Basic Animal Reproduction 1 l a m i n n A Objectives o i ic uct s Ba rod p e
R 1. To label and identify male and female reproductive anatomy 2. To describe the structures and functions of male and female reproductive anatomy 3. To understand the animal reproductive process, including the estrous cycle, ovulation, gestation and parturition 2 Basic Animal Reproduction Hormones Reproduction is closely related to the action of several hormones called
Gonadotropins Produced by pituitary gland follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) luteinizing hormone (LH) Release is controlled by gonadotropic releasing hormones or (GnRH) produced by the brain 3 Basic Animal Reproduction Hormones FSH stimulates follicle development produces estrogen in the ovary FSH and LH combined prepares the follicle for ovulation
LH Estroge Proges LH FSH causes ovulation changes in the hormones secreted by the Progesterone ovary and pituitary gland during estrous cycle maintains pregnancy 4 Male Anatomy Functions n o i
t c u e d of Sperm o g r p ora n o t i s t i s o p de
Produce male sex hormones Is a passageway for expelling urine 5 Male Anatomy Testes (testicles) Are paired, oval shaped organs Produce sperm cells Produce testosterone (male sex hormone) causes development of secondary sex characteristics and sex behavior produce testosterone 6
Have seminiferous tubules coil throughout testes site of sperm production and (Leydig) maturation Have interstitial cells lie between seminiferous tubules Male Anatomy Scrotum Protects and supports the testes Protects sperm Regulates temperature 7 e
l c s Lie within the wall of the scrotum u m r e t s d Raise or lower the testes to r a o m c c e constant testicular i
l cre t c maintain a s utemperature m r m e s sp o t r a d Temperature
Temperature should should be be 44 6 6 a c i below below body body temperature temperature for for tun normal normal sperm sperm development development Male Anatomy Epididymis
Is a coiled tube, attached to each testis Is responsible for further maturation, storage and transportation of sperm cells Vas deferens (ductus deferens) carries urine Transports sperm from the epididymis from the bladder to the urethra Because location of testes vary among livestock species, location of the epididymis varies 8 carries sperm and fluid from accessory sex organs
Male Anatomy Accessory Glands sperm plus the added accessory fluids Provide 95-98 percent of total ejaculate Include: seminal vesicles (vesicular glands) secrete fluids providing energy and buffers to sperm prostate gland secretes a thick, milky fluid high in inorganic ions bulbourethral glands (Cowpers glands) secrete fluids before ejaculation to clean urethra 9
Male Anatomy Penis Is a passageway for semen and urine Deposits semen in the female reproductive tract ll u B m Ra r a o B 10 n o i l
l a St Fibroelastic Penis Primarily composed of connective tissue and depends little on blood for erections Supplied with blood vessels Vascular Penis Male Anatomy Sigmoid Flexure Has an s-shaped curve Allows for penis retraction Stallions and humans do not have sigmoid flexure
Retractor Penis Muscles Sheath Extends the penis upon sexual excitement Protects penis from injury and infection 11 Poultry Anatomy Note Both the male and female poultry reproductive systems vary compared to other domestic animal species How Male Anatomy Differs Testes are located within the abdominal cavity, produce sperm and seminal fluid
Papillae emit semen and are considered the copulatory organs of the rooster Cloaca serves as passageway for urinary, digestive and reproductive tracts Androgen is the male sex hormone produced by the testes 12 Female Anatomy Functions To produce the eggs or ova to be fert To serve as a receptacle for the penis d To house and nourish the fetus unti 13 Female Anatomy Ovaries
Produce eggs Produce female hormones estrogen progesterone maintains uterine lining during pregnancy stimulates the development of secondary sex organs and sexual receptivity keeps estrus from occurring 14 causes mammary system to develop Female Anatomy Ovaries
Follicle blister-like mass on the surface of an ovary containing a developing ovum (egg) 15 follicle ovum Female Anatomy Ovaries Follicle functions hold the growing ovum produce and store estrogen
at ovulation, the follicle ruptures, expels the ovum, enters the infundibulum and awaits fertilization in the oviduct 16 secreted from follicle to signal the remainder of the reproductive tract to prepare for ovulation Female Anatomy Ovaries Corpus Luteum (CL) forms after ovum is released from the follicle function produce progesterone
17 Female Anatomy Oviducts Transport eggs from ovary to uterus Are site of fertilization Infundibulums Pick eggs at ovulation and direct them into the body of the oviducts 18 process of discharging an ovum from the mature follicle of an ovary
Female Anatomy Uterus Consists of horns and a body uterine horns uterine body Is site of embryonic growth Is site of placental and fetal development Varies in shape among species A sow has a very long uterus and a mare has a very short uterus 19 Female Anatomy Vagina Is receptacle for the penis during copulation
Serves as birth canal at parturition Is separated from uterus by the cervix major barrier and protection of the uterus and developing fetus Is passageway for expelling liquid wastes 20 Female Anatomy Vulva Is external portion of the female reproductive tract Serves to: protect internal system from infection initially receive the penis at
copulation Clitoris act as passageway for urine Sensory erectile organ 21 Poultry Anatomy Note Both the male and female poultry reproductive systems vary compared to other domestic animal species How Female Anatomy Differs Mature female poultry have only one functional ovary and oviduct (left ovary) Ova produced in ovary are developed into egg yolks
Oviduct has five parts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 22 funnel: receives yolks from ovary and stores sperm cells magnum: secretes thick white of egg isthmus: adds two shell membranes uterus: adds thin white and outer shell vent: opening where egg is laid Reproductive Process Estrous Cycle Reoccurs and repeats itself as long as the female is not pregnant Is controlled by hormones preparing the reproductive tract for ovulation and pregnancy
Includes two phases 1. follicular phase 2. luteal phase short phase; period from regression of the CL to ovulation long phase; period from ovulation to CL regression 23 Reproductive Process Estrous Cycle Is categorized by frequency of occurrence throughout the year seasonally polyestrus cycles occur only during certain times of the year
y a d Long s r e d bree y a d t Shor 24 cycle when day length increases
s r e d bree cycle when day length decreases Reproductive Process Estrous Cycle Is categorized by frequency of occurrence throughout the year monoestrus one cycle per year; estrus periods last for several days Example: dogs polyestrus uniform, regularly occurring estrous cycles throughout the year Example: cattle and swine 25
Reproductive Process Stages of the Estrous Cycle Proestrus begins after CL regression and ends at the onset of estrus, period of follicle growth Estrus period of sexual receptivity; sometimes referred to as heat Metestrus early postovulatory period; CL begins to develop Diestrus begins approximately four days after ovulation and ends with the regression of the CL 26 Reproductive Process
Ovulation Before ovulation egg cell is contained in a follicle release of egg cell from ovary; occurs near the end of estrus period During ovulation follicle breaks, releases the egg into the oviduct if sperm is present, egg may become fertilized After ovulation CL forms on ovary and releases progesterone If egg is not fertilized, CL does not grow, allowing another follicle to grow and another estrus period to occur 27 Reproductive Process Ovulation
Functions of progesterone prepares uterus for implantation of the embryo stops other eggs from forming maintains pregnant condition develops mammary glands which produce milk to feed young after they are born 28 Reproductive Process Gestation time in which female is pregnant Fetus develops in uterus and is surrounded by a watery membrane Blood vessels in umbilical cord supply nutrients, oxygen and carry off waste products Placenta is connected to the fetus by the umbilical
cord and lies along wall of uterus Food, oxygen and wastes are exchanged between mother and fetus through the placenta 29 Reproductive Process Parturition process of giving birth Near the end of the gestation period, the CL decreases its production of progesterone Increased estrogen levels, cause uterine muscles to contract, beginning the birthing process Sequential set of events: 1. cervix widens (dilates) 2. pelvic region relaxes 3. uterus begins contractions 4. fetus passes through the cervix, pelvic region and finally
the vagina 30 Reproductive Cycles COW Estrus 10 26 hrs. (18 hr avg.) Estrous Cycle 18 24 days (21 day avg.) Ovulation 4 16 hrs. post estrus Gestation 283 days Estrus EWE SOW Estrus 20 42 hrs. (30 hr. avg.)
Estrous Cycle 15 18 days (17 day avg.) Ovulation 12 18 hrs. estrus onset Gestation 150 days 1 4 days (2 day avg.) Estrous Cycle 16 25 days (21 day avg.) Ovulation 16 48 hrs. estrus onset 31 Gestation 114 days (3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days) Reproductive Cycles GOAT Estrus 2 3 days (2.5 day avg.) Estrous Cycle 15 24 days (21 day avg.)
Ovulation Near end of estrus Gestation 151 days POULTRY Poultry do NOT have an estrus cycle. Ovulation Every 25-29 hours Incubation 21-28 days MARE Estrus 4 9 days (5 day avg.) Estrous Cycle 15 24 days (21 day avg.) Ovulation 1 2 days before end of estrus 32 Gestation 336 days
Assessment 1. Which part of the male reproductive anatomy is responsible for further maturation, storage and transportation of sperm cells? 2. Which female hormone prepares the uterus to maintain implantation of the embryo? 3. The process of giving birth is commonly known as what? 33 Assessment 4. Which species mentioned in the presentation has the longest gestation period? 5. Gonadotropins are produced by which gland? 6. Name the male hormone responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics. 34
Assessment 7. Name two functions of the scrotum. 8. Accessory glands provide what percentage of the total ejaculate? 9. Which part of the female reproductive tract is the site of fertilization? 35 Assessment 10. Which part of the female anatomy serves as the birth canal? 11. Name the two phases of the estrous cycle. 12. Animals which cycle when day length increases are considered to be what type of breeders? 36 Acknowledgements Pond, Kevin R., and Wilson G. Pond. Introduction to Animal Science. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000. Reece, William O., Physiology of Domestic Animals. College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University. Williams & Wilkins, 1997. Sam Prien, Ph.D. Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Production Coordinator Clayton Franklin Executive Producer G.W. Davis 37 Production Manager MMIII, MMIV CEV Multimedia, Ltd. Geoff Scott
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