Facilitating Learning in Large Lecture Classes Karl A.

Facilitating Learning in Large Lecture Classes Karl A.

Facilitating Learning in Large Lecture Classes Karl A. Smith Engineering Education Purdue University Civil Engineering - University of Minnesota [email protected] - http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith/ Michigan State University College of Natural Science Workshop September 2009 Workshop Layout Welcome & Overview Integrated Course Design (CAP Model) Content Assessment

Pedagogy Active & Cooperative Learning Informal Bookends on a Class Session Formal Cooperative Learning Design and Teamwork Features Wrap-up and Next Steps 2 Workshop Objectives Participants will be able to Explain rationale for Active and Cooperative Learning in Large Classes Describe key features of Cooperative Learning Apply cooperative learning to classroom practice

Describe key features of the Backward Design process Content (outcomes) Assessment Pedagogy Identify connections between cooperative learning and desired outcomes of courses and programs Background Knowledge Survey Familiarity with Approaches to Course Design Wiggins & McTighe Understanding by Design (Backward Design) Fink Creating Significant Learning Experiences Felder & Brent Effective Course Design Active and Cooperative Learning Strategies Informal turn-to-your-neighbor Formal cooperative problem-based learning

Research Student engagement NSSE Cooperative learning How People Learn Responsibility Individual course Program Accreditation Other

Backward Design Wiggins & McTighe Stage 1. Identify Desired Results Stage 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence Stage 3. Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction Wiggins, Grant and McTighe, Jay. 1998. Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD CAP Design Process Flowchart Integrated Course Design (Fink, 2003) Initial Design Phase Start

No Context 1. Situational Factors Content 2. Learning Goals Assessment 3. Feedback and Assessment Pedagogy

4. Teaching/Learning Activities C&A&P Alignment? 5. Integration Yes End CAP Design Process (Shawns Model) Start Context Content

gy go da Pe As se ss me nt Cloud of alignment End

Effective Course Design Blooms Taxonomy ABET EC 2000 (Felder & Brent, 1999) Goals and Objectives Course-specific goals & objectives Technology Cooperative

learning Students Instruction Lectures Labs Classroom assessment techniques Assessment Other experiences

Tests 8 Other measures Resources Integrated Design Approach Pellegrino Rethinking and Redesigning Curriculum, Instr

uction and Assessment Backward Design Process (Wiggins & McTighe): Smith, K. A., Douglas, T. C., & Cox, M. 2009. Supportive teaching and learning strategies in STEM education. In R. Baldwin, (Ed.). Improving the climate for undergraduate teaching in STEM fields. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 117, 19-32. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bransford, Vye and Bateman Creating High Quality Learning Environm ents

Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology National Science Foundation, 1996 Goal All students have access to supportive, excellent undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry. Recommend that SME&T faculty: Believe and affirm that every student can learn, and model good practices that increase learning; starting with the student=s experience, but have high expectations within a supportive climate; and build inquiry, a sense

of wonder and the excitement of discovery, plus communication and teamwork, critical thinking, and 10 life-long learning skills into learning experiences. Lila M. Smith Pedago-pathologies Amnesia Fantasia Inertia Lee Shulman MSU Med School PBL Approach (late 60s early 70s); Stanford University, Past President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of College Teaching Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.

What do we do about these pathologies? Lee Shulman Activity Reflection Collaboration Passion Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17. 13 Lila M. Smith It could well be that faculty members of the twenty-first century college or university will find it necessary to set

aside their roles as teachers and instead become designers of learning experiences, processes, and environments. James Duderstadt, 1999 [Nuclear Engineering Professor; Dean, Provost and President of the University of Michigan] 15 Pedagogies of Engagement 16 MIT & Harvard Engaged Pedagogy

January 13, 2009New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/13/us/13physics.html?em January 2, 2009Science, Vol. 323 www.sciencemag.org Calls for evidence-based teaching practices http://web.mit.edu/edtech/casestudies/teal.html#video http://www.ncsu.edu/PER/scaleup.html Cooperative Learning Positive Interdependence Individual and Group Accountability Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction

Teamwork Skills Group Processing Cooperative Learning Research Support Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., & Smith, K.A. 1998. Cooperative learning returns to college: What evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 (4), 26-35. Over 300 Experimental Studies First study conducted in 1924 High Generalizability Multiple Outcomes Outcomes 1. Achievement and retention 2. Critical thinking and higher-level reasoning 3. Differentiated views of others

4. Accurate understanding of others' perspectives 5. Liking for classmates and teacher 6. Liking for subject areas 7. Teamwork skills January 2005 March 2007 Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom Informal Cooperative Learning Groups Formal Cooperative Learning Groups

Cooperative Base Groups See Cooperative Learning Handout (CL College-804.doc) 22 Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves people working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that involve both positive interdependence (all members must cooperate to complete the task) and individual and group accountability (each member is accountable for the complete final outcome). Key Concepts

Positive Interdependence Individual and Group Accountability Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction Teamwork Skills Group Processing Individual & Group Accountability ? 24 25 http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith/docs/Smith-CL%20Handout%2008.pdf Book Ends on a Class Session

26 Advance Organizer The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him [email protected] David Ausubel - Educational psychology: A cognitive approach, 1968. 27 Book Ends on a Class Session 1. Advance Organizer 2. Formulate-Share-Listen-Create (Turnto-your-neighbor) -- repeated every 1012 minutes 3. Session Summary (Minute Paper)

1. What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session? 2. What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session? 3. What was the muddiest point in this session? Advance Organizer The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly. David Ausubel - Educational psychology: A cognitive approach, 1968. 29

Quick Thinks Reorder the steps Paraphrase the idea Correct the error Support a statement Select the response Johnston, S. & Cooper,J. 1997. Quick thinks: Activethinking in lecture classes and televised instruction. Cooperative learning and college teaching, 8(1), 2-7. 30 Formulate-Share-Listen-Create Informal Cooperative Learning Group Introductory Pair Discussion of a FOCUS QUESTION 1. Formulate your response to the question

individually 2. Share your answer with a partner 3. Listen carefully to your partner's answer 4. Work together to Create a new answer 31 through discussion Minute Paper What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session? What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session? What was the muddiest point in this session? Give an example or application Explain in your own words . . . Angelo, T.A. & Cross, K.P. 1993. Classroom assessment

techniques: A handbook for college teachers. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. 32 Session Summary (Minute Paper) Reflect on the session: 1. Most interesting, valuable, useful thing you learned. 2. Things that helped you learn. 3. Question, comments, suggestions. 4. Pace: Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast 5. Relevance: Little 1 . . . 5 Lots 6. Instructional Format: Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah 33

MOT 8221 Spring 2009 Session 1 25 20 1 15 2 3 10 4 5 5 0

Q4 Q5 Q6 Q4 Pace: Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast (3.3) Q5 Relevance: Little 1 . . . 5 Lots (4.2) Q6 Format: Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah (4.4) 34 Informal CL (Book Ends on a Class Session) with Concept Tests Physics Peer Instruction - Eric Mazur - Harvard http://galileo.harvard.edu Richard Hake http://www.physics.indiana.edu/~hake/ Chemistry

Chemistry ConcepTests - UW Madison www.chem.wisc.edu/~concept Video: Making Lectures Interactive with ConcepTests ModularChem Consortium http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/ STEMTEC Video: How Change Happens: Breaking the Teach as You Were Taught Cycle Films for the Humanities & Sciences www.films.com Harvard Thinking Together, From Questions to Concepts Interactive Teaching in Physics & Interactive Teaching DVD: Promoting Better Learning Using Peer Instruction and Just-In-Time Teaching: Derek Bok Center 35 www.fas.harvard.edu/~bok_cen/ 35.00

The Hake Plot of FCI SDI 30.00 UMn-CL+PS X ALS WP 25.00 20.00

UMn Cooperative Groups 15.00 X PI(HU) UMn Traditional ASU(nc) 10.00 WP* ASU(c) HU

5.00 0.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 36 (Percent) Pretest 60.00 70.00

80.00 Richard Hake (Interactive engagement vs traditional methods) http://www.physics.indiana.edu/~hake/ Traditional (lecture) Interactive (active/cooperative) = Concept Inventory Gain/Total 38

Physics (Mechanics) Concepts: The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) A 30 item multiple choice test to probe student's understanding of basic concepts in mechanics. The choice of topics is based on careful thought about what the fundamental issues and concepts are in Newtonian dynamics. Uses common speech rather than cueing specific physics principles. The distractors (wrong answers) are based on students' common inferences. 39 Informal Cooperative Learning Groups

Can be used at any time Can be short term and ad hoc May be used to break up a long lecture Provides an opportunity for students to process material they have been listening to (Cognitive Rehearsal) Are especially effective in large lectures Include "book ends" procedure Are not as effective as Formal Cooperative Learning or Cooperative Base Groups Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom Informal Cooperative Learning Groups

Formal Cooperative Learning Groups Cooperative Base Groups See Cooperative Learning Handout (CL College-804.doc) 41 Formal Cooperative Learning Task Groups http://www.aacu.org/advocacy/leap/documents/Re8097abcombined.pdf 43

Top Three Main Engineering Work Activities Civil/Architectural Management 45% Design 39% Computer applications 20% Engineering Total Design 36% Computer applications 31% Management 29% Burton, L., Parker, L, & LeBold, W. 1998. U.S. engineering career trends. ASEE

Prism, 7(9), 18-21. 44 Teamwork Skills Communication Listening and Persuading Decision Making Conflict Management Leadership Trust and Loyalty 45 Design team failure is usually due to failed team dynamics (Leifer, Koseff & Lenshow, 1995).

Its the soft stuff thats hard, the hard stuff is easy (Doug Wilde, quoted in Leifer, 1997) Professional Skills (Shuman, L., Besterfield-Sacre, M., and McGourty, J., The ABET Professional Skills-Can They Be Taught? Can They Be Assessed? Journal of Engineering Education, Vo. 94, No. 1, 2005, pp. 4155.) Teamwork PER FO R M AN C E LEVEL H ig h - p e r fo r m in g C o o p e r a tiv e G r o u p C o o p e r a tiv e

G ro u p In d iv id u a l M e m b e rs T r a d itio n a l G ro u p P s e u d o -g ro u p 47 TYPE O F G R O UP Characteristics of Effective Teams common sense of direction Expertise in the group, especially complementary expertise Common agreed upon goal

Diversity of ideas, background, experiences, etc. Good coordination among members Sense of consultation, involvement in the framing Buy in Fun Respect for others Good communication Clear expectation Avoid negativist, be positive, no whining or complaining Be critical but not personal Accountability with compassion Having people do what theyre good at Work well with supervisor Social trust Leadership without dictatorship Good listening

Clear, well defined timeline and deliverables 48 A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable SMALL NUMBER COMPLEMENTARY SKILLS COMMON PURPOSE & PERFORMANCE GOALS COMMON APPROACH MUTUAL ACCOUNTABILITY --Katzenbach & Smith (1993) The Wisdom of Teams Hackman Leading Teams

Real Team Compelling Direction Enabling Structure Supportive Organizational Context Available Expert Coaching Team Diagnostic Survey (TDS) 50 https://research.wjh.harvard.edu/TDS/

Team Charter Team name, membership, and roles Team Mission Statement Anticipated results (goals) Specific tactical objectives Ground rules/Guiding principles for team participation Shared expectations/aspirations

Code of Cooperation EVERY member is responsible for the teams progress and success. Attend all team meetings and be on time. Come prepared. Carry out assignments on schedule. Listen to and show respect for the contributions of other members; be an active listener. CONSTRUCTIVELY criticize ideas, not persons. Resolve conflicts constructively, Pay attention, avoid disruptive behavior. Avoid disruptive side conversations. Only one person speaks at a time. Everyone participates, no one dominates. Be succinct, avoid long anecdotes and examples. No rank in the room. Respect those not present.

Ask questions when you do not understand. Attend to your personal comfort needs at any time but minimize team disruption. HAVE FUN!! ? Adapted from Boeing Aircraft Group Team Member Training Manual Ten Commandments: An Affective Code of Cooperation Help each other be right, not wrong. Look for ways to make new ideas work, not for reasons they won't. If in doubt, check it out! Don't make negative assumptions about each other. Help each other win, and take pride in each other's victories. Speak positively about each other and about your organization at every opportunity. Maintain a positive mental attitude no matter what the

circumstances. Act with initiative and courage, as if it all depends on you. Do everything with enthusiasm; it's contagious. Whatever you want; give it away. Don't lose faith. Have fun 53 Ford Motor Company Group Ground Rules Contract Form (Adapted from a form developed by Dr. Deborah Allen, University of Delaware) Project groups are an effective aid to learning, but to work best they require that all groups members clearly understand their responsibilities to one another. These project group ground rules describe the general responsibilities of every member to the group.

You can adopt additional ground rules if your group believes they are needed. Your signature on this contract form signifies your commitment to adhere to these rules and expectations. All group members agree to: 1. Come to class and team meetings on time. 2. Come to class and team meetings with assignments and other necessary preparations done. Additional ground rules: 1. 2. If a member of the project team repeatedly fails to meet these ground rules, other members of the group are expected to take the following actions: Step 1: (fill in this step with your group) If not resolved: Step 2: Bring the issue to the attention of the teaching team.

If not resolved: Step 3: Meet as a group with the teaching team. The teaching team reserves the right to make the final decisions to resolve difficulties that arise within the groups. Before this becomes necessary, the team should try to find a fair and equitable solution to the problem. Members Signatures: Group Number:______________ 1.____________________________ 3.____________________________ 2.____________________________ 54 4.____________________________

Group Processing Plus/Delta Format Plus (+) Things That Group Did Well Delta () Things Group Could Improve Professor's Role in Formal Cooperative Learning 1. Specifying Objectives 2. Making Decisions 3. Explaining Task, Positive Interdependence, and Individual Accountability 4. Monitoring and Intervening to Teach Skills

5. Evaluating Students' Achievement and Group Effectiveness 56 Formal Cooperative Learning Types of Tasks 1. Jigsaw Learning new conceptual/procedural material 2. Peer Composition or Editing 3. Reading Comprehension/Interpretation 4. Problem Solving, Project, or Presentation 5. Review/Correct Homework 6. Constructive Academic Controversy 7. Group Tests Challenged-Based Learning

Problem-based learning Case-based learning Project-based learning Learning by design Inquiry learning Anchored instruction John Bransford, Nancy Vye and Helen Bateman. Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn 58

Challenge-Based Instruction with the Legacy Cycle The Challenges Generate Ideas Go Public Legacy Cycle Test Your Mettle Multiple

Perspectives Research & Revise https://repo.vanth.org/portal/public-content/star-legacy-cycle/star-legacy-cycle 59 Problem-Based Learning START Apply it Problem posed Learn it

Identify what we need to know 60 Problem Based Cooperative Learning Format TASK: Solve the problem(s) or Complete the project. INDIVIDUAL: Estimate answer. Note strategy. COOPERATIVE: One set of answers from the group, strive for agreement, make sure everyone is able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem. EXPECTED CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: Everyone must be able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem. EVALUATION: Best answer within available resources or constraints. INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY: One member from your group may be randomly chosen to explain (a) the answer and (b) how to solve each

problem. EXPECTED BEHAVIORS: Active participating, checking, encouraging, and elaborating by all members. 61 INTERGROUP COOPERATION: Whenever it is helpful, check procedures, answers, and strategies with another group. 62 http://www.udel.edu/pbl/ Cooperative Base Groups

Are Heterogeneous Are Long Term (at least one quarter or semester) Are Small (3-5 members) Are for support May meet at the beginning of each session or may meet between sessions Review for quizzes, tests, etc. together Share resources, references, etc. for individual projects Provide a means for covering for absentees 63

Design and Implementation of Cooperative Learning Resources Design Framework How People Learn (HPL) Pellegrino Rethinking and redesigning curriculum, instruction and assessment: What contemporary research and theory suggests. http://www.skillscommission.org/commissioned.htm Smith, K. A., Douglas, T. C., & Cox, M. 2009. Supportive teaching and learning strategies in STEM education. In R. Baldwin, (Ed.). Improving the climate for undergraduate teaching in

STEM fields. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 117, 19-32. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Content Resources http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309082927/html/ Design & Backward Design Process (Felder & Brent, Fink and Wiggins & McTighe) Creating High Quality Learning Environments (Bransford, Vye & Bateman) --

Donald, Janet. 2002. Learning to think: Disciplinary perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Middendorf, Joan and Pace, David. 2004. Decoding the Disciplines: A Model for Helping Students Learn Disciplinary Ways of Thinking. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 98. Pedagogies of Engagement - Instructional Format explanation and exercise to model format and to engage workshop participants Cooperative Learning (Johnson, Johnson & Smith) Smith web site www.ce.umn.edu/~smith

University of Delaware PBL web site www.udel.edu/pbl PKAL Pedagogies of Engagement http://www.pkal.org/activities/PedagogiesOfEngagementSummit.cfm 64

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