise 1400 kg/hr (50%) 1820 kg/hr (35%) Airbus A321200 5000-6000 ft 2500-3000 ft

3500-4500 ft Boeing 757-200 6560 nmi 6000 nmi Boeing 757-200 0.85 @ 35,000 ft 0.75 @ 35,000 ft Boeing 757-200 270 >200 Boeing 757-200

Noise Levels Field Length* Max Payload Range Cruise Mach 0.8 @ 35,000 ft Passengers * Field length values only for LTO Reference Values Airbus A321200 http://www.airbus.com/fileadmin/media_gallery/files/tech_data/AC/ AC_A321_01092010.pdf http://www.airliners.net/a/stats.main?id=103 19

Technologies / Advanced Concepts 20 Technologies/Advanced concepts Technology Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics (Chevron nozzle) Noise shielding on landing gear and highlift devices Ultra high bypass engine (propfan) Pro(s) Con(s) reduces noise by 1.1 db weight/fuel

penalty large noise reduction 35% better fuel efficiency weight/fuel penalty high noise penalty Electric Aircraft Drive systems, Hybrid turbineelectric engines high fuel and power generation efficiency storage of Hydrogen is

problematic Composite body lower weight, better strength higher initial cost, maintenance costs Active Engine Control and Health monitoring better fuel economy and greater electronic 21

Sizing Capabilities 22 Current Sizing Tools Empty Weight Prediction We 1.02(W0 ) 0.06 W0 for Jet Transports This equation is from Raymer Table 3.1 Fuel Weight Prediction Requires fuel burn prediction and drag prediction

Current Sizing Tools Drag Prediction Use similar existing aircraft AR to estimate (L/ D)cruise L 1.4 AR 7.1 D cruise for subsonic aircraft This equation is from Nicolai Figure 5.3 Current Sizing Tools Fuel Weight Prediction Use Breguet range equation and endurance equation V L W 1 L W

R ln i 1 C D Wi E ln i 1 C D Wi Total Fuel Wf W1 W2 W3 W f 1 ... 1.01 W0 W0 W1 W2 W f 1 trapped fuel

Add 1% for Sizing Calibration Baseline Aircraft Boeing 767-200ER http://boeing.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=13&cat=30&item=1126 Payload and Range http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/ Published Data http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/ More Published Data http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/ 767.htm

Predictions Using Sizing Tool Noncalibrated Weights TOGW 509940 lb Empty Weight 236410 lb Fuel Weight 228130 lb Payload Weight 44000 lb Calibrated Weights TOGW

382450 lb Empty Weight 177310 lb Fuel Weight 250940 lb Payload Weight 38720 lb Summary & Next Steps 31 Next Steps Refine sizing code Powerplants Thrust-to-weight improvements

Aerodynamic designs Airfoil design / Finite wing design Fuselage CAD Model of aircraft Estimation of new technologies on specifications 32

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