Chapter 12: Toddlers Human Growth & Development Kilgore
Chapter 12: Toddlers Human Growth & Development Kilgore Warm-up A toddlers emotions are very fragile. What can you do to prevent temper tantrums? What coping mechanisms can children use to calm themselves? Mackenzie Toddlers
Parents are often amazed at the constant motion of their toddlers. Toddler-describes children who are one or two years old. In all areas of development, toddlers are striving for independence and developing individuality. Toddlers may push parents away one minute and run back to them the next. Their ability to understand the world broadens. Parents need to be patient and understanding to cope with frustrations.
Toddler development Physical Development Toddlers grow quickly, but not as rapidly as they grew during infancy. The most noticeable physical changes during this time are in body proportions. The trunk , arms, and legs are catching up to the head. Baby fat begins to disappear and gradually a leaner shape evolves. Hands and feet are still rather short and stubby, so small motor skills occur slowly. Coordination improves. At age 1, children weigh an average of 2022 pounds. They are an average of 28-30
inches tall. By age 2, they weigh 25-28 pounds and are 33-35 inches tall. Large Motor Skills By their first birthday, children vary in motor development. Some are walking alone. Others hold their parents hands while taking steps. Some enjoy standing but rely on crawling to cover distances. As they become more mobile, they also become more curious about the world around them. Toddlers are resilient to bumps and falls. Often
they will pick themselves up and try again! Toddlers struggle for control, they are determined to do things themselves. Parents should give help only when it is needed or requested. Small Motor Skills Toddlers practice grasping and manipulating skills by picking up object and toys. Their pincer grasps improve as they pick up small pieces of cereal or transfer blocks from one container to another. Toddlers also love picture books. Books with cardboard or cloth pages are best since they cannot be torn.
Advances in small motor skills can be seen as toddlers learn hand gestures or signing. Make regular safety checks around your home. Remember that toddlers like to climb onto and under things. Toddlers like to put things in their mouths. Watch for safety pins, nails, razors, broken toys or other hazards such as coins, buttons, earrings and small bead. Toys & Play Play helps children develop physical capabilities. Active play allows children to develop their muscles, use energy, and build stamina.
Children love to climb on outdoor equipment but coming back down may still be too frightening. By the third birthday, they can turn pages of books, string large beads, and build towers of blocks. They can turn doorknobs and scribble circles and lines. Toddlers like to take simple object apart and put them back together. Play Life Skills Life skills refers to eating, dressing, and grooming skills children must learn in order to
provide routine care for themselves. Mealtime is a good time to encourage independence. Parents should cut food into small pieces so toddlers can feed themselves. Toddlers have also mastered drinking from cups. Food should not be used as a reward, bribe, or threat. Allow children to choose an outfit and dress themselves. Use a step stool to encourage hand washing and brushing teeth. Teething Most children begin teething
before their first birthday. The childhood set of 20 baby teeth is usually complete by the age of 2 . Teeth should be brushed at least twice a day. After breakfast and before bedtime. Parents should take their children for their first dental visit during toddlerhood. Toilet Training Children will cooperate when they are ready. Do not rush a child to achieve this skill. Children must be able to recognize the
sensation of needing to use the bathroom. Children must be able to tighten muscles to prevent immediate elimination. Children should be praised when they are successful. Never scold or punish a child if they do not succeed. Once toddlers are fairly successful with the potty chair, training pants may be substituted for diapers. Training pants are thick underpants with elastic bands at the legs for protection against leaks. Potty training Intellectual Development Provide
stimulating activities in a relaxed setting. One year olds are beginning to understand more than what they can see, hear, and touch, however they are still egocentric (self centered) and their activities revolve around their own interest and needs. Toddlers live in the here and now. Their memories are very short, and they are not good at thinking ahead. They demonstrate what they have learned through imitation. Toddlers start to use their imaginations and play make believe. Teachable moments= times when parents have unplanned opportunities to introduce
new ideas to their toddler. Toys and Play They learn simple math as they stack blocks or sort objects. Pouring sand or water can be a science activity. Toddlers learn the meaning of more vs. less, tall vs. short, and big vs. little. They learn numbers, colors, shapes, etc. The Importance of Books
Children who learn to enjoy books often develop a fondness for reading that lasts throughout their lives. Reading books together and encourage routines or special bonding time. Start with picture books and introduce story books as well. Children like stories that rhyme and may ask to be read the same story every day. Parents should read slowly and add explanations as necessary.
Language Development By age 3, a childs vocabulary has grown to have more than 500 words. Toddlers often say no to everything, even when they mean yes. They may use their own words, ex. Bankie=blanket. Point out objects and name them to add new words to a toddlers vocabulary. Once toddlers are comfortable using lots of single words, they start combining them in short sentences. What toddlers say
Emotional & Social Development Parents may see their toddler as sweet and lovable one minute and stubborn and willful the next. Toddlers are learning what it means to have feelings, and how to express them. They feel most comfortable with family members and may take extra time before becoming friendly with others. A toddler may develop an attachment to a favorite object, such as a blanket or stuffed toy. A toddlers emotions are fragile. They may laugh one minute and cry the next. They have little patience and are
easily frustrated. Types of Play Parallel play- two children play separately but beside on another, in the same activity. Cooperative play- where toddlers actually play together, socializing. Toddlers may feel very possessive of their own toys, yet do no understand why other toddlers feel the same way. Their social skills are not well developed, so cooperation is difficult.
Separation Anxiety SA- a child will cry for their parents when they are initially separated. A significant event in emotional and social development is the ability of toddlers to feel secure when they are separated from their parents. Improved memory also helps toddlers handle this anxiety. Be truthful, parents should always tell the child when they are leaving and when they will return. If a parent leaves by sneaking out, they may cause greater feeling of insecurity.
seperation anxiety Guiding Behavior Children need to learn to follow established routines. Structure helps young children feel secure. As toddlers learn independence, they must also learn there are limits. Toddlers look to parents to provide guidance. They understand discipline better when it is consistent. Toddlers should learn to handle disappointment, frustration and anger in healthy ways.
Behavior Temper Tantrums TT are violent outburst of negative behavior. A child may scream, stomp, kick, etc. The best way to deal with TT is to avoid situations that cause them. The parents first duty is to make sure the child does not injure anyone including him/herself. After the tantrum, children may need to be soothed and cuddles. Make sure the child knows the behavior is unacceptable but they
are still loved. Selecting Toys Carefully examine all toys and read labels. Parents should consider the age and skill level required for the toy. Consider whether the child will need supervision when using the toy. Look for recalls! Baby proofing Medical Checkups Toddlers
should see their doctors at age 1, 15 months, 18 months, 2 years, and 3 years. These medical checkups are important for monitoring a childs health. Routine medical checkups are in addition to any visit due to illness or injury. Ask questions regarding health, nutrition and growth. Schedule immunizations! Hearing and eye screenings will also be done. Doctor will monitor growth and check for development.
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