Skeletal System Connecting the Body Functions of the
Skeletal System Connecting the Body Functions of the Skeletal System Framework: bones form a framework to support the bodys muscles, fat, and skin Protection: bones surround vital organs to protect them Levers: muscles attach to bones to help provide
movement Production of blood cells: bones help produce red & white blood cells and platelets, a process called hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis Storage: bones store most of the calcium supply of the body in addition to phosphorus & fats. Anatomic Landmarks of Bones Diaphysis shaft of the
long bone Epiphysis wide end of the long bone Foramen opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, & ligaments pass Process normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles & tendons.
Tissues of Bone Periosteum tough, fibrous tissue, forms the outermost covering of bone Compact bone dense hard & very strong bone, forms the protective outer layer of bones
Tissues of Bone Medullary Cavity in the shaft of a long bone & is surrounded by compact bone Endosteum tissue that lines the medullary cavity Bone Marrow Red
Bone Marrow located within spongy bone. Hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells & thrombocytes Bone Marrow Yellow
Bone Marrow functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly or fat cells & is located in the medullary cavity The Skeleton Typical adult human
skeleton consists of approximately 206 bones. Depending on the age of the individual the exact number ranges from 206- 350 bones The Skeleton: Axial Skeleton Forms the main
trunk of the body Skull, spinal column, ribs and breastbone The Skeleton: Appendicular Skeleton Consists of upper extremities & lower extremities
The Skeleton: Cranium or Skull The skull consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face & six bones in the middle ear. The Skeleton: Thoracic Cavity Rib
cage boney structure that protects the heart & lungs Consists of the ribs, sternum, & upper portion of the spinal column extending from the neck to the diaphragm not including the arms The Skeleton: Thoracic Cavity
Ribs True Ribs first seven pairs of ribs, attach anteriorly to the sternum False Ribs next three pairs of ribs, attach anteriorly to cartilage that joins the sternum Floating ribs last
two pair of ribs, are only attached The Skeleton: Thoracic Cavity Sternum Breast Bone, forms the middle of the front of the rib cage Manubrium bony structure forms upper portion of sternum Body bony structure forms the middle portion
Xiphoid Process structure made of cartilage that forms lower portion of the sternum The Skeleton: Shoulders Forms Pectoral Girdle, which supports the arms & hands Clavicle collar bone, slender bone that connects the manubrium of sternum to scapula Scapula known as shoulder blade Acromion Extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder
The Skeleton: Arms Humerus bone of the upper arm Radius smaller & shorter bone in the forearm Ulna larger & longer bone of the forearm, proximal end articulates with distal end of the humerus to form elbow
joint Olecranon Process funny bone, large projection on upper end of the ulna, exposes a nerve that tingles when struck The Skeleton: Wrists, Hands & Fingers Carpals 8 bones that form the wrist. Form the
carpal tunnel, a narrow boney passage the median nerve & tendons of fingers pass through Meta carpals 5 bones that form the hand Phalanges 14 bones of fingers Thumb 2 bones Other fingers each have 3 bones: distal, middle, & proximal phalanx
The Skeleton: Spinal Column Types of Cervical Vertebrae first set of 7 vertebrae that form the neck (C1C7) Thoracic second set of 12 vertebrae that form the outward curve of the spine
(T1-T12) Lumbar Vertebrae third set of five The Skeleton: Spinal Column Sacrum & Coccyx Remaining 2 vertebrae Sacrum slightly curved, triangular-shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back
Coccyx tailbone, forms the end of the spine & is actually made of 4 small vertebrae that are fused together The Skeleton: Spinal Column Intervertebral Disks made of cartilage, separate & cushion the vertebrae from each other. Act as
shock absorbers & allow movement of the spinal column The Skeleton: Pelvic Girdle The Skeleton: Legs & Knees Femur thigh bone, largest bone in body Head of the femur articulates with the
acetabulum Femoral neck is just below the head of the femur The Skeleton: Legs & Knees Knees are the complex joints that make possible movement between the upper & lower leg Patella kneecap, bony anterior portion of knee Popliteal posterior space
behind the knee, where ligaments, vessels, & muscles of joint are located Cruciate Ligaments make possible the movements of the knee, Known as the anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments The Skeleton: Legs & Knees The Skeleton: Legs & Knees
Lower Leg is made up or the tibia & the fibula Tibia shinbone, the larger weightbearing bone Fibula smaller of the lower leg bones Malleolus rounded bony proturberance on each side of the ankle The Skeleton: Ankles
Tarsals Ankles form the joint between the lower leg & foot, made up of seven short tarsal bones. Talus - anklebone that articulates with the tibia & fibula Calcaneous - heel bone, largest of the
tarsal bones The Skeleton: Feet & Toes Metatarsals five bones form the part of the foot to which the toes are attached Phalanges bones of the toes. Great toe has 2 phalanges &
the other toes have 3 each Joints Joints also known as articulations are the place of union between two or more bones. They are classified according to either their construction or based on the degree of movement they allow
Synarthrosis Joints Consisting of inflexible layer of dense connective tissue. Holds bones together (also known as sutures) Fontanelles known as the soft spots, normally present on skull of newborn.
Closes as child matures Amphiarthrosis Joints Allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage Diarthrosis or Synovial Joints Two
bones articulate to permit a variety of motions. Ball & Socket Joints allow a wide range of movement in many directions, ex. Hips & shoulders Hinge Joints allow movement primarily in one direction, ex knees, elbows
Synovial Joints: Components Synovial Fluid flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make smooth movement possible Ligaments bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another of joining
bone to cartilage Bursa fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction Pathology: Joints Bursitis inflammation of a bursa Arthrosclerosis
stiffness of the joints, especially in the elderly Pathology: Arthritis Arthritis inflammatory condition of one or more joints. There are many different forms Osteoarthritis known as wear-and-tear arthritis, commonly associated with aging. Can be described
as a degenerative joint disease because it is a wearing away of the articular cartilage Pathology: Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis chronic autoimmune disorder. Progressively attacks the synovial membranes. They are inflamed & thickened until the joints are increasingly swollen, painful, & immobile
Pathology Osteoporosis marked loss of bone density & an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging Osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone marrow & adjacent bone. A bacterial infection that
causes osteomyelitis often originates in another part of the body & spreads via the blood Pathology: Curvatures of the Spine Kyphosis abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine Pathology: Curvatures of the
Spine Lordosis abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine Pathology: Curvatures of the Spine Scoliosis spine abnormal lateral curvature of the
Pathology: Spinal Column Herniated Disk Slipped or ruptured disk, breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
Pathology: Fractures Closed Fracture simple or complete fracture. Bone is open but there is no open wound Open Fracture compound fracture. Bone is broken & there is an open wound in the skin
Pathology: Fractures Comminuted Fracture bone is splintered or crushed Greenstick Fracture incomplete, bone is bent & only partially broken Pathology: Fractures Oblique
Fracture occurs at an angle across the bone Transverse Fracture occurs straight across the bone Pathology: Fractures Pathologic Fracture occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal
strain. Bone is weakened by disease Stress Fracture an overuse injury, a small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic, excessive Pathology: Fractures Spiral Fracture
bone has been twisted apart. Often result of a severe twisting motion such as a sports injury Impacted Fracture vertebral crush fracture, bone is pressed together on itself Pathology: Fractures Colles
Fracture wrist fracture, occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his/her hands Osteoporotic Hip Fracture - caused by the weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis & can occur spontaneously or as the result of a fall
Pathology: Fractures Depressed Fracture a broken piece of skull bone moves inward, common with severe head injuries Pathology Dislocation when a bone is forcibly
displaced from a joint Sprain when a twisting action tears the ligaments at a joint Pathology: Fracture Treatment Closed Reduction also known as manipulation, the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation
Open Reduction surgical procedure often required to realign the bone parts Pathology: Fracture Treatment Immobilization stabilization, the act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast
Traction a pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment Pathology: Fracture Treatment External Fixation fracture treatment
procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues & bone so that an external appliance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly Internal fixation fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place.
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