Chapter 9 The General and Special Senses PowerPoint

Chapter 9 The General and Special Senses PowerPoint

Chapter 9 The General and Special Senses PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College - North Harris

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9-1: Sensory receptors connect our internal and external environments with the nervous system

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sensory Receptors Specialized cells that monitor specific conditions in the body or external environment When stimulated, a receptor passes information to the CNS in the form of action potentials along the axon of a sensory neuron

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sensory Receptors Sensation The arriving information from these senses Perception Conscious awareness of a sensation

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sensory Receptors The Detection of Stimuli Receptor sensitivity: Each receptor has a characteristic sensitivity Receptive field:

Area is monitored by a single receptor cell The larger the receptive field, the more difficult it is to localize a stimulus Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Receptors and Receptive Fields Figure 9-1 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Sensory Receptors The Interpretation of Sensory Information Arriving stimulus: Takes many forms: physical force (such as pressure) dissolved chemical sound light

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sensory Receptors The Interpretation of Sensory Information Sensations: Taste, hearing, equilibrium, and vision provided by specialized receptor cells Communicate with sensory neurons across chemical synapses

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sensory Receptors Adaptation Reduction in sensitivity of a constant stimulus Your nervous system quickly adapts to stimuli that are painless and constant For example think about the background

music at a doctors office Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sensory Receptors General Senses Describe our sensitivity to: Temperature Pain Touch

Pressure Vibration Proprioception Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sensory Receptors Special Senses Olfaction (smell)

Vision (sight) Gustation (taste) Equilibrium (balance) Hearing Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sensory Receptors Stimulation of a receptor produces action potentials along the axon of a sensory neuron

The frequency and pattern of action potentials contain information about the strength, duration, and variation of the stimulus Your perception of the nature of that stimulus depends on the path it takes inside the CNS Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9-2: General sensory receptors

can be classified by the type of stimulus that excites them Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Classifying Sensory Receptors General sensory receptors are divided into four types by the nature of the stimulus that excites them

Nociceptors (pain) Thermoreceptors (temperature) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Classifying Sensory Receptors Mechanoreceptors (physical distortion) Tactile receptors (touch) Baroreceptors (pressure)

Proprioceptors (position) Chemoreceptors (chemical concentration) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pain Nociceptors (also called pain receptors) Are common in the superficial portions of the

skin, joint capsules, within the periostea of bones, and around the walls of blood vessels May be sensitive to temperature extremes, mechanical damage, and dissolved chemicals, such as chemicals released by injured cells Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 152

Pain Nociceptors Are free nerve endings with large receptive fields: Branching tips of dendrites Not protected by accessory structures Can be stimulated by many different stimuli Two types of axons: Type A and Type C fibers Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Pain Nociceptors Myelinated Type A fibers: Carry sensations of fast pain, or prickling pain, such as that caused by an injection or a deep cut Sensations reach the CNS quickly and often trigger somatic reflexes Relayed to the primary sensory cortex and receive

conscious attention Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pain Nociceptors Type C fibers: Carry sensations of slow pain, or burning and aching pain Cause a generalized activation of the reticular

formation and thalamus You become aware of the pain but only have a general idea of the area affected Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Referred Pain Figure 9-2 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Temperature Thermoreceptors Also called temperature receptors Are free nerve endings located in: The dermis Skeletal muscles The liver The hypothalamus

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Temperature Thermoreceptors Temperature sensations: Conducted along the same pathways that carry pain sensations Sent to: the reticular formation (RAS)

the thalamus the primary sensory cortex (to a lesser extent) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Touch, Pressure, and Position Mechanoreceptors Sensitive to stimuli that distort their plasma membranes Contain mechanically gated ion channels whose

gates open or close in response to Stretching Compression Twisting Other distortions of the membrane Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Touch, Pressure, and Position Tactile receptors

Provide the sensations of touch, pressure, and vibration: Touch sensations provide information about shape or texture Pressure sensations indicate degree of mechanical distortion Vibration sensations indicate pulsing or oscillating pressure Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tactile Receptors in the Skin Sensitive to touch and pressure Figure 9-3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tactile Receptors in the Skin Monitor movement and changes across the surface of your body Figure 9-3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tactile Receptors in the Skin Fine touch & pressure receptors Figure 9-3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tactile Receptors in the Skin Aka Meissners corpuscles Fine touch & pressure, low freq vibration Figure 9-3

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Tactile Receptors in the Skin Aka Pacinian corpuscles Sensitive to deep pressure, pulses or high freq vibration

Figure 9-3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Tactile Receptors in the Skin Sensitive to pressure & skin distortion but located deep in the

dermis Figure 9-3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Touch, Pressure, and Position Baroreceptors Monitor change in pressure

Consist of free nerve endings that branch within elastic tissues in wall of distensible organ (such as a blood vessel) Respond immediately to a change in pressure, but adapt rapidly Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Baroreceptors

Figure 9-4 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Touch, Pressure, and Position Proprioceptors Monitor: Position of joints Tension in tendons and ligaments State of muscular contraction

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Touch, Pressure, and Position Major Groups of Proprioceptors Muscle spindles: Monitor skeletal muscle length Trigger stretch reflexes

Golgi tendon organs: Located at the junction between skeletal muscle and its tendon Stimulated by tension in tendon Monitor external tension developed during muscle contraction Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Detection

Chemoreceptors Respond only to water-soluble and lipidsoluble substances dissolved in surrounding fluid Receptors exhibit peripheral adaptation over period of seconds Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Classifying Sensory Receptors

Chemoreceptors Located in the: Carotid bodies: near the origin of the internal carotid arteries on each side of the neck Aortic bodies: between the major branches of the aortic arch

Receptors monitor pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels in arterial blood Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemoreceptors Figure 9-5 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

9-3: Olfaction, the sense of smell, involves olfactory receptors responding to chemical stimuli Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Smell (Olfaction) Olfactory Organs Provide sense of smell

Located in nasal cavity on either side of nasal septum Made up of two layers: Olfactory epithelium Lamina propria Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 171a

The Olfactory Organs Figure 9-6 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Olfactory Organs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Smell (Olfaction) Olfactory Glands Secretions coat surfaces of olfactory organs Olfactory Receptors Highly modified neurons Olfactory reception: Involves detecting dissolved chemicals as they interact with odorant-binding proteins

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Smell (Olfaction) Olfactory Pathways Axons leaving olfactory epithelium: Collect into 20 or more bundles Penetrate cribriform plate of ethmoid Reach olfactory bulbs of cerebrum where first synapse

occurs Axons leaving olfactory bulb: travel along olfactory tract to reach olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and portions of limbic system Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Smell (Olfaction) Olfactory Discrimination

Can distinguish thousands of chemical stimuli CNS interprets smells by the pattern of receptor activity Olfactory Receptor Population Considerable turnover Number of olfactory receptors declines with age Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

9-4: Gustation, the sense of taste, involves taste receptors responding to chemical stimuli Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Taste (Gustation) Gustation provides information about the foods and liquids consumed

Taste receptors (or gustatory receptors) are distributed on tongue and portions of pharynx and larynx Clustered into taste buds Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Taste (Gustation) Taste buds Associated with epithelial projections (lingual papillae)

on superior surface of tongue Three types of lingual papillae: Filiform papillae: provide friction do not contain taste buds Fungiform papillae: contain five taste buds each

Circumvallate papillae: contain 100 taste buds each Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gustatory Receptors Figure 9-7 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Gustatory Receptors Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Taste (Gustation) Gustatory Discrimination Primary taste sensations: Sweet Salty

Sour Bitter Umami (savory) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Taste (Gustation) Additional human taste sensations Water:

Detected by water receptors in the pharynx Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Taste (Gustation) Gustatory Discrimination Dissolved chemicals contact taste hairs Bind to receptor proteins of gustatory cell Salt and sour receptors:

Chemically gated ion channels Stimulation produces depolarization of cell Sweet, bitter, and umami stimuli: G proteins: gustducins Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9-5: Internal eye structures

contribute to vision, while accessory eye structures provide protection Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Accessory Structures of the Eye

Provide protection, lubrication, and support Includes The palpebrae (eyelids)

The superficial epithelium of eye The lacrimal apparatus The Eye: Accessory Structures

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Accessory Structures of the Eye Figure 9-8a Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Accessory Structures of the Eye

Figure 9-8b Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye Three Layers of the Eye Outer fibrous tunic Middle vascular tunic Inner neural tunic

Eyeball Is hollow Is divided into two cavities: Large posterior cavity Smaller anterior cavity Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Extrinsic Eye Muscles

Figure 9-9 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Eye Muscles 3D Rotation Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye

Figure 9-10a Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye Figure 9-10b Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 9-10c Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye The Fibrous Tunic Sclera (white of eye) Cornea

Limbus (border between cornea and sclera) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye Vascular Tunic (Uvea) Functions Provides route for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply tissues of eye Regulates amount of light entering eye

Secretes loose and reabsorbs aqueous humor that circulates within chambers of eye Controls shape of lens, which is essential to focusing Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Pupillary Muscles Figure 9-11

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye The Neural Tunic (Retina) Outer layer called pigmented part Inner neural part: Contains visual receptors and associated neurons Rods and cones are types of photoreceptors: rods:

do not discriminate light colors highly sensitive to light cones: provide color vision densely clustered in fovea, at center of macula lutea Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Retinal Organization

Figure 9-12 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Retinal Organization Figure 9-12 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Retinal Organization Figure 9-12 Blind Spot Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Blind Spot

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye The Neural Tunic (Retina) Inner neural part: Bipolar cells: neurons of rods and cones synapse with ganglion cells Horizontal cells:

extend across outer portion of retina Amacrine cells: comparable to horizontal cell layer where bipolar cells synapse with ganglion cells Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 176a

The Eye The Chambers of the Eye Ciliary body and lens divide eye into: Large posterior cavity (vitreous chamber) Smaller anterior cavity: anterior chamber: extends from cornea to iris posterior chamber: between iris, ciliary body, and lens

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye Smaller anterior cavity Aqueous humor: Fluid circulates within eye Diffuses through walls of anterior chamber into canal of Schlemm Re-enters circulation

Intraocular pressure: Fluid pressure in aqueous humor Helps retain eye shape Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye Large Posterior Cavity (Vitreous Chamber) Vitreous body:

Gelatinous mass Helps stabilize eye shape and supports retina Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye Chambers Figure 9-14

Ciliary Muscles Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye The Lens Lens fibers: Cells in interior of lens No nuclei or organelles

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye The Lens Light refraction: Bending of light by cornea and lens Focal point: specific point of intersection on retina

Focal distance: distance between center of lens and focal point Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Eye Figure 9-15 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Eye Light Refraction of Lens Accommodation: Shape of lens changes to focus image on retina Astigmatism: Condition where light passing through cornea and lens is not refracted properly

Visual image is distorted Visual acuity: Clarity of vision Normal rating is 20/20 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Path of Light

The Eye Figure 9-15 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Image Formation Figure 9-16 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Myopia (Nearsightedness) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Image Formation & Visual Abnormalities Emmetropia is normal, focused vision. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9-6: Photoreceptors respond to light and change it into electrical signals essential

to visual physiology Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Visual Physiology Rods Respond to almost any photon, regardless of energy content

Cones Have characteristic ranges of sensitivity Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Visual Physiology Anatomy of Rods and Cones Outer segment with membranous discs Inner segment:

Narrow stalk connects outer segment to inner segment Visual pigments: Is where light absorption occurs Derivatives of rhodopsin (opsin plus retinal) Retinal: synthesized from vitamin A Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9-19

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Visual Physiology Photoreception Photon strikes retinal portion of rhodopsin molecule embedded in membrane of disc Opsin is activated Bound retinal molecule has two possible configurations: 11-cis form

11-trans form Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Visual Physiology Figure 9-20 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Visual Physiology Color Vision Integration of information from red, green, and blue cones Color blindness: Inability to detect certain colors Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1716 Color Vision The colors of the rainbow as viewed by a person with no color vision deficiencies.

The colors of the rainbow as viewed by a person with protanopia affects red receptors The colors of the rainbow as viewed by a person with tritanopia affects blue- yellow receptors Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

The colors of the rainbow as viewed by a person with deuteranopia affects green receptors Color Blindness Color vision deficiency, is the inability to perceive differences between some of the colors that

others can distinguish. It is most often of genetic nature, but may also occur because of eye, nerve, or brain damage, or exposure to certain chemicals. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Example of an Ishihara color test

plates. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Visual Physiology Light and Dark Adaptation Dark: Most visual pigments are fully receptive to stimulation

Light: Pupil constricts Bleaching of visual pigments occurs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Visual Physiology The Visual Pathways Begin at photoreceptors

End at visual cortex of cerebral hemispheres Message crosses two synapses before it heads toward brain: Photoreceptor to bipolar cell Bipolar cell to ganglion cell Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9-21 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

9-7: Equilibrium sensations originate within the inner ear, while hearing involves the detection and interpretation of sound waves Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Anatomy of the Ear The External Ear Auricle: Surrounds entrance to external acoustic meatus Protects opening of canal Provides directional sensitivity External acoustic meatus: Ends at tympanic membrane (eardrum)

Tympanic membrane: Is a thin, semitransparent sheet Separates external ear from middle ear Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Anatomy of the Ear Figure 9-22

Ear Anatomy Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Ear The Middle Ear Also called tympanic cavity Communicates with nasopharynx via auditory tube: Permits equalization of pressures on either side of tympanic membrane

Encloses and protects three auditory ossicles: Malleus (hammer) Incus (anvil) Stapes (stirrup) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Structure of the Middle Ear

Figure 9-23 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Ear The Inner Ear Contains fluid called endolymph Bony labyrinth surrounds and protects membranous labyrinth Subdivided into:

Vestibule Semicircular canals Cochlea Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Inner Ear Figure 9-24 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Ear The Inner Ear Vestibule: Encloses saccule and utricle Receptors provide sensations of gravity and linear acceleration Semicircular canals:

Contain semicircular ducts Receptors stimulated by rotation of head Cochlea: Contains cochlear duct (elongated portion of membranous labyrinth) Receptors provide sense of hearing Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Ear The Inner Ear Round window: Thin, membranous partition Separates perilymph from air spaces of middle ear Oval window: Formed of collagen fibers Connected to base of stapes

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Equilibrium Sensations provided by receptors of vestibular complex Hair cells Basic receptors of inner ear Provide information about direction and strength of

mechanical stimuli Balance Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Equilibrium The Semicircular Ducts Are continuous with utricle Each duct contains: Ampulla with gelatinous cupula

Associated sensory receptors Stereocilia resemble long microvilli: are on surface of hair cell Kinocilium single, large cilium Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Semicircular Ducts

Figure 9-25 a,b,c Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Equilibrium The Utricle and Saccule Provide equilibrium sensations Are connected with the endolymphatic duct, which ends in endolymphatic sac

Maculae: Oval structures where hair cells cluster Statoconia: Densely packed calcium carbonate crystals on surface of gelatinous mass Otolith (ear stone) = gel and statoconia Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Equilibrium Figure 9-25 a,d Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Equilibrium Figure 9-25 e Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Pathways for Equilibrium Sensations Vestibular receptors Activate sensory neurons of vestibular ganglia Axons form vestibular branch of vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) Synapse within vestibular nuclei Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hearing Cochlear duct receptors Provide sense of hearing Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cochlea and Organ of Corti

Figure 9-26 a Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cochlea and Organ of Corti Figure 9-26 b Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hearing

Auditory Ossicles Convert pressure fluctuation in air into much greater pressure fluctuations in perilymph of cochlea Frequency of sound: Determined by which part of cochlear duct is stimulated Intensity (volume): Determined by number of hair cells stimulated

Hearing Receptors Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sound and Hearing Figure 9-27 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sound and Hearing

Figure 9-27 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hearing Auditory Pathways Cochlear branch: Formed by afferent fibers of spiral ganglion neurons: enters medulla oblongata

synapses at dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei information crosses to opposite side of brain: ascends to inferior colliculus of mesencephalon Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1731 Hearing

Auditory Pathways Ascending auditory sensations: Synapse in medial geniculate nucleus of thalamus Projection fibers deliver information to auditory cortex of temporal lobe Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pathways for Auditory Sensations

Figure 9-28 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9-8: Aging is accompanied by a noticeable decline in the special senses Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Smell and Aging Olfactory neuron recycling slows, leading to decreased sensitivity Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Taste and Aging Number of taste buds is reduced, and

sensitivity is lost Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Vision and Aging Lens stiffens Lens clouds Blood vessels grow in retina

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hearing and Aging Loss of elasticity in tympanic membrane Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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