GENERAL RELATIVITY Time Dilation & Light Bending 1.

GENERAL RELATIVITY Time Dilation & Light Bending 1.

GENERAL RELATIVITY Time Dilation & Light Bending 1. Time Dilation 2. Light Bending 3. Black Holes Acceleration causes time dilation: consider increments of travelling twins journey Elapsed time t, distance travelled l, measured in inertial (rest) frame of stay-at-home twin Proper time elapsed on travelling twins clock

= t - l valid for SR (IRF) is less than t (time dilation) Equivalence principle implies gravity dilates time Gravity Ticks slower

weaker stronger E.g. One mile high = 15 billionths sec / day faster Important for GPS Hafele & Keating 1971 Atomic clocks on airline Ticks faster

Light Equivalence principle implies bending of light by gravity Gravitational Lensing First seen by Eddingtons 1919 eclipse expedition Black Holes Sufficiently strong gravity could create an Event Horizon Time stands still at EH relative to far away clocks

Nothing can escape once past the EH Stellar collapse, galaxy centers, may produce Black Holes Milky Way Center in X-rays Cygnus X-1 orbiting a black hole

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