NuSTAR results and future observation plans for magnetars

NuSTAR results and future observation plans for magnetars

NuSTAR results and future observation plans for magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars Hongjun An1 and the NuSTAR Team 1 McGill University May contain Caltech/JPL proprietary information and be subject to U.S. Government Export Laws; U.S. recipient is responsible for compliance with all applicable U.S. export regulations. NuSTAR is the first focusing telescope operating in the 379 keV band ~10 m Launched on 2012 June 13 Focusing in the hard X-ray band (>10 keV)

Two orders of magnitude better sensitivity in the 10 79 keV Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) Harrison et al. 2013arXiv1301.7307H (2013) 2 Performances 1 Ms Sensitivity 3.2 x 10-15 erg/cm2/s (6 10 keV) 1.4 x 10-14 (10 30 keV) Field of View FWZI 12.5 FWHI

12.5 x 10 @ 10 keV 8 @ 40 keV 6 @ 68 keV Imaging HPD 58 FWHM 18 Localization 2 (1sigma) Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) Timing relative 100 s absolute 3 ms Spectral response energy range 3-79 keV

threshold 2.0 keV E @ 6 keV 0.4 keV FWHM E @ 60 keV 1.0 keV FWHM Target of Opportunity response <24 hr (reqmt) typical 6-8 hours 80% sky accessibility 3 Baseline mission science Science Group Working Group Chair Galactic Surveys, Galactic Center Chuck Hailey

Supernovae and ToOs Steve Boggs Supernova remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae Fiona Harrison Magnetars and Rotation-Powered Pulsars Vicky Kaspi Galactic Binaries John Tomsick Ultraluminous X-ray Sources Fiona Harrison Extragalactic Surveys

Daniel Stern Blazars and Radio Galaxies Greg Madejski, Paolo Giommi Obscured AGN Daniel Stern AGN Physics Giorgio Matt Galaxy Clusters Allan Hornstrup, Silvano Molendi Starburst Galaxies

Ann Hornschemeier Solar Physics David Smith Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) http://www.nustar.caltech.edu/for-astronomers/science-working-groups 4 NuSTAR is planning on observing many magnetars and RPPs Target list: 4 magnetars, two rotation-powered pulsars, one white dwarf Magnetar ToO: 1E 2259+586: 1E 1048-5937: 1E 1841-045: Geminga:

PSR J1023+0038: AE Aquarii : 150 ks+ 170 ks 400 ks 45 ks+ 50 ks 100 ks 126 ks Magnetar Magnetar Magnetar Magnetar RPP RPP/LMXB White Dwarf Observing May. 2013 Nov. 2012 Sep. 2012

Sep. 2012 Heavy weighting towards magnetars Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 5 What we want to study using NuSTAR Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 6 We are attempting to understand the hard X-ray emission mechanism Kuiper et al. ApJ, 645, 556, 2006 Beloborodov, ApJ, 762, 15, 2013 Thursday: Beloborodov and Hascoet

Hard power-law spectral components were detected in several magnetars (Kuiper et al. ApJ, 645, 556, 2006) The hard emission was unpredicted and not understood Using NuSTAR, we will try understand the emission Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) mechanism 7 We are attempting to understand the hard X-ray emission mechanism Kaspi & Boydstun, ApJ, 710, L115, 2010 Enoto et al. ApJ, 722, L162, 2010 Putative correlations in magnetars

s- h v.s spin-inferred magnetic field strengths Hardness ratio v.s spin-inferred magnetic field strengths Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 8 Understanding transient cooling of magnetars using magnetar ToO Lyubarsky et al. ApJ, 580, L69, 2002 Beloborodov, ApJ, 703, 1044, 2009 L~t-0.7 t Soft-band flux relaxation can be understood using

the crustal cooling or the magnetospheric untwisting models Relaxation in the hard band was not yet detected; NuSTARTheme can make the first sensitive detection Message (List 3 strengths ?) 9 NuSTAR will observe rotation-powered pulsars and a pulsar-like white dwarf Rotation-powered pulsars typically show a simple power-law spectrum in the X-ray band - Geminga: One of the brightest pulsars in the gamma-ray band Archetype for X-ray faint/Gamma ray bright RPPs - J1023+0038: A transient object between MSP and LMXB (Archibald et al. Science, 324, 1412, 2010) A pulsar-like white dwarf ?

- AE Aquarii: Magnetic CV Detection of non-thermal spectrum and a sharp pulsation Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 10 NuSTAR results to date SGR J1745-29 and ToO: Magnetar Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 11 NuSTAR discovered 3.76 s pulsation in the direction of Galactic center region Green: NuSTAR position Blue: Swift position Red: Chandra position Black: Sgr A* NuSTAR image

Following Swift detection of an SGR-like burst, NuSTAR discovered 3.76 s pulsation (Mori et al. ApJL, 2013, accepted) Located in the Galactic center, 3 away from sgr A* (Rea et al. Atel 5032) 4th magnetar detected in the radio band 3 strengths ?) (Eathogh etTheme al. Message ATel (List 5058, Shannon & Johnston arXiv:1305.3036) 12

NuSTAR identified the source as a transient magnetar Spin period: NuSTAR + Swift Spin-down rate: Spin-inferred B: Spectrum: 2 Luminosity: keV) (d=8 kpc) keV) Rotation power: 3.76354455(71) s MJD 56409.2657 6.8 1.5 10-12 s s-1 1.6 1014 G

BB+PL model NH=14.20+0.71-0.65 1022 cmkT=0.956+0.015-0.017 keV =1.47+0.46-0.37 ~3 1035 erg s-1 (210 3.5 1035 erg s-1 (279 5 1033 erg s-1 The source was identified as a transient magnetar using the NuSTAR and Swift data (Mori et al. ApJL, 2013, submitted) NuSTAR is monitoring the source using the ToO program Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 13 NuSTAR results to date 1E 1841-045: Magnetar Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?)

14 1E 1841-045 is a magnetar in the Kes 73 supernova remnant Kuiper et al. ApJ, 645, 556, 2006 XMM-Newton Soft Band spectrum was well measured with XMMNewton Blackbody (kT~0.45 keV) + power law (~2) A hard power-law component was detected above ~10 keV Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) (Kuiper et al. 2004) 15 We use the electron-positron outflow model to constrain emission geometry

BB + broken power-law model fit Preliminary Similar to RXTE profile --- Swift --- NuSTAR A --- NuSTAR B NuSTAR+Swift results: Doubly peaked Good agreement with Kuiper et al. (2006) but not with Morii et al. (2010) Found a interesting pulse profile in the ~2435 keV band Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?)

Electron-positron outflow 16 NuSTAR results to date 1E 2259+586: Magnetar Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 17 Hard X-ray emission from 1E 2259+586 was detected only marginally Outburst in 2012, Archibald et al. Nature, accepted

Kuiper et al. ApJ, 645, 556, 2006 Soft Band spectrum is well described with a blackbody plus power-law model having kT~0.4 keV and ~3.7 A hard power-law component was only marginally detected above ~10 keV Themefollowing Message (List 3 strengths ?) outburst in 2012 Anti-glitch an 18 NuSTAR observed 1E 2259+586 for 170 ks NuSTAR 30ks Preliminary Red/Black: NuSTAR 55 ks Green: Swift 30 ks 1

Analysis being done by Julia Vogel at Lorentz Livermore National Laboratory Just finished 170-ks observations More results are coming soon Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 19 NuSTAR results to date Geminga: Rotation-powered pulsar Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 20 Geminga is a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar Kargaltsev et al. (2005) A radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar The X-ray spectrum does not seem to extend to the optical or gamma-ray band (Kargaltsev et al. ApJ, 625, 307, 2005) NuSTAR can fill the gap in the hard X-ray band to see if there is a break Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?)

21 X-ray spectra with NuSTAR spectrum hints a spectral break in the X-ray band Preliminary Blue: NuSTAR Black: XMM PN Red: XMM MOS Greed: Chandra 237 ms pulsation Analysis being done by Francois Dufour at McGill University Detected 237 ms pulsations Combining soft-band spectrum hints a spectral break Theme Message (List 3 strengths Results are sensitive

to ?)the soft-band spectrum 22 NuSTAR results to date AE Aquarii: pulsar-like white dwarf Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 23 Non-thermal spectral component and sharp pulsation above ~10 keV were detected Terada et al. PASJ, 60, 387 (2008) One of the fastest rotating white dwarfs (P=33 s) Large spin-down power (6 1033 erg/s) A non-thermal spectral component and a spiky pulsation were detected above ~10 keV Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) Suggesting particle acceleration in the magnetosphere like RPPs 24

NuSTAR did not detect the non-thermal component or spiky pulsation Preliminary 610 keV 1020 keV Analysis done by Takao Kitaguchi at RIKEN Two temperature thermal model is preferred to a thermal+power-law model No sharp pulsation was detected above ~10 keV Working on constraining the mass and radius Theme Message (ListHayashi, 3 strengths ?)PhD Thesis) using a model (Takayuki 25 Near Future observations

PSR J1023-0038 and 1E 1048-5937 Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 26 PSR J1023-0038 is a qLMXB/RPP transient object Spin period: Orbital period: Spectrum: XMM-Newton Unabs. Flux: 1.7 ms 0.2 day PL model NH < 5 1019 cm-2 =1.26(4) 4.66(17) 10-13 erg/s Archibald et al. ApJ, 722, 88 (2010)

A qLMXB/RPP transient object (Archibald et al. Science, 324, 1412, 2010) (see also IGR J18245-2452, Atel 4925, 4981, 5069, ) A possible template for understanding non-thermal emission in qLMXBs 100-ks observation will determine the photon index to 0.07 Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 27 1E 1048-5937 Kaspi & Boydstun, ApJ, 710, L115, 2010 H~1.5 H~1.5 Hard X-ray emission not clearly detected yet Assuming the putative correlation, detectable with NuSTAR Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 28 Summary

NuSTAR observed three magnetars, one rotation-powered pulsar, and one pulsar-like white dwarf More complete data analyses for the observed objects are on-going NuSTAR magnetars pulsars will and keep observing rotation-powered Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 29

Backup Priority A Magnetar ToO: 150 ks+ Magnetar Observing 1E 2259+586: 170 ks Magnetar Observed 1E 1048-5937: 400 ks Magnetar AE Aquarii : 126 ks White Dwarf Observed Geminga: 50 ks RPP Observed PSR J1023+0038:

100 ks RPP/LMXB 1E 1841-045: 45 ks+ Magnetar Observed ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Priority B Magnetar ToO obs: PSR J0437-4715: 4U 0142+61: SGR 1806-20: RXS 1708-4009: SGR 1900+14: Vela: 100 ks 100 ks 110 ks 110 ks 155 ks 80 ks

Magnetar RPP Magnetar Magnetar Magnetar Magnetar RPP Theme Message (List 3 strengths ?) 30

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