What are students behavior REALLY trying to tell

What are students behavior REALLY trying to tell

What are students behavior REALLY trying to tell us? Welcome The Story of Teddy Stoddard In small groups please read The Story of Teddy Stoddard and take a few minutes to discuss your thoughts Please select one person from your small group to paraphrase your groups thoughts with the whole group Ive come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. Its my personal approach that creates the climate. Its my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I

possess a tremendous power to make a childs life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool for torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or deescalated and a child humanized or dehumanized. Haim Ginott 3 Interaction is a cycle Studen t Feeling

Adult Reactio n Studen t Behavi or Adult Feeling What is Behavior? Behavior is: - purposeful

- interactive - learned - predictable * a form of communication * functional Behavior Defined Anything we SAY or DO It is HOW WE REACT to our environment Behaviors are often LEARNED and continue because they serve a PURPOSE or FUNCTION We engage in behaviors because we have learned that a DESIRED OUTCOME occurs

Behavior Problems are a Signal of Poor quality of life Little control in life Few choices Poor social Skills Poor communication skills STRESS

Boredom Peer pressure Mistrust Desire for attention Low self-esteem Skill deficits A feeling of not

belonging It is easier to prevent behaviors than it is to address them once they have occurred. Cycle of Academic and Behavioral Failure: Aggressive Response (McIntosh, 2008) Teacher presents student with grade level academic task So, which is it Academic problems

lead to behavior Not sure problems? Student engages Students academic Probably a combination of bothin problem skills do not improve or behavior Behavior problems lead to academic problems?

Student escapes academic task Teacher removes academic task or removes student FUNCTION If a student repeatedly engages in some behavior, there is a payoff, it serves a function. Whats the purpose of this tantrum?

Behavior Gain/ Obtain Sensory Avoid/ Escape Function Based Thinking The WHY of

Tangible or Preferred Activity Social Adult Neg Reinf Pos Reinf Peer 14

Effective Teachers: Recognize that misbehavior occurs for a reason, and they take that reason into account when deciding how to respond (Alberto & Troutman, 2006; Scheuermann & Hall, 2008) Most Common Functions of Behavior To Avoid/Escape To Get/Obtain Difficult task Peer Attention

Boring task Adult Attention Easy Task Desired Activity Physical Demand Desired Object Non Preferred Activity Sensory stimulation: Peer Staff tactile, auditory, etc Reprimands Turn and Talk Most Important Point

regarding what you have learned about behavior so far Behavior does NOT occur in a vacuumit is affected directly by environmental events Setting Environment Curriculum Instruction Culture Environmental Influences Physical setting: Class density, seating position, noise level

Social setting: Others nearby, talking Scheduling: Order, timing, movement Degree of Independence: Non preferred task without assistance, confidence Degree of Participation: Group, comfort level to speak in front of Environmental Variables Variables present in the environment which can cause or contribute to the students inappropriate behaviors. School/Classroom environmental factors

Supervising teacher/Instructional factors Curriculum factors Social factors Home/community factors School/Classroom Factors Areas in building that are inadequately supervised Rules/expectations in class/building far exceed skills of students to be successful Students not taught rules/expectations Insufficient school materials (books, labs, other resources) Classroom seating arrangements (too close/near to peers, too far from supervising

teacher, near window or distractions) School/Classroom Factors Professional development/teacher training not meeting staff needs. Inconsistent discipline programs/philosophical differences Bus ride (length, problems on bus carry over to school, etc.) Temperature of building/classrooms Staff to student ratio NOTE: THE ONES IN BLUE INFLUENCE ACHIEVEMENT THE MOST. Jensen (2000) Environments for Learning

Supervising Teacher/ Instructional Variables Supervising teacher expectations too high/too low for student Feedback to student not frequent enough Negative feedback outnumbers positive feedback Rates of reinforcement too low for students needs Supervising Teacher/ Instructional Variables Supervising teachers energy, fatigue, or tolerance resulting in higher negative or

less frequent feedback and interaction Insufficient rehearsal time, direct instruction time, and guided practice time. Supervising Teacher/ Instructional Variables Level of supervision (frequency/rate) too low for students needs Supervising teachers teaching style does not take into account students various/preferred learning styles. Not enough student engagement (passive participation) Curriculum Factors

Curriculum too easy or difficult Curriculum not relevant to the students needs Curriculum presented too fast or slow for students learning rate. Insufficient opportunity to practice (Knoff 2001) Curriculum Factors Length of curriculum presentation too long for attention span of student Philosophy of curriculum presentation too narrow or broad (e.g. phonics only) Not enough opportunities for student to feel successful

Social Factors The supervising teacher and his/her ability to effectively manage a classroom and create a positive learning environment can contribute to the presence or absence of inappropriate behavior Schoolwide practices are inconsistent Social Factors contd The students peer group can contribute in a positive or negative

manner. Do the peers support/reinforce appropriate behavior? Do the peers exert influence over inappropriate behavior by teasing, taunting, or instigating? Home/Community Factors Discrepancy in values/expectations between home and school. Parents academic skills inadequate to help student Parents unable or unwilling to reinforce school-related academic/behavior strategies in the home

Absence of appropriate levels of parent supervision Home/Community Factors contd Parent/community difficulties such as substance abuse Parent unwilling or unable to meet health/nutrition/basic needs of child resulting in school absences, tardiness, and the ability of student to concentrate on school tasks Turn and Talk

Most Important Point regarding what you have learned about behavior so far Culture Quiz Second Language Factors Second language learners (CDL, ELL, LEP) may demonstrate challenging behaviors such as Not talking Difficulty following directions Difficulty expressing ideas and feelings Difficulty responding to questions consistently Pretending to understand English Physical aggression

Socializing only with those children who speak the same home language ASSESSMENT OF DIVERSE CHILDREN: CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR AND PERFORMANCE Characteristics and behaviors often associated with various learning problems Common manifestations of English Language Learners (ELLs) during classroom instruction that may mimic various disorders or cognitive deficits. Slow to begin tasks ELLs may have limited comprehension of the classroom language so that they are not always clear on how to properly begin tasks or what must be done in order to start them or complete them correctly.

Slow to finish tasks ELLs, especially those with very limited English skills, often need to translate material from English into their native language in order to be able to work with it and then must translate it back to English in order to demonstrate it. This process extends the time for completion of time-limited tasks that may be expected in the classroom. Forgetful ELLs cannot always fully encode information as efficiently into memory as monolinguals because of their limited comprehension of the language and will often appear to be forgetful when in fact the issue relates more to their lack of proficiency with English.

Inattentive ELLs may not fully understand what is being said to them in the classroom and consequently they dont know when to pay attention or what exactly they should be paying attention to. Hyperactive ELLs may appear to be hyperactive because they are unaware of situation-specific behavioral norms, classroom rules, and other rules of social behavior. Impulsive ELLs may lack the ability to fully comprehend instructions so that they display a

tendency to act impulsively in their work rather than following classroom instructions systematically. Distractible ELLs may not fully comprehend the language being spoken in the classroom and therefore will move their attention to whatever they can comprehend appearing to be distractible in the process. Disruptive ELLs may exhibit disruptive behavior, particularly excessive talkingoften with other ELLS, due to a need to try and figure out what is expected of them or to frustration about not knowing what to do or how to do it.

Disorganized ELLs often display strategies and work habits that appear disorganized because they dont comprehend instructions on how to organize or arrange materials and may never have been taught efficient learning and problem solving strategies. What is culture? Culture is learned. Culture is well established by age five. Culture effects behavior.

Students from different cultures may express themselves in different ways. 38 We see things not as they are, but as we are Anais Nin Sources of Cultural Identity Ethnicity Nationality

Race Religion Social Class Gender Ability/ Disability The Individual Health

Language Social Status Age Sexuality Geographic Region Potential for Cultural Conflicts Where the expectation is that a student should be compliant and responsive to authority - conforming to a standard of

behavior that is indicative of the teachers upbringing - then the potential for insensitive, inappropriate, counterproductive or offensive intervention increases. (Dent, 1976; McIntyre, 1997) Could someone help me with these? Im late for math class. Turn and Talk Most Important Point regarding what you have learned about behavior so far Intra-child Variables

Variables within the student which influence his or her behavior Cognitive factors Physical factors Emotional factors Academic Factors Motivational Factors Motor cortex Somatosensory cortex Movement and joint positions Sensory associative cortex

Pars opercularis Visual associative cortex Primary Auditory cortex Brocas area Grammar and word production

Visual cortex Each Brain is Unique Wernickes area Language and Thought Cerebellum Executive Functioning Impairment

Executive Function Definition Executive function is the ability to do all that it takes to keep your mind on what you are doing in order to execute tasks These abilities include:

Maintaining attention Controlling impulses Keeping free of distractions Engaging in mental planning and problem solving Maintaining Flexibility Time management Setting priorities Organizing Executing a task Hallmarks of Executive Dysfunction Easily distracted by external or internal stimuli Perseveration of response sets Difficulty with initiating activity Difficulty with maintaining effort

Difficulty with recognizing and/or utilizing feedback Difficulty modulating activity without cues Poor self-awareness of deficits. Mele-McCarthy, Academic Factors Gather Information About the Task and Setting Curricular Factors

Scope and sequence objectives Presentation methods Content Instructional Factors Teaching Methods Response opportunities for students Activities for acquisition, mastery Teacher responses Ecological Factors Physical arrangement

Predictability of environment Equipment and materials available If the problem is due to a. Skill Deficit Cant Do Inability/lacks skills to perform the appropriate behavior Performance Deficit Wont Do Has ability, lacks motivation;

Wont perform when certain conditions are present Then instruction focuses on -Teaching the deficit academic or social skill -Consequences for appropriate behavior -Consequences for problem behavior

Motivational Factors You are more motivated to attempt a task if you have reason to believe you will be successful. Level of student engagement Consideration of student preferences and interests School/class policies, practices and procedures perceived in a negative manner by student: student feels disliked/ disrespected by adults Student Surveys The Brain, Learning & Emotions

Emotions and attention are principle processes of the brain Emotions are critical to learning & trigger chemicals needed to develop long term memory Learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat Stress should be kept to a manageable level Emotional Keyboard: Eric Jensen Neurobiological correlates of child poverty Children age 7-12 from families with income at the Federal Poverty Level score lower on measures of prefrontal functioning, especially with respect

to working memory, visual attention, and language, compared to children from middle-income homes Infants and young children experiencing chronic stress develop altered systems of stress neurobiology that can make them overreactive to cues of threat and less capable of adaptive coping Stress and Distress Intermittent stress is healthy for us. Chronic stress (distress) is devastating to our brain & body Poor children are exposed to more stressors, more intense stressors, longer lasting stressors and have fewer coping skills than their higher socio-economic peers.

What Is Child Traumatic Stress? Child traumatic stress refers to the physical and emotional responses of a child to events that threaten the life or physical integrity of the child or of someone critically important to the child (such as a parent or sibling). Traumatic events overwhelm a childs capacity to cope and elicit feelings of terror, powerlessness, and out-of-control physiological arousal. National Child Traumatic Stress Network Trauma & School Performance Traumatized children are:

2.5x more likely to fail a grade in school score lower on standardized achievement tests more likely to have struggles in receptive & expressive language suspended & expelled more often more frequently placed in special education Artwork courtesy of the International Child Art Foundation (www.icaf.org) DISPARITIES OF ADOLESCENCE Adolescence is a TRANSITIONAL period during which a child is becoming, but is not yet, an adult Adolescent brains are far less developed

than we previously believed Normal adolescent development includes conflict, facing insecurities, creating an identity, mood swings, self-absorption, etc. Adolescent brains are different to adults ADOLESCENT BRAIN DEVELOPMENT Amygdala and limbic system tend to dominate the prefrontal cortex functions this results in a decrease in reasoned thinking and an increase in impulsiveness Because of immature brains, adolescents do not handle social pressure, instinctual urges, and

other stresses the way adults do A major part of adolescence is learning how to assess risk and consequences adolescents are not yet skilled at these tasks Turn and Talk Most Important Point regarding what you have learned about behavior so far THE CONFLICT CYCLE Students Self Concept Irrational Beliefs CALM RECOVERY

Highest Priority Protective Plan PEAK Seeks nonengagement 1 Stressful Incident TRIGGER Unresolved conflict; beginning of escalation

4 2 Adult/Peer Students Reaction Feelings 3

ACCELERATIO N Student focuses only on the conflict Students Observable Behavior AGITATION Increasingly unfocused & upset The Conflict Cycle

Stress arouses feelings. Feelings trigger behavior. Behavior incites others. Others increase stress. And around it goes! ~ Wood & Long, 1991 Video Reflection What strategies were used to deescalate the situation? Recognizing Signs of Agitation Increases in Behavior Darting eyes Non-conversational language

Busy hands Moves in and out of groups Starting and stopping Moves around room Fidgety Decreases in Behavior Stares into space Subdued language Contains hands Lacks interaction Lacks involvement Withdraws from groups

Lacks responding Avoids eye contact Escalating Prompts As students become more agitated, their behavior becomes more engaging. Staff may begin to take this behavior personally and resort to in your face responses. Unfortunately, staff may pay so much attention to the objectionable behavior that they are not sufficiently aware of the impact their responses have on the student and their connection to the escalating behavior. Colvin, 2004

What Do Students Expect From Teachers? Which statement resonates with you the most? I N T E N S I T Y

Stress Model of Crisis Phases of Acting Out Behavior Outburst/Peak Phase Escalation/Acceleration Phase Recovery Phase Triggering Phase Pre-Crisis State/Calm Time

(RCCP, Cornell University) What Role Do We Play? Locate the pink Hot Button Activity sheet in your folder. Read & think about each row. Consider your third row responses: ? Has your response to a students behavior been a factor in maintaining the students continued use of that behavior? Discuss this with 2 people sitting closest to you. Error Correction

Non-Examples How many times do I have to tell you to work quietly? Didnt I just tell you to get your work done? Why are you talking when Im talking? Do you want me to send you to the office? Whats going to happen if I call your mother? What do you think youre doing? Shh! Be Quiet! Stop talking! 72 Mistakes to Avoid

Excessive warnings Excessive public/verbal discipline Emphasizing the negative Inconsistency

Majoring in minors Low level distractions Arguments, power struggles Not teaching procedures Being too tolerant Disrespectful interventions Losing control/behaving unprofessionally Discarding the plan when its not going as expected Climate Enhancers Always model respectful and polite behavior Praise genuinely and frequently Set high, but reasonable and attainable expectations Know your students

Spend time interacting with students Use effective listening skills Design classroom to be appealing to students Celebrate student success and achievement Use humor Four Questions What am I feeling now? What does this student feel, need, or want? How is the environment affecting the situation? How do I best respond?

Self Reflection Activity Have you done it and what might you now do instead? Argued with a child? Yelled or lost temper?

Made threats not carried out? Asked a child to TRY to behave differently? Spoken over noise? Repeated directions several times? Have used sarcasm, ridicule, or labels? Made assumptions about a childs behavior? Made a deal or bribed child to behave? Now that we know all this how can we use it? Understanding Student Behavior Understanding students' behavior, and

misbehavior, is often a challenge even for the most experienced educators. Why does Alan seek to disrupt the class by talking while the instructor is lecturing? Why does Betty become helpless in the face of a twopage written assignment? Why does Carl answer his teacher with such smoldering disrespect? Why does Danielle spend all of her time Instant Messaging in class? Behavior Chain (or Pathway) Setting Event/s (Dynamite)

Antecedent (Match) Behavior (Kaboom) Consequence (Pay Off) Hypothesis: When (setting event) occurs, and (the antecedent happens) the (problem behavior) because/ in order to (function). S. Hassal 2007 ABCs of Behavior

Antecedent: What happens just before a problem behavior occurs. Setting events: Happen further away in time but still contribute to the problem behavior Behavior: What the student does that is observable. Explained in concrete terms Consequences: What happens after the behavior occurs. What those around student do. Indicates what maintains the behavior. A Simple But Common Example Context (Setting Event): The student has academic difficulty (e.g., problems with reading) Trigger: The student is given a challenging

assignment (e.g., completing math word problems independently) What Happens: Student engages in off task, refusal, or disruptive behavior The Result Is (Consequence): Teacher addresses student in some way (e.g., redirects, gives help, sends to office) Maria is new to the 6th grade and English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Maria turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day. What

function? Escape peer atte Setting event New student Antecedent Response Consequence Student Maria turns approaches &

away speaks in English Other student walks away Scenario 1 Joe throws his pencil and rips his paper during math whenever he is given double-digit math problems. This results in him getting sent to the office. Joe is more likely to throw his pencil and rip his paper if has not had enough rest the night before and feels tired. Setting Events

4 Lack of sleep or feels tired Triggering Antecedents 2 When given double digit problems during math Problem Behavior

1 Throw pencil and rips paper Function: Escape/Avoid Task and/or Get/Obtain Attention from Principal Maintaining Consequences 3 Sent to the office

Connection Thinking about each component of the behavior pathway will help teachers to set up and manage their classrooms in a proactive and positive way. Setting Event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Function Behavior Principles Behaviors occur because they are signaled by an event in the environment (antecedent) and reinforced by

consequences Behaviors that lead to satisfying outcomes are likely to be repeated; behaviors that lead to undesired outcomes are less likely to be repeated Antecedents They are observable and measurable characteristics of the environment. They are present in the environment prior to the occurrence of the behavior. They have a directly functional cause/effect (if this, then that) relationship to the occurrence of a targeted behavior. Antecedents trigger (elicit or evoke) behaviors.

Potential Antecedents Location density of people, type of lighting, noise level, size of are, familiarity with location Activity non-preferred, long, boring, lengthy, passive Task difficult, new, number of errors made, length (trials), physical effort required

Instruction pace, difficulty, prerequisite mastery, number and types of prompts, response opportunities, teacher proximity, reinforcement schedule People preferred or non-preferred Antecedents Because antecedents or triggers often occur immediately before the behavior, we can set up our classroom environment to

reduce or eliminate common triggers. Setting Events I woke up on the wrong side of the bed Setting Events Environmental Neighborhood, Curriculum Level, Quality of Life, Instructional Arrangements, Home Environment, History Behavioral Learning Styles Preferred Activities, Task Length, Modality, Multiple

Intelligence, Choice Making, Skill Level, Degree of Difficulty Personal Factors Medication, Diagnosis, Sleep Quality, Chronic Illness, Nutrition, Arousal, Sensory Sensitivity Social Factors Relationships with others, Coping Strategies, Self Esteem, Self Confidence

Setting Events Strategies Keep in mind that some setting events are out of our control and we may not be able to address them. However, there are common setting events that have the potential to be addressed within the school context Setting Events Setting Event Strategy Hunger

Make sure child has breakfast (i.e. school breakfast program) Fatigue Talk with parent about appropriate bed times & help them set up a bed-time reinforcement system at home Allow child to rest during free times Homelessness Contact the schools McKinney-Vento Coordinator Illness Have child check in with nurse

Menses Have child check in with nurse Medication Talk with parents about a consistent medication schedule Have nurse give medication at school Transition Provide child a schedule and use predictable routines Preset a child 5 minutes prior to transition

Prior Conflict Check in with student before the school day begins Use Tier 2 Supports - Check in-Check Out Traumatic Event Conference with school counselor, social workers or psychologists about setting up related services Identifying Antecedent Events (Fast Triggers) Listen For Ask About Investigate Under what circumstances is the behavior most/least likely Changes in the environment

Availability & organization of materials Opportunity for choices Times of day/activities Clarity of expectations Reinforcement of expected behavior Nature of interactions (tone, proximity, contact) Amount & type of attention (peer, groups, adult) Access and quality of assistance, supervision Activity/task clarity Students ability matched to the tasks assigned Length of engagement Pace of instruction Hunger, fatigue, thirst, discomfort Examples of Fast Triggers

If 7th graders are asked to participate in an assembly with the 8th graders, it is more likely that major disruptions will occur. If Jeff sits next to Stuart during small group activities, it is very likely Jeff will shout profanities and leave the classroom. Consequences or Response to Behavior They are observable and measurable events in the environment. They occur following behavior. They are functionally related to behavior in that a behavior is said to prompt environmental consequences (response or reaction). Their functional relationship to behavior may also be said another way ---- consequences that are prompted by a given behavior

may, in turn, sustain or strengthen that behavior (reinforce), or weaken or suppress that behavior (punish). Examples of behavior sustaining or strengthening consequences: teacher attention (smiles, prompts, scolds) peer attention

being ignored or left alone being sent away getting a toy, or a good grade a satisfying level of physical activity Scenario 1

During recess, when peers tease him by making jokes, pointing and laughing about his weight, Ben hits his peers on their arms with a closed fist and they leave him alone. Ben is more likely to hit his peers if adults are not in the immediate area. Setting Events 4 No adult supervision / support Triggering Antecedents

2 Peer teasing jokes, pointing & laughing about weight Problem Behavior 1 Hits peers on the arms with a closed

fist Maintaining Consequences 3 Peer leaves him alone Function: Avoid/Escape Attention from Peers Scenario 1 Potential Solutions

Setting Event Increase active adult supervision during recess Move around Look around (scan) Interact with students Reinforce students who are on task Have a one-onone conversation with Ben about bullying and

identify adults Ben can ask for support. Antecedent Behavior Consequence Implement and review class-wide lessons on expectations during recess.

Teach Ben an alternative to hitting a peer who teases him Reinforce Ben for using or approximating the stop, walk, talk routine Implement lessons targeted at preventing,

identifying, and stopping bullying. Teach Ben the stop, walk, talk routine help him get out of the bullying situation safely If Ben does use hitting to deal with bullying utilize time away to calm

down. Use restorative practices to solve the conflict between Ben and his peers if appropriate. Scenario 2 Nancy cries (wailing, tears, and buries her head) during reading time whenever she has to work by herself. This results in the teacher sitting and reading with her. Nancy is more likely to cry if she perceives the task to be too difficult. Setting Events

4 Feels the task is too difficult Triggering Antecedents 2 Independent reading time Problem Behavior

1 Cries, wails tears, buries head Function: Get/Obtain Attention from Teacher and/or Escape/Avoid Independent Task Maintaining Consequences 3 Teacher sits and reads with her

Scenario 2 Potential Solutions Setting Event Have a one-onone conference with Nancy investigating why she feels that reading is difficult. Validate Nancys feelings. Antecedent Set a goal with Nancy for independent

reading time. Example: Nancy will read independently for 5 minutes and Review reading then check in with passages to make a teacher. sure that it is at her independent Increase the reading level. number of minutes Nancy

reads independently as she becomes more confident. Behavior Teach Nancy a coping mechanism to deal with her frustration with reading. Teach reading strategies to puzzle through

unfamiliar or challenging words Ask for help from a peer or adult Consequence Reinforce Nancy with verbal praise when she uses a strategy or reads independently. If Nancy starts to cry, prompt her to use a strategy or ask for help.

Provide hurdle help and allow Nancy to problem solve. Check in with other students before checking back in. Inappropriate Behaviors Sometimes, inappropriate behavior manifests at times because the child is not sure what to do instead. Therefore, children who struggle with behaving appropriately may benefit from instruction on what to do instead. We can teach children to replace their inappropriate

behavior with an appropriate behavior. Behavior Principles Behavior can be strengthened, weakened, or maintained by modeling - Jennys mom says thank you every time she pays for lunch at McDonalds. Jenny says thank you every time she pays for lunch at school. Consequences must consistently and immediately follow the behaviors they are meant to control Jacob holds up his break card while sitting at his desk. Within 5 seconds, Jacobs teacher gives him permission to take a break. Functionally Equivalent Replacement

Behaviors Replacement Behaviors ~ Matched to Function Get/Obtain Request Help Hug A turn An item Attention Raise your hand Escape/Avoid Request break

Request help Say No Say All done Request a different activity Request to work with a partner Teaching Replacement Behaviors

Model how to demonstrate the skill Provide explicit instructions Rehearse the skill Provide feedback Practice in the natural setting Reinforce students for demonstrating the skill Example: Asking for Assistance

Model the skill Model how to raise ones hand quietly Demonstrate using examples & non-examples Example: Hand raised in the air, eyes on teacher, mouth closed, ears open Non Example: Hand waving in the air, eyes wandering, Shouting teachers name Provide explicit Instruction for using the skill Raise hand high enough to be seen & hold hand still Eyes directed toward the teacher, mouth closed, eyes open When acknowledged, ask in a calm tone of voice: Can your please.? Wait patiently for a response (explain patiently Example Contd

Rehearse social skill Practice through role play Provide feedback on use of skill Let students know what they have done well first then give points for improvement Practice social skill in natural setting to promote generalization Practice raising hand in class Reinforce students for demonstrating the skill Provide positive reinforcement when student raises hand or approximates the behavior Reinforcing Replacement Behaviors Differential reinforcement (DR) reinforcement designed to reduce the occurrence of interfering behaviors

By reinforcing behaviors that are more functional than the interfering behavior or that are incompatible with the interfering behavior, the functional behavior will increase, and the interfering behavior will decrease. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) Define an alternative behavior(s). This is any behavior that can serve as an alternative to the inappropriate behavior. For example, working on an assignment is an alternative behavior (DRA) to wandering around the classroom. Build a Competing Behavior Pathway Desired Behavior

Setting Event Triggering Antecedent Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Maintaining Consequence

Maintaining Consequence Gather Information About the Task and Setting Curricular Factors Scope and sequence objectives Presentation methods Content Instructional Factors Teaching Methods Response opportunities for students

Activities for acquisition, mastery Teacher responses Ecological Factors Physical arrangement Predictability of environment Equipment and materials available Competing Pathway Setting Events Triggering Events

The days homework not completed Presentation of class work or worksheets and/or Requests for reading aloud and/or answering questions in front of group Student is in a bad mood Desired Behavior

Successful completion of class work 80+ % of the time Presenting/answering in front of class 2+ times per week Challenging Behavior Tardy to class/skipping class by remaining or hiding in hallway Inappropriate language/disrespect/ disruption/aggression Use of curse words/gestures Raising voice at staff or students

Alternate Behavior Student takes breaks from work Use of appropriate skills to refuse or pass on work task Choose a work accommodation: 1. Work with peer 2. Select alternate assignment Maintaining Consequences Student feels safe speaking in front of class Student feels capable of work demand and content

Maintaining Consequences Work avoided by student being removed from setting Work avoided by student shifting work requests into arguments Activity Look at the scenarios that we have already completed Pick one replacement behavior that Joe and Nancy could benefit from learning and build a competing behavior pathway Task analyze the behavior Use the instructional sequence to develop an action plan to address this skill

Model Explicit Instruction Rehearsal Feedback Practice Reinforcement Video Reflection Exit Ticket Three things I learned Two things I will definitely use One way I know

this will impact student success Resources www.interventioncentral.org: Resource for academic and behavior interventions www.behavioradvisor.org: Behavior interventions, Dr. Tom McIntyre www.specialconnections.ku.edu: All areas of special ed www.behaviordoctor.org: Behavior interventions, Dr. Laura Riffel http://ici.umn.edu/elink/general/spec_areas.html: Site for paraeducators as well as teachers providing training in all areas of behavior.

www.pent.ca.gov: Detailed resource for all areas of classroom management, Diana Browning Wright Resources www.edutopia.org: Math as a Social Activity as well as many other topics www.specialconnections.ku.edu: All areas of special ed http://www.dpi.state.wi.us/sped/ebdbluepri. html : Instructional Strategies to Promote Appropriate Student Behaviors Praise, Acknowledgment, and Interaction

Hide and Seek activity What we need 4 volunteers (1 must be willing to take some harsh criticism) After each of the 4 participants have found the hidden item we will reflect on how my interaction, praise, and acknowledgement made them feel and respond. Using Praise to Develop Mindsets

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