Polyethylene Pipes Systems PEPS The Environmentally Friendly Pipes

Polyethylene Pipes Systems PEPS The Environmentally Friendly Pipes

Polyethylene Pipes Systems PEPS The Environmentally Friendly Pipes Lina Garcia Kathy Bui Ian Matts William Kyei-Manu

Agenda 1. Background 2. Goals 3. Device Design 4. Polymer Science Theory 5. Sample Testing 6. Cost Analysis 7. Gantt Chart 8. Acknowledgement Background

Food and water shortages in developing parts of the world such as Africa are common Many small agricultural operations in developing countries are stagnant due to lack of resources

Picture from www.defeatpoverty.com Excess of unrecycled plastic shopping bags in many parts of the world is a wasted resource Picture from www.greencrawler.com Irrigation Kits on Current Market

The International Development Enterprises Krishak Bandhu Family Nutrition Kit: $6.00 Includes 20 m of tubes to irrigate 20 m2 of land Water Height: 1.5 m Pressure: 0.15 atm Source: http://www.ide-india.org and http://www.ideorg.org Goals We aim to produce irrigation tubing via a method that is:

Low tech Low cost While using recycled materials for tubes Our final deliverable are: A method to produce irrigation tubing An irrigation tube prototype Specifications of tube prototype: 6-25 mm in diameter can scale up to 20 m per piece

can withstand at least 0.15 atm of water pressure Design Considerations 1. Production Method 2. 3.

4. Hot gas welding, heat welding, blow extrusion Heat Source Small image from first update

choices to make slide Resistive heater, hot coals, hot water Construction Materials minco.com Steel, Aluminum, plastics Starting Material

100% recycled vs. partially recycled HDPE larusse.com Device Design Key design features: Double seam Aids in continuous processing

Aluminum High thermal conductivity Lack of contact Avoid friction-associated problems No monolithic layers Fewer processing steps

Heating away from rollers Ease of pipe fabrication Actual Device Notable Features: Fixed distance between rollers Hand crank Resistive Heaters Gears to coordinate roller

rotation. Hand crank for ease of use 80-20 base allows for adjustment Driven gear Aluminum rollers with teflon tape Further Improvements Potential Future Work:

Interchangeable rollers More precise machining Lower cost of device Motorized rotation Take away variac Sample Production Parameters Theoretical ranges of relevant parameters: Temperature : 94C to 156C Velocity :

2 mm/s - 100+ mm/s Pressure: 0 psi - 25+ psi Weld Strength Model Non-Fickean diffusion of polymer end chains w = strength of weld m = strength of raw material v = velocity T = processing temperature

Image Source: http://nobelprize.org Peel Test ASTM D6392-08: "Standard Test Method for Determining the Integrity of Nonreinforced Geomembrane Seams Produced Using Thermo-Fusion Methods Extension rate = 50 mm/min Width = 25 mm

Peel Test Results Temp~130C V~6.3mm/s Minimum Strength Pressure 2 m of tube, tested vertically, water source at 2 m above ground Hydrostatic pressure: P = gh

where is the density of the fluid, g is the gravitational acceleration, h is the height of the fluid column. Stereomicroscopy 8-layer weld under 1x magnification 1mm Same 8-layer weld under 5x magnification 1mm

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) 8-layer weld under 17x magnification SEM Elemental Analysis C Ca O

Na Al Cl Cost Analysis Product Cost per 20m tube

PEPS $1.15 Krishak Bandhu Family Nutrition Kit $4.00 (Est.) Past 3.042 Project $98

Fixed Cost (Cost of device, maintenance etc) ~ $290-$300 Energy Cost = $0.20 per kWh Labor Cost =$2.75 per day (working for 250 days per year) Estimated Kits per year ~ 1100 kits Strategic Plan Period One (First 5 years) Decision Tree Results: Plan Produce on Large Scale Plant

Capacity 1100 units/yr Initial Investment $1,950 Scale: Large Scale Price: $1.3

Period Two (Subsequent 5 years) Low Demand Very Large Scale; $1.5 Medium Demand Very Large Scale; $1.5

High Demand Very Large Scale; $1.5 Return on Investment plan if we use this Market Share Profit

Low $394 Medium $1,609 High $2,060

Gantt Chant Acknowledgement We would like to thank the following people for their support and guidance throughout the project: Mr. David Bono Mr. Harlan Breindel Prof. Yet-Ming Chiang Dr. Suzanne T Lane Dr. Joseph Parse Ms. Joy C Perkinson Dr. Christoph Sachs

Mr. Mike Tarkanian Ms. Yinlin Xie Mr. Tom Geyer from AMPAC Questions? Thermal Analysis Thermal Properties Thermal Analysis via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Tested 6 different bags

Average melting temperature, Tm = 124.9 1.3C Softening point, ~105-115C Average heat capacity, Cp = 2.1 0.6 kJ/kgC1 1. W. Martienssen, H. Warlimont, Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials, 2005, XVIII, 1120, p. 1025 Tube Strength Water Pressure:

Source: Pipeline Engineering Design Minimum Weld Strength: Weld Failure Modes The ASTM standards specify different failure modes for peel test:

X-Ray Diffraction Test Parameters No ASTM Standards found for measuring polymer crystallinity using XRD Equipment: PANalytical Multipurpose Diffractometer in 13-4027 Parameters: 5to 70 90 min/sample At 40mA Max penetration depth exceeded thickness of entire sample

X-Ray Diffraction Data Heat Transfer Model Will temperature at contact point be high enough? losses? Will the heating requirement be reasonable when considering Heat in

Heat out Yes! Yes! Heat conduction approximations For: Ts=100 C, t = 48 sec Ts=102 C, t = 13 sec Ts=110 C, t = 2 sec

Peel Test Paramters ASTM D6392-08: "Standard Test Method for Determining the Integrity of Nonreinforced Geomembrane Seams Produced Using Thermo-Fusion Methods Geomembranes are composed of Polyethylene of various densities, Polyvinyl Chloride, or Polypropylene. Variable Sample Width ASTM

25 mm Actual 25 mm Sample Height Extension Rate Grip 150 mm 50 mm/min 25 mm x 25 mm

100 mm 50 mm/min 25 mm x 25mm Tube Geometry Model Youngs Modulus E ~180MPa Yield Strength in tension ~4.4 MPa Diameter ~ 0.75'' Thickness ~ 8 layers of bag ~ 0.517mm Factor Of Safety: 1

Water pressure ~ 0.15 atm PE Relaxation Time Robelin-Souffach et al. Relationship between the Relaxation of Polyethylene Coils in the Melt and the Molecular Weight Distribution. Macromolecules, 1984. Non-Fickean Diffusion Reptation Model Reptation time = avg time for a chain to

move a distance equal to its radius of gyration o o trep for PE of Mw=104 g/mole is in the order of 10 seconds1 Diffusion scales as t1/4 1. Robelin-Souffach et al. 1984

Weld Strength Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) Processing parameters also determine microstructure Cost of Device Production Aluminum rollers~$80 Heating element ~ $70 Insulation ~ $10 Machining(5hours X $10/hour) ~ $50 8020 Aluminum Extrusion ~$20

Steel rods ~ $40 Overhead Cost (nuts/bolts,shipping, etc) ~ $20 Total Cost of Prototype Device ~ $290 FTIR Results FTIR Results Peaks observed comparable to those obtained from literature2 No significant traces of additives Processed Bag show lower peak intensity

2. Table adapted from Physical and mechanical behaviour of hot rolled HDPE/HA composites by A. Pandey, E. Jan, P.B. Aswath, published 12, April 2006. Stress-Strain Response Sample Peel Test: Sample 6A Specimen 1 to 1 40 30

20 10 0 0 10 20 Ext ension ( mm)

30

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