Chapter 1 Foundations An Introduction to Anatomy Lecture

Chapter 1 Foundations An Introduction to Anatomy Lecture

Chapter 1 Foundations An Introduction to Anatomy Lecture Presentation by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Introduction Anatomy The study of external structures The study of internal structures The study of the relationship between body parts The careful observation of the human body Provides clues about physiological functions 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Introduction Physiology The study of how the body functions The study of mechanisms in the body 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Introduction

Relationship of Anatomy to Physiological Function The anatomical structure of the nasal cavity provides the physiological warming of the inhaled air The anatomical structure of the muscular portion of the heart allows for the physiological pumping action 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Microscopic Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy The study of structures that cannot be seen without magnification Cytologystudy of cells Histologystudy of tissues 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Gross Anatomy Macroscopic Anatomy The study of structures that can be seen without magnification Surface anatomy: refers to the superficial anatomical markings Regional anatomy: refers to all structures in a specific area of the body, (head, neck, or trunk) whether they are superficial or deep Systemic anatomy: The study of the organ systems of the body (digestive system, cardiovascular system, etc.) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1.1 The Study of Anatomy at Different Scales nanometers (nm) x 103 x 105 x 106 Ribosomes Unaided human eye Compound light microscope Scanning electron microscope Transmission electron microscope 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. .1nm x 106 x 107 x 108 Atoms x 103 1nm

Amino acids x 103 2nm 10nm x 106 DNA (diameter) m (x 83) Viruses 2m 10120nm 11nm 8 Mitochondrion (x 20) 10m 112m Bacteria (x .6) 120 Red blood cell m

Fingertip (width) (x .12) Human heart Human Body Approximate Magnification (Reduction) Factor From actual to artwork on this page (x .15) .5mm Relative size m to nm micrometers (m) Human oocyte 1.7m 120mm 12m Large protozoan Size Relative size mm to m millimeters (mm) Proteins Relative size m to mm meters (m)

Other Perspectives on Anatomy Developmental Anatomy: Examines structural changes over time Embryology: The study of early developmental stages Comparative Anatomy: Considers anatomical similarities and differences in different types of animals Clinical Anatomy: Focuses on pathological changes during illness 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2 Comparative Anatomy Embryo Adult Salmon (bony fish) Somites segmental blocks forming muscles, vertebrae, etc. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord forming brain and spinal cord Notochord a stiffened rod below spinal cord, usually

replaced by vertebrae Skull surrounds brain in cranial cavity Vertebrae surround spinal cord in spinal cavity Muscular tail extends beyond exit of digestive tract Chicken Digestive tract Skull Limb bud Vertebrae Somites Basic Vertebrate Body Plan Mouth

Heart Human Anus Skull Somites Braincase of cartilage or bone surrounds the brain Pharyngeal (gill) arches may persist or be modified to form other structures in adult Ventral body cavity contains thoracic and abdominopelvic organs Vertebrae Limb buds a All vertebrates share a basic pattern of anatomical organization that differs from that of other animals. b

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The similarities between vertebrates are most apparent when comparing embryos at comparable stages of development c The similarities are less obvious when comparing adult vertebrates. Other Perspectives on Anatomy Surgical Anatomy: Studies anatomical landmarks important for surgical procedures Radiographic Anatomy: The study of anatomical structures with the use of x-rays or ultrasound scans on an intact body Cross-sectional Anatomy: The use of radiographic techniques (CT, MRI, and spiral scans) to look at cross sections of the body 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Levels of Organization Chemical/Molecular (simple) Cell Tissue Organ Organ System

Organism 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. (complex) Figure 1.4 Levels of Organization Size .1nm Chemical or Molecular Levels Atoms interact to form molecules. 10nm Molecules join to form complex contractile protein fibers. 10m Contractile protein fibers are structures within a heart muscle cell. .1mm Cellular Level Interlocking heart muscle cells form cardiac muscle tissue.

1mm Tissue Level Cardiac muscle tissue constitutes the bulk of the walls of the heart. 120mm Organ Level The heart is a complex three-dimensional organ. Organ System Level Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Nervous Respiratory Digestive Muscular Urinary Skeletal Integumentary Reproductive

The cardiovascular system includes the heart, the blood and blood vessels. 1.7m 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Organism Level All of the organ systems must work together for a person to remain alive and healthy. Levels of Organization Chemical/Molecular Over a dozen different elements in the body Four of them make up 99 percent of the body Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen Major classes of compounds Water Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3 Composition of the Body at the Chemical Level of Organization

Hydrogen 62% Oxygen 26% Carbon 10% Nitrogen 1.5% Molecular composition of the human body OTHER ELEMENTS Calcium 0.2% Phosphorus 0.2% Potassium 0.06% Sodium 0.06% Sulfur 0.05% Chlorine 0.04% Magnesium 0.03% Iron 0.0005% Iodine 0.0000003% Trace elements (see caption)

a Elemental composition of the body. Trace elements include silicon, fluorine, copper, manganese, zinc, selenium, cobalt, molybdenum, cadmium, chromium, tin, aluminum, and boron. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Water 66% Lipids 10% Proteins 20% Carbohydrates 3% b Molecular composition of the body. Levels of Organization Cell The smallest living unit in the body Consists or organelles Tissue Many cells and some surrounding material

Such as: epithelial, muscular, neural, and connective tissue Organ Combination of tissues For example: the heart consists of all the abovementioned tissues 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Levels of Organization Organ System Combination of various organs make up a specific system For example: the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas make up the digestive system The heart and blood vessels make up the cardiovascular system Humans are composed of 11 organ systems 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.5 An Introduction to Organ Systems (1 of 2) ORGAN SYSTEM 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. MAJOR FUNCTIONS Integumentary system Protection from environmental

hazards; temperature control Skeletal system Support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage; blood formation Muscular system Locomotion, support, heat production Nervous system Directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems Endocrine system Directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems Cardiovascular system Internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases

Figure 1.5 An Introduction to Organ Systems (2 of 2) ORGAN SYSTEM MAJOR FUNCTIONS Lymphatic system Defense against infection and disease Respiratory system Delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood Digestive system Processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water Urinary system Elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products; control of pH

Reproductive system Production of sex cells and hormones 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. An Introduction to Organ Systems Responsiveness (Irritability) The ability to respond to changes Adaptability The ability to make adjustments to environmental changes Growth The increase in size of an organism Differentiation Becoming specialized to perform particular functions 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. An Introduction to Organ Systems Reproduction The production of new generations of the same organism Movement Internal movement The movement of food or blood External movement

Walking Metabolism All the chemical reactions in the body Anabolism: the synthesis of complex molecules Catabolism: the breakdown of complex molecules 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. An Introduction to Organ Systems Absorption The process of bringing chemicals into the body Respiration The absorption, transport, and use of oxygen by cells Digestion (a type of catabolism) The processes of catabolism that make nutrients small enough to be absorbed Excretion The removal of wastes 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (1 of 12) The Integumentary System Protects against environmental hazards; helps control body temperature Hair

Epidermis and associated glands Organ/Component Skin Epidermis Dermis Hair Follicles Fingernail Hairs Sebaceous glands 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Primary Functions Covers surface; protects deeper tissues Nourishes epidermis; provides strength; contains glands Produce hair; innervation provides sensation Provide protection for head Secrete lipid coating that lubricates hair shaft and epidermis Sweat Glands Produce perspiration for evaporative cooling Nails

Protect and stiffen distal tips of digits Sensory Receptors Provide sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, pain Subcutaneous Layer Stores lipids; attaches skin to deeper structures and insulates against heat loss Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (2 of 12) The Skeletal System Provides support; protects tissues; stores minerals; forms blood cells AXIAL SKELETON Skull Sternum Ribs APPENDICULAR SKELETON Supporting bones (scapula and clavicle) Upper limb

bones Vertebrae Organ/Component Sacrum Pelvis (supporting bones plus sacrum) Bones, Cartilages, and Joints Axial skeleton (skull, vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, sternum, ribs, supporting cartilages and ligaments) Support; protect soft tissues; bones store minerals Protects brain, spinal cord, sense organs, and soft tissues of thoracic cavity; supports the body weight over lower limbs Appendicular skeleton (limbs and supporting bones and ligaments) Provides internal support and positioning of the limbs; supports and moves axial skeleton Bone Marrow

Lower limb bones 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Primary Functions Primary site of blood cell production (red marrow); storage of energy reserves in fat cells (yellow marrow) Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (3 of 12) The Muscular System Allows for locomotion; provides support; produces heat Axial muscles Appendicular muscles Organ/Component Primary Functions Skeletal Muscles Provide skeletal movement; control entrances to digestive and respiratory

tracts and exits to digestive and urinary tracts; produce heat; support skeleton; protect soft tissues Axial muscles Appendicular muscles Tendons, Aponeuroses 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Support and position axial skeleton Support, move, and brace limbs Harness forces of contraction to perform specific tasks Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (4 of 12) The Nervous System Directs immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain Spinal cord Organ/Component Central Nervous System (CNS)

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Acts as control center for nervous system; processes information; provides short-term control over activities of other systems Brain Performs complex integrative functions; controls both voluntary and autonomic activities Spinal cord Relays information to and from brain; performs less-complex integrative activities Special senses Provide sensory input to the brain relating to sight, hearing, smell, taste, and equilibrium Peripheral nerves Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Primary Functions

Links CNS with other systems and with sense organs Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (5 of 12) The Endocrine System Directs long-term changes in activities of other organ systems Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid and parathyroid glands Thymus Pancreas Suprarenal gland Ovary in female Testis in male Organ/Component Primary Functions Pineal Gland May control timing of reproduction and set day-night rhythms

Pituitary Gland Controls other endocrine glands; regulates growth and fluid balance Thyroid Gland Controls tissue metabolic rate; regulates calcium levels Parathyroid Glands Regulate calcium levels (with thyroid) Thymus Controls maturation of lymphocytes Suprarenal Glands Adjust water balance, tissue metabolism, cardiovascular and respiratory activity Kidneys Control red blood cell production and elevate blood pressure Pancreas Regulates blood glucose levels Gonads Testes

Ovaries 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Support male sexual characteristics and reproductive functions Support female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (6 of 12) The Cardiovascular System Transports cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases Heart Capillaries Artery Vein Organ/Component Primary Functions Heart Propels blood; maintains blood pressure Blood Vessels Distribute blood around the body

Arteries Capillaries Carry blood from the heart to capillaries Veins Return blood from capillaries to the heart Blood 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Permit diffusion between blood and interstitial fluids Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, and blood cells; delivers nutrients and hormones; removes waste products; assists in temperature regulation and defense against disease Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (7 of 12) The Lymphatic System Defends against infection and disease; returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream Thymus Lymph nodes

Spleen Organ/Component Lymphatic Vessels Carry lymph (water and proteins) and lymphocytes from peripheral tissues to veins of the cardiovascular system Lymph Nodes Monitor the composition of lymph; engulf pathogens; stimulate immune response Spleen Monitors circulating blood; engulfs pathogens and recycles red blood cells; stimulates immune response Thymus Controls development and maintenance of one class of lymphocytes (T cells) Lymphatic vessel 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Primary Functions Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (8 of 12) The Respiratory System

Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood; produces sound Nasal cavity Sinus Pharynx Trachea Lung Larynx Bronchi Diaphragm Organ/Component Primary Functions Nasal Cavities and Paranasal Sinuses Filter, warm, humidify air; detect smells Pharynx Conducts air to larynx, a chamber shared with the digestive tract Larynx

Protects opening to trachea and contains vocal cords Trachea Filters air, traps particles in mucus, conducts air to lungs; cartilages keep airway open Bronchi Same functions as trachea; diameter decreases as branching occurs Lungs Responsible for air movement during movement of ribs and diaphragm; include airways and alveoli Alveoli 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Blind pockets at the end of the smallest branches of the bronchioles; sites of gas exchange between air and blood Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (9 of 12) The Digestive System Processes food and absorbs nutrients Salivary gland Pharynx

Esophagus Liver Gallbladder Stomach Pancreas Small intestine Anus 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Large intestine Organ/Component Primary Functions Oral Cavity Receptacle for food; works with associated structures (teeth, tongue) to break up food and pass food and liquids to pharynx Salivary Glands Provide buffers and lubrication; produce enzymes that begin digestion Pharynx Conducts solid food and liquids to esophagus; chamber shared with

respiratory tract Esophagus Delivers food to stomach Stomach Secretes acids and enzymes Small Intestine Secretes digestive enzymes, buffers, and hormones; absorbs nutrients Liver Secretes bile; regulates nutrient composition of blood Gallbladder Stores and concentrates bile for release into small intestine Pancreas Secretes digestive enzymes and buffers; contains endocrine cells Large Intestine Removes water from fecal material; stores wastes

Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (10 of 12) The Urinary System Eliminates excess water, salts, and waste products Kidney Urinary bladder Ureter Organ/Component Primary Functions Kidneys Form and concentrate urine; regulate blood pH and ion concentrations; perform endocrine functions Ureters Conduct urine from kidneys to urinary bladder Urinary Bladder Stores urine for eventual elimination

Urethra Conducts urine to exterior Urethra 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (11 of 12) The Male Reproductive System Produces sex cells and hormones Prostate gland Seminal gland Ductus deferens Urethra Epididymis Testis Penis Scrotum 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Organ/Component Testes Primary Functions Produce sperm and hormones

Accessory Organs Epididymis Acts as site of sperm maturation Ductus deferens (sperm duct) Conducts sperm from the epididymis and merges with the duct of the seminal gland Seminal glands Secrete fluid that makes up much of the volume of semen Prostate gland Secretes fluid and enzymes Urethra Conducts semen to exterior External Genitalia Penis Contains erectile tissue; deposits sperm in vagina of female; produces pleasurable sensations during sexual activities Scrotum Surrounds the testes and controls their

temperature Figure 1.6 The Organ Systems of the Body (12 of 12) The Female Reproductive System Produces sex cells and hormones; supports embryonic development from fertilization to birth Mammary gland Uterine tube Organ/Component Primary Functions Ovaries Produce oocytes and hormones Uterine Tubes Deliver oocyte or embryo to uterus; normal site of fertilization Uterus Site of embryonic development and exchange between maternal and fetal bloodstreams

Vagina Site of sperm deposition; acts as a birth canal during delivery; provides passageway for fluids during menstruation Ovary Uterus Vagina External genitalia External Genitalia Clitoris Contains erectile tissue; provides pleasurable sensations during sexual activities Labia Contain glands that lubricate entrance to vagina Mammary Glands 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Produce milk that nourishes newborn infant The Language of Anatomy Introduction

Used for communication purposes Used to give precise information Latin and Greek words for the basis of numerous anatomical terms 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.7 The Importance of Precise Vocabulary 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Superficial Anatomy The anatomical terms in this chapter will be used in the rest of the chapters of this text The terms are typically derived from Latin or Greek 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Landmarks Anatomical position Standing with the feet flat on the floor The hands are at the side The palms are facing forward All discussion of the human body is in reference to the anatomical position Supine: lying down (face up) in the anatomical

position Prone: lying down (face down) in the anatomical position 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.8a Anatomical Landmarks Frons or forehead (frontal) Cephalon or head (cephalic) Oris or mouth (oral) Mentis or chin (mental) Cranium or skull (cranial) Facies or face (facial) Nasus or nose (nasal) Oculus or eye (orbital or ocular) Auris or ear (otic) Bucca or cheek (buccal) Cervicis or neck (cervical)

Thoracis or thorax, chest (thoracic) Axilla or armpit (axillary) Mamma or breast (mammary) Brachium or arm (brachial) Abdomen (abdominal) Antecubitis or front of elbow (antecubital) Trunk Umbilicus or navel (umbilical) Antebrachium or forearm (antebrachial) Pelvis (pelvic)

Carpus or wrist (carpal) Palma or palm (palmar) Manus or hand (manual) Pollex or thumb Digits or fingers (digital) Patella or kneecap (patellar) Crus or leg (crural) Inguen or groin (inguinal) Pubis (pubic) Femur or thigh (femoral) Tarsus or ankle (tarsal) Digits or toes (digital)

Pes or foot (pedal) Hallux or great toe a Anterior view in the anatomical position 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.8b Anatomical Landmarks Cephalon or head (cephalic) Shoulder (acromial) Cervicis or neck (cervical) Dorsum or back (dorsal) Olecranon or back of elbow (olecranal) Upper limb Lumbus or loin (lumbar) Gluteus

or buttock (gluteal) Popliteus or back of knee (popliteal) Lower limb Sura or calf (sural) Calcaneus or heel of foot (calcaneal) Planta or sole of foot (plantar) b 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view in the anatomical position The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions There are a variety of regions of the body that will be discussed. Anatomical areas (regions)

Abdominopelvic regions Abdominopelvic quadrants Directional regions Planes and sectional regions Body cavity regions 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Areas (Regions) Head and neck region Frons Nasus Oculus Auris Bucca Cervicis Mentis Oris Occipitalis 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.8a Anatomical Landmarks (1 of 2)

Cranium or skull Cephalon (cranial) or head Facies (cephalic) or face (facial) Oris or mouth (oral) Mentis or chin (mental) Axilla or armpit (axillary) Brachium or arm (brachial) Frons or forehead (frontal) Nasus or nose (nasal) Oculus or eye (orbital or ocular) Auris or ear (otic) Bucca or cheek (buccal) Cervicis or neck (cervical) Thoracis or thorax, chest (thoracic) Mamma

or breast (mammary) Antecubitis or front of elbow (antecubital) Antebrachium or forearm (antebrachial) a Anterior view in the anatomical position 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Abdomen (abdominal) Umbilicus or navel (umbilical) Pelvis (pelvic) Trunk The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Areas (Regions) Torso region Thoracis

Mamma Abdomen Umbilicus Pelvis Dorsum Lumbus 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.8a Anatomical Landmarks (1 of 2) Cranium or skull Cephalon (cranial) or head Facies (cephalic) or face (facial) Oris or mouth (oral) Mentis or chin (mental) Axilla or armpit (axillary) Brachium or arm (brachial) Frons or forehead (frontal) Nasus or nose (nasal) Oculus or

eye (orbital or ocular) Auris or ear (otic) Bucca or cheek (buccal) Cervicis or neck (cervical) Thoracis or thorax, chest (thoracic) Mamma or breast (mammary) Antecubitis or front of elbow (antecubital) Antebrachium or forearm (antebrachial) a Anterior view in the anatomical position 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Abdomen (abdominal) Umbilicus or navel (umbilical) Pelvis (pelvic) Trunk Figure 1.8b Anatomical Landmarks (1 of 2)

Cephalon or head (cephalic) Shoulder (acromial) Cervicis or neck (cervical) Dorsum or back (dorsal) Olecranon or back of elbow (olecranal) Lumbus or loin (lumbar) b Posterior view in the anatomical position 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper limb The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Areas (Regions) The arm and hand

Brachium Antecubitis Antebrachium Carpus Palma Pollex Axilla Olecranon (cubitis) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.8a Anatomical Landmarks (1 of 2) Cranium or skull Cephalon (cranial) or head Facies (cephalic) or face (facial) Oris or mouth (oral) Mentis or chin (mental) Axilla or armpit (axillary) Brachium or arm (brachial)

Frons or forehead (frontal) Nasus or nose (nasal) Oculus or eye (orbital or ocular) Auris or ear (otic) Bucca or cheek (buccal) Cervicis or neck (cervical) Thoracis or thorax, chest (thoracic) Mamma or breast (mammary) Antecubitis or front of elbow (antecubital) Antebrachium or forearm (antebrachial) a Anterior view in the anatomical position 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Abdomen (abdominal) Umbilicus or navel (umbilical) Pelvis

(pelvic) Trunk Figure 1.8b Anatomical Landmarks (1 of 2) Cephalon or head (cephalic) Shoulder (acromial) Cervicis or neck (cervical) Dorsum or back (dorsal) Olecranon or back of elbow (olecranal) Lumbus or loin (lumbar) b Posterior view in the anatomical position 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper limb The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Areas (Regions)

The leg and foot Inguen Pubis Femur Patella Crus Tarsus 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Hallux Gluteus Popliteus Sura Calcaneus Planta Figure 1.8a Anatomical Landmarks (2 of 2) Carpus or wrist (carpal) Palma or palm (palmar) Manus or hand

(manual) Pollex or thumb Digits or fingers (digital) Patella or kneecap (patellar) Crus or leg (crural) Inguen or groin (inguinal) Pubis (pubic) Femur or thigh (femoral) Tarsus or ankle (tarsal) Digits or toes (digital) Pes or foot (pedal) Hallux or great toe a Anterior view in the anatomical position 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.8b Anatomical Landmarks (2 of 2)

Gluteus or buttock (gluteal) Popliteus or back of knee (popliteal) Lower limb Sura or calf (sural) Calcaneus or heel of foot (calcaneal) Planta or sole of foot (plantar) b Posterior view in the anatomical position 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Abdominopelvic regions and quadrants Anatomists and clinicians use specialized regional terms to indicate a specific area of concern within the abdomen or the pelvic regions of the body. The abdomen and pelvic regions can be subdivided into four regions (abdominopelvic quadrants) The abdomen and pelvic regions can be subdivided into nine regions (abdominopelvic regions) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Abdominopelvic quadrants Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9a Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, right kidney, portions of stomach, small and large intestine Left lobe of liver, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of large intestine Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) Cecum, appendix, and

portions of small intestine, reproductive organs (right ovary in female and right spermatic cord in male), and right ureter Most of small intestine and portions of large intestine, left ureter, and reproductive organs (left ovary in female and left spermatic cord in male) a Abdominopelvic quadrants divide the area into four sections. These terms, or their abbreviations, are most often used in clinical discussions. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Abdominopelvic regions Epigastric Right hypochondriac

Left hypochondriac Umbilical Right lumbar Left lumbar Hypogastric Right inguinal Left inguinal 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9b Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Right hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Right inguinal region b Epigastric region Umbilical region Hypogastric region Left hypochondriac region Left lumbar region

Left inguinal region More precise anatomical descriptions are provided by reference to the appropriate abdominopelvic region. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Abdominopelvic quadrants Select organs found within the abdominopelvic quadrants RUQ: Most of the liver, gallbladder LUQ: Most of the stomach, spleen RLQ: cecum, appendix, right ureter, right ovary, right spermatic cord LLQ: left ureter, left ovary, left spermatic cord 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9c Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Stomach Liver Gallbladder Large intestine Spleen Small intestine Appendix Urinary bladder c

Quadrants or regions are useful because there is a known relationship between superficial anatomical landmarks and underlying organs. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Abdominopelvic regions Select organs found within the abdominopelvic regions Epigastric: left lobe of liver Right hypochondriac: right lobe of liver, liver fundus Left hypochondriac: stomach fundus, spleen 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9c Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Stomach Liver Gallbladder Large intestine Spleen Small intestine Appendix Urinary bladder c Quadrants or regions are useful because there is a known relationship between superficial anatomical landmarks and underlying organs.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Abdominopelvic regions Select organs found within the abdominopelvic regions Umbilical: small intestine, transverse colon Right lumbar: ascending colon Left lumbar: descending colon 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9c Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Stomach Liver Gallbladder Large intestine Spleen Small intestine Appendix Urinary bladder c Quadrants or regions are useful because there is a known relationship between superficial anatomical landmarks and underlying organs. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions

Abdominopelvic regions Select organs found within the abdominopelvic regions Hypogastric: urinary bladder, appendix (position varies), major portion of the small intestine Right inguinal: cecum, appendix (position varies) Left inguinal: sigmoid colon 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.9c Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Stomach Liver Gallbladder Large intestine Spleen Small intestine Appendix Urinary bladder c Quadrants or regions are useful because there is a known relationship between superficial anatomical landmarks and underlying organs. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Directions The most common directional terms used are:

Superior Anterior Medial Deep Proximal 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Inferior Posterior Lateral Superficial Distal Figure 1.10a Directional References Superior: Above; at a higher level (in human body, toward the head) Right Left Proximal Toward an attached base The shoulder is proximal to the wrist. Lateral

Medial Away from the midline Toward the midline Proximal Distal Away from an attached base The fingers are distal to the wrist. OTHER DIRECTIONAL TERMS Superficial Distal At, near, or relatively close to the body surface The skin is superficial to underlying structures. Deep Toward the interior of the body; farther from the surface The bone of the thigh is deep to the surrounding skeletal muscles. a Anterior view

Inferior: Below; at a lower level; toward the feet 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.10b Directional References Superior Cranial or Cephalic Toward the head The cranial, or cephalic, border of the pelvis is superior to the thigh. Posterior or Dorsal Anterior or Ventral Posterior: The back; behind Anterior: The front; before Dorsal: The back (equivalent to posterior when referring to human body) Ventral: The belly side (equivalent to anterior when referring to human body) The navel is on the anterior (or ventral) surface of the trunk.

The scapula (shoulder blade) is located posterior to the rib cage. Caudal Toward the tail (coccyx in humans) The hips are caudal to the waist. OTHER DIRECTIONAL TERMS Superficial At, near, or relatively close to the body surface The skin is superficial to underlying structures. Deep Toward the interior of the body; farther from the surface The bone of the thigh is deep to the surrounding skeletal muscles. b Lateral view Inferior 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Sectional Anatomy Planes and sections There are many different ways to dissect a piece of tissue for further study. These are referred to as dissectional cuts or dissectional planes.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sagittal cut (midsagittal and parasagittal) Transverse cut Frontal cut Oblique cut The Language of Anatomy Sectional Anatomy Sagittal cut: separating left and right Midsagittal: separating left and right equally Parasagittal: separating left and right unequally Transverse cut: separating superior and inferior Frontal cut: separating anterior and posterior Oblique cut: separating the tissue at an angle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.11 Planes of Section Sagittal plane Frontal or coronal plane A sagittal section separates right and left portions. You examine a sagittal section,

but you section sagittally. A frontal, or coronal, section separates anterior and posterior portions of the body; coronal usually refers to sections passing through the skull. In a midsagittal section, the plane passes through the midline, dividing the body in half and separating right and left sides. Plane is oriented parallel to long axis A parasagittal section misses the midline, separating right and left portions of unequal size. Directional term: frontally or coronally Midsagittal plane Plane is oriented parallel to long axis Directional term: Sagittally Transverse, horizontal, or cross-sectional plane

Frontal plane Transverse plane A transverse, or horizontal, section separates superior and inferior portions of the body; sections typically pass through head and trunk regions. Plane is oriented perpendicular to long axis Directional term: transversely or horizontally 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.12 Sectional Planes and Visualization 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Sectional anatomy: body cavities If you remove an organ from the body, you will leave a cavity The body cavities are studied in this manner Posterior cavity Anterior cavity (ventral cavity) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Language of Anatomy

Anatomical Regions Sectional anatomy: body cavities Posterior cavity Cranial cavity: consists of the brain Spinal cavity: consists of the spinal cord 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.13cd Body Cavities POSTERIOR ANTERIOR Thoracic cavity Visceral pericardium Pleural cavity Heart Pericardial cavity Parietal pericardium Pericardial cavity Diaphragm Abdominopelvic cavity Peritoneal cavity Air space

Abdominal cavity Balloon d Pelvic cavity c 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Lateral view of the subdivisions of the ventral body cavities. The heart projects into the pericardial cavity like a fist pushed into a balloon. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Sectional anatomy: body cavities Anterior cavity Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Abdominopelvic cavity

Figure 1.13a Body Cavities Left Pleural Cavity Surrounds left lung Mediastinum Thoracic Cavity Surrounded by chest wall and diaphragm subdivided into Contains the trachea, esophagus, and major vessels also contains Pericardial Cavity Ventral Body Cavity (Coelom) Provides protection; allows organ movement; lining prevents friction

Surrounds heart separated by diaphragm info Right Pleural Cavity Surrounds right lung Diaphragm Abdominal Cavity Abdominopelvic Cavity includes Contains the peritoneal cavity Contains many digestive glands and organs the Pelvic Cavity Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, last portion of digestive tract 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. a Anterior view of the ventral body cavity

and its subdivisions. The muscular diaphragm divides the ventral body cavity into a superior thoracic (chest) cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Sectional anatomy: anterior cavity Thoracic cavity consists of: Pleural cavity: lungs Pericardial cavity: heart Mediastinal cavity: space between the apex of the lungs 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.13a Body Cavities Left Pleural Cavity Surrounds left lung Mediastinum Thoracic Cavity Surrounded by chest wall and diaphragm subdivided into Contains the trachea,

esophagus, and major vessels also contains Pericardial Cavity Ventral Body Cavity (Coelom) Provides protection; allows organ movement; lining prevents friction Surrounds heart separated by diaphragm info Right Pleural Cavity Surrounds right lung Diaphragm Abdominal Cavity Abdominopelvic Cavity includes Contains the peritoneal cavity

Contains many digestive glands and organs the Pelvic Cavity Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, last portion of digestive tract 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. a Anterior view of the ventral body cavity and its subdivisions. The muscular diaphragm divides the ventral body cavity into a superior thoracic (chest) cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity. The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Sectional anatomy: anterior cavity Abdominopelvic cavity consists of: Peritoneal cavity: stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, etc. Pelvic cavity: urinary bladder 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.13ab Body Cavities Mediastinum

Sternum Pleura Pleural cavity Left Pleural Cavity Heart in pericardial cavity Mediastinum Right lung Left lung Pericardial Cavity Spinal cord Mediastinum Pleura Pleural cavity Right Pleural Cavity Diaphragm Heart in pericardial cavity Right lung

Abdominal Cavity Section at the level of thoracic vertebra T8 Pelvic Cavity a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Left lung Anterior view of the ventral body cavity and its subdivisions. The muscular diaphragm divides the ventral body cavity into a superior thoracic (chest) cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity. b Sectional view of the thoracic cavity. Unless otherwise noted, all sectional views are presented in inferior view. (See Clinical Note on pp. 2223 for more details.) The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Sectional anatomy: body cavities Each cavity consists of a double-layered membrane The membrane nearest the wall of the body (farthest from the organs) is the parietal membrane (parietal pleura, parietal pericardium, parietal peritoneum)

The membrane farthest from the wall of the body (nearest the organs) is the visceral membrane (visceral pleura, visceral pericardium, visceral peritoneum) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1cd Body Cavities POSTERIOR ANTERIOR Thoracic cavity Visceral pericardium Pleural cavity Heart Pericardial cavity Parietal pericardium Pericardial cavity Diaphragm Abdominopelvic cavity Peritoneal cavity Air space

Abdominal cavity Balloon d Pelvic cavity c 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Lateral view of the subdivisions of the ventral body cavities. The heart projects into the pericardial cavity like a fist pushed into a balloon.

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